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Animal
ANIMALS are eukaryotic , multicellular organisms that form the biological kingdom ANIMALIA. With few exceptions, animals are motile (able to move), heterotrophic (consume organic material), reproduce sexually , and their embryonic development includes a blastula stage. The body plan of the animal derives from this blastula, differentiating specialized tissues and organs as it develops; this plan eventually becomes fixed, although some undergo metamorphosis at some stage in their lives. Zoology is the study of animals. Currently there are over 66 thousand (less than 5% of all animals) vertebrate species, and over 1.3 million (over 95% of all animals) invertebrate species in existence. Classification of animals into groups (taxonomy ) is accomplished using either the hierarchical Linnaean system; or cladistics , which displays diagrams (phylogenetic trees ) called cladograms to show relationships based on the evolutionary principle of the most recent common ancestor
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Proterozoic
The PROTEROZOIC ( /ˌproʊtərəˈzoʊɪk, prɔː-, -trə-/ ) is a geological eon representing the time just before the proliferation of complex life on Earth
Earth
. The name Proterozoic
Proterozoic
comes from Greek and means "earlier life": the Greek root "protero-" means "former, earlier" and "zoic-" means "animal, living being". The Proterozoic Eon extended from 7016788940000000000♠2500 Ma to 7016170726616000000♠541 Ma (million years ago), and is the most recent part of the Precambrian
Precambrian
Supereon. It can be also described as the time range between the appearance of oxygen in Earth's atmosphere and the appearance of first complex life forms (like trilobites or corals ). It is subdivided into three geologic eras (from oldest to youngest): the Paleoproterozoic , Mesoproterozoic , and Neoproterozoic
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Archean
The ARCHEAN Eon ( /ɑːrˈkiːən/ , also spelled ARCHAEAN) is a geologic eon , 4,000 to 2,500 million years ago (4 to 2.5 billion years), that followed the Hadean
Hadean
Eon and preceded the Proterozoic
Proterozoic
Eon. During the Archean, the Earth's crust had cooled enough to allow the formation of continents. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology and changes in classification * 2 Earth
Earth
at the beginning of the Archean
Archean
* 2.1 Palaeoenvironment * 3 Geology
Geology
* 4 Early life in the Archean
Archean
* 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links ETYMOLOGY AND CHANGES IN CLASSIFICATION Archean
Archean
(or Archaean) comes from the ancient Greek Αρχή (Arkhē), meaning "beginning, origin"
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Hadean
The HADEAN ( /ˈheɪdiən/ ) is a geologic eon of the Earth
Earth
predating the Archean
Archean
. It began with the formation of the Earth
Earth
about 4.6 billion years ago and ended, as defined by the ICS , 4 billion years ago. The geologist Preston Cloud coined the term in 1972, originally to label the period before the earliest-known rocks on Earth. W. Brian Harland later coined an almost synonymous term: the "PRISCOAN PERIOD". Other, older texts simply refer to the eon as the PRE-ARCHEAN. In 2015, traces of carbon minerals interpreted as "remains of biotic life " were found in 4.1-billion-year-old rocks in Western Australia
Western Australia
. Artist's impression of a Hadean
Hadean
landscape
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Holocene
? Preboreal (10.3–9 ka ) Boreal (9–7.5 ka ) Atlantic (7.5 –5 ka ) Subboreal (5 –2.5 ka ) Subatlantic (2.5 ka –present) Holocene
Holocene
Epoch This box: * view * talk * edit ↑ Pleistocene HoloceneThe HOLOCENE ( /ˈhɒləˌsiːn, ˈhoʊ-/ ) is the current geological epoch . It began after the Pleistocene , approximately 11,700 years before present . The Holocene
Holocene
is part of the Quaternary period. Its name comes from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
words ὅλος (holos, whole or entire) and καινός (kainos, new), meaning "entirely recent". It has been identified with the current warm period, known as MIS 1 , and is considered by some to be an interglacial period
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Cryogenian
The CRYOGENIAN ( /kraɪoʊˈdʒɛniən/ , from Greek κρύος (krýos), meaning "cold" and γένεσις (génesis), meaning "birth") is a geologic period that lasted from 720 to 635 million years ago . It forms the second geologic period of the Neoproterozoic Era , preceded by the Tonian Period and followed by the Ediacaran
Ediacaran
. The Sturtian and Marinoan glaciations occurred during the Cryogenian period, which are the greatest ice ages known to have occurred on Earth. These events are the subject of much scientific controversy . The main debate contests whether these glaciations covered the entire planet (the so-called " Snowball Earth ") or a band of open sea survived near the equator (termed "slushball Earth")
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Incertae Sedis
INCERTAE SEDIS ( Latin
Latin
for "of uncertain placement") is a term used for a taxonomic group where its broader relationships are unknown or undefined. Alternatively, such groups are frequently referred to as "enigmatic taxa". In the system of open nomenclature , uncertainty at specific taxonomic levels is indicated by incertae familiae (of uncertain family), incerti subordinis (of uncertain suborder), incerti ordinis (of uncertain order) and similar terms. CONTENTS * 1 Examples * 2 In formal nomenclature * 3 Reason for use * 3.1 Poor description * 3.2 Not included in an analysis * 3.3 Controversy * 4 In zoological nomenclature * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links EXAMPLES * The fossil plant Paradinandra suecica could not be assigned to any family, but was placed incertae sedis within the order Ericales when described in 2001
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Cloudinidae
The CLOUDINIDS, an early metazoan family containing the genus CLOUDINA, lived in the late Ediacaran
Ediacaran
period and became extinct at the base of the Cambrian
Cambrian
. They formed millimetre-scale conical fossils consisting of calcareous cones nested within one another; the appearance of the organism itself remains unknown. The name Cloudina honors the 20th-century geologist and paleontologist Preston Cloud . Cloudinids comprise two genera: Cloudina
Cloudina
itself is mineralized, whereas Conotubus is at best weakly mineralized, whilst sharing the same "funnel-in-funnel" construction. Cloudinids had a wide geographic range, reflected in the present distribution of localities in which their fossils are found, and are an abundant component of some deposits
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Sinotubulites
SINOTUBULITES is a genus of small, tube-shaped shelly fossils from the Ediacaran
Ediacaran
period. It is often found in association with Cloudina
Cloudina
. Its tube has a "tube-in-tube" structure composed of several thin layers. It bears prominent longitudinal sculptures and / or irregular rings, which were formed by the wrinkles of tube layers, and weaken gradually towards the inner layers. The organism probably had a sessile life-style, lying on the sea floor. Sinotubulites and Cloudina
Cloudina
(discovered in 1972) are currently the two earliest known fossils of organisms that mineralized shells when alive, and are often found in the same fossil beds. