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Animal
ANIMALS are multicellular , eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom ANIMALIA (also called METAZOA). The animal kingdom emerged as a clade within Apoikozoa as the sister group to the choanoflagellates . Animals are motile , meaning they can move spontaneously and independently at some point in their lives. Their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop , although some undergo a process of metamorphosis later in their lives. All animals are heterotrophs : they must ingest other organisms or their products for sustenance . Most known animal phyla appeared in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion , about 542 million years ago. Animals can be divided broadly into vertebrates and invertebrates . Vertebrates have a backbone or spine (vertebral column ), and amount to less than five percent of all described animal species . They include fish , amphibians , reptiles , birds and mammals . The remaining animals are the invertebrates, which lack a backbone. These include molluscs (clams , oysters , octopuses , squid , snails ); arthropods (millipedes , centipedes , insects , spiders , scorpions , crabs , lobsters , shrimp ); annelids (earthworms , leeches ), nematodes (filarial worms , hookworms ), flatworms (tapeworms , liver flukes ), cnidarians (jellyfish , sea anemones , corals ), ctenophores (comb jellies), and sponges
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Animalia (other)
ANIMALIA is the taxonomic kingdom comprising all animals. ANIMALIA may also refer to: * Animalia (book) , a 1986 children's book by Graeme Base * Animalia (TV series) , an Australian children's program based on the bookSEE ALSO * Animal (other) * Animality (other) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title ANIMALIA. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Animalia_(other) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Cryogenian
The CRYOGENIAN ( /kraɪoʊˈdʒɛniən/ , from Greek κρύος _(krýos)_, meaning "cold" and γένεσις _(génesis)_, meaning "birth") is a geologic period that lasted from 720 to 635 million years ago . It forms the second geologic period of the Neoproterozoic Era , preceded by the Tonian Period and followed by the Ediacaran . The Sturtian and Marinoan glaciations occurred during the Cryogenian period, which are the greatest ice ages known to have occurred on Earth. These events are the subject of much scientific controversy . The main debate contests whether these glaciations covered the entire planet (the so-called " Snowball Earth ") or a band of open sea survived near the equator (termed "slushball Earth"). CONTENTS * 1 Ratification * 2 Climate * 3 Paleogeography * 4 Cryogenian biota and fossils * 5 In popular culture * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading RATIFICATIONThe Cryogenian period was ratified in 1990 by the International Commission on Stratigraphy . In contrast to most other time periods, the beginning of the Cryogenian is not linked to a globally observable and documented event. Instead, the base of the period is defined by a fixed rock age, that was set at 850 million years, until 2015, when it was changed to 720 million years. This is problematic as estimates of rock ages are variable and are subject to laboratory error
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Holocene
The HOLOCENE ( /ˈhɒləˌsiːn, ˈhoʊ-/ ) is the geological epoch that began after the Pleistocene at approximately 11,700 years before present . The Holocene is part of the Quaternary period. Its name comes from the Ancient Greek words ὅλος (_holos_, whole or entire) and καινός (_kainos_, new), meaning "entirely recent". It has been identified with the current warm period, known as MIS 1 , and is considered by some to be an interglacial period. The Holocene encompasses the growth and impacts of the human species worldwide, including all its written history , development of major civilizations, and overall significant transition toward urban living in the present. Human impacts on modern-era Earth and its ecosystems may be considered of global significance for future evolution of living species, including approximately synchronous lithospheric evidence, or more recently atmospheric evidence of human impacts. The International Commission on Stratigraphy Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy’s working group on the ' Anthropocene ' (coined by Paul Crutzen and Eugene Stoermer in 2000) note this term is used to denote the present time interval in which many geologically significant conditions and processes have been profoundly altered by human activities. The 'Anthropocene' is not a formally defined geological unit
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Hadean
The HADEAN ( /ˈheɪdiən/ ) is a geologic eon of the Earth
Earth
predating the Archean . It began with the formation of the Earth
Earth
about 4.6 billion years ago and ended, as defined by the ICS , 4 billion years ago. The geologist Preston Cloud coined the term in 1972, originally to label the period before the earliest-known rocks on Earth. W. Brian Harland later coined an almost synonymous term: the "PRISCOAN PERIOD". Other, older texts simply refer to the eon as the PRE-ARCHEAN. In 2015, traces of carbon minerals interpreted as "remains of biotic life " were found in 4.1-billion-year-old rocks in Western Australia
Western Australia
. Artist's impression of a Hadean
Hadean
landscape
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Archean
The ARCHEAN Eon ( /ɑːrˈkiːən/ , also spelled ARCHAEAN) is a geologic eon , 4,000 to 2,500 million years ago (4 to 2.5 billion years), that followed the Hadean
Hadean
Eon and preceded the Proterozoic Eon. During the Archean, the Earth's crust had cooled enough to allow the formation of continents. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology and changes in classification * 2 Earth
Earth
at the beginning of the Archean
Archean
* 2.1 Palaeoenvironment * 3 Geology
Geology
* 4 Early life in the Archean
Archean
* 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links ETYMOLOGY AND CHANGES IN CLASSIFICATION Archean
Archean
(or Archaean) comes from the ancient Greek Αρχή (_Arkhē_), meaning "beginning, origin". Its earliest use is from 1872, when it meant "of the earliest geological age." In earlier literature the Hadean
Hadean
Eon was included as part of the Archean. Instead of being based on stratigraphy , the beginning and end of the Archean
Archean
Eon are defined chronometrically . The eon's lower boundary or starting point of 4 Gya (4 billion years ago ) is officially recognized by the International Commission on Stratigraphy
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Proterozoic
The PROTEROZOIC ( /ˌproʊtərəˈzoʊɪk, prɔː-, -trə-/ ) is a geological eon representing the time just before the proliferation of complex life on Earth . The name Proterozoic comes from Greek and means "earlier life", the Greek root protero-,means "former, earlier" and zoic-, means "animal, living being". The Proterozoic Eon extended from 7016788940000000000♠2500 Ma to 7016170726616000000♠541 Ma (million years ago), and is the most recent part of the Precambrian Supereon. It is subdivided into three geologic eras (from oldest to youngest): the Paleoproterozoic , Mesoproterozoic , and Neoproterozoic . The well-identified events of this eon were the transition to an oxygenated atmosphere during the Paleoproterozoic ; several glaciations , which produced the hypothesized Snowball Earth during the Cryogenian Period in the late Neoproterozoic Era; and the Ediacaran Period (635 to 541 Ma) which is characterized by the evolution of abundant soft-bodied multicellular organisms and provides us with the first obvious fossil evidence of life on earth
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Phanerozoic
The PHANEROZOIC Eon ( British English PHANæROZOIC) is the current geologic eon in the geologic time scale , and the one during which abundant animal and plant life has existed. It covers 541 million years to the present, and began with the Cambrian Period when diverse hard-shelled animals first appeared. Its name was derived from the Ancient Greek words φανερός (phanerós) and ζωή (zōḗ), meaning _visible life_, since it was once believed that life began in the Cambrian , the first period of this eon. The time before the Phanerozoic, called the _ Precambrian _ supereon, is now divided into the Hadean , Archaean and Proterozoic eons. The time span of the Phanerozoic starts with the rapid emergence of a number of animal phyla ; the evolution of those phyla into diverse forms; the emergence and development of complex plants ; the evolution of fish ; the emergence of insects and tetrapods ; and the development of modern fauna . Land plant life appeared in the early Phanerozoic eon. During this time span, tectonic forces caused the continents to move and eventually collect into a single landmass known as Pangaea , which then separated into the current continental landmasses
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις _(taxis )_, meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία _(-nomia)_, meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms. With the advent of such fields of study as phylogenetics , cladistics , and systematics , the Linnaean system has progressed to a system of modern biological classification based on the evolutionary relationships between organisms, both living and extinct
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Eukaryote
Eukaryotic organisms that cannot be classified under the kingdoms Plantae, Animalia or Fungi are sometimes grouped in the kingdom PROTISTA . A EUKARYOTE (/juːˈkæri.oʊt/ or /juːˈkæriət/ ) is any organism whose cells have a cell nucleus and other organelles enclosed within membranes . Eukaryotes belong to the taxon EUKARYA or EUKARYOTA. The defining feature that sets eukaryotic cells apart from prokaryotic cells ( Bacteria and Archaea ) is that they have membrane-bound organelles, especially the nucleus, which contains the genetic material and is enclosed by the nuclear envelope . The presence of a nucleus gives eukaryotes their name, which comes from the Greek εὖ (_eu_, "well" or "true") and κάρυον (_karyon_, "nut" or "kernel"). Eukaryotic cells also contain other membrane-bound organelles such as mitochondria and the Golgi apparatus . In addition, plants and algae contain chloroplasts . Eukaryotic organisms may be unicellular or multicellular . Only eukaryotes form multicellular organisms consisting of many kinds of tissue made up of different cell types . Eukaryotes can reproduce both asexually through mitosis and sexually through meiosis and gamete fusion. In mitosis, one cell divides to produce two genetically identical cells
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Unikont
Opisthokonta Amoebozoa Apusozoa ? (Debated) SYNONYMS * Amorphea Adl et al., 2012 * Opimoda Derelle et al., 2015 * Podiata Cavalier-Smith, 2012UNIKONTS or AMORPHEA are members of a taxonomic supergroup that includes the Amoebozoa and its sister clade, the Opisthokonta , which includes the Fungi , Animals and the Choanomonada, or Choanoflagellates . The taxonomic affinities of the members of this clade were originally described and proposed by Thomas Cavalier-Smith . The International Society of Protistologists, the recognised body for taxonomy of protozoa, recommended in 2012 that the term Unikont be changed to Amorphea because the name "Unikont" is based on a hypothesized synapomorphy that the ISP authors and other scientists later rejected. It includes amoebozoa , opisthokonts , and possibly Apusozoa . CONTENTS * 1 Taxonomic revisions within this group * 2 Clade * 3 Characteristics * 4 References * 5 External links TAXONOMIC REVISIONS WITHIN THIS GROUPCavalier-Smith has proposed two new phyla: Sulcozoa , which consists of the subphyla Apusozoa ( Apusomonadida and Breviatea ), and Varisulca , which includes the subphyla Diphyllatea , Discocelida , Mantamonadida , Planomonadida and Rigifilida
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Opisthokont
The OPISTHOKONTS (Greek : ὀπίσθιος (_opísthios_) = "rear, posterior" + κοντός (_kontós_) = "pole" i.e. "flagellum") are a broad group of eukaryotes , including both the animal and fungus kingdoms , together with the eukaryotic microorganisms that are sometimes grouped in the paraphyletic phylum Choanozoa (conventionally assigned to the protist "kingdom"). The opisthokonts, sometimes referred to as the "Fungi/ Metazoa group", are generally recognized as a monophyletic clade . CONTENTS * 1 Flagella * 2 History * 3 Taxonomy * 4 Gallery * 5 References * 6 External links FLAGELLAOne common characteristic of opisthokonts is that flagellate cells, such as the sperm of most animals and the spores of the chytrid fungi , propel themselves with a single _posterior_ flagellum. It is this feature that gives the group its name. In contrast, flagellate cells in other eukaryote groups propel themselves with one or more _anterior_ flagella (see Zoospore morphological types ). In some opisthokont groups, including most of the fungi, flagellate cells have been lost. HISTORYThe close relationship between animals and fungi was suggested by Thomas Cavalier-Smith in 1987, who used the informal name opisthokonta (the formal name has been used for the chytrids by Copeland in 1956), and was supported by later genetic studies
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Holozoa
HOLOZOA is a group of organisms that includes animals and their closest single-celled relatives, but excludes fungi . _Holozoa_ is also an old name for the tunicate genus _Distaplia_._ _ Because Holozoa is a clade including all organisms more closely related to animals than to fungi, some authors prefer it to recognizing paraphyletic groups such as Choanozoa , which mostly consists of Holozoa minus animals. Perhaps the best-known holozoans, apart from animals, are the choanoflagellates , which strongly resemble the collar cells of sponges , and so were theorized to be related to sponges even in the 19th century. _ Proterospongia _ is an example of a colonial choanoflagellate that may shed light on the origin of sponges. The affinities of the other single-celled holozoans only began to be recognized in the 1990s. A group of mostly parasitic species called Icthyosporea or Mesomycetozoea is sometimes grouped with other species in Mesomycetozoa (note the difference in the ending). The amoeboid genera _ Ministeria _ and _ Capsaspora _ may be united in a group called Filasterea by the structure of their thread-like pseudopods
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Filozoa
The FILOZOA are a monophyletic grouping within the Opisthokonta . They include animals and their nearest unicellular relatives (those organisms which are more closely related to animals than to fungi or Mesomycetozoa ). Three groups are currently assigned to the clade Filozoa: * Group Filasterea - recently erected to house the genera _ Ministeria _ and _ Capsaspora _ * Group Choanoflagellatea - collared flagellates * Kingdom Animalia - the animals properCONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Cladogram * 3 Characteristics * 4 References ETYMOLOGYFrom Latin _filum_ meaning "THREAD" and Greek _zōion_ meaning "ANIMAL". CLADOGRAMThe most up to date cladogram is Opisthokonta Holomycota Fungi Opisthosporidia Cristidiscoidea Nucleariida Fonticulida Holozoa Teretosporea Mesomycetozoa _ Corallochytrium _ FILOZOA Filasterea Apoikozoa Choanoflagellatea Animalia CHARACTERISTICSThe ancestral opisthokont cell is assumed to have possessed slender filose (thread-like) projections or 'tentacles'. In some opisthokonts ( Mesomycetozoa and _ Corallochytrium _) these were lost
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Carl Linnaeus
CARL LINNAEUS (/lɪˈniːəs, lɪˈneɪəs/ ; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as CARL VON LINNé (Swedish pronunciation: ( listen )), was a Swedish botanist , physician , and zoologist , who formalised the modern system of naming organisms called binomial nomenclature . He is known by the epithet "father of modern taxonomy". Many of his writings were in Latin , and his name is rendered in Latin as CAROLUS LINNæUS (after 1761 CAROLUS A LINNé). Linnaeus was born in the countryside of Småland , in southern Sweden . He received most of his higher education at Uppsala University , and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730. He lived abroad between 1735 and 1738, where he studied and also published a first edition of his _ Systema Naturae _ in the Netherlands. He then returned to Sweden, where he became professor of medicine and botany at Uppsala . In the 1740s, he was sent on several journeys through Sweden to find and classify plants and animals. In the 1750s and 1760s, he continued to collect and classify animals, plants, and minerals, and published several volumes. At the time of his death, he was one of the most acclaimed scientists in Europe
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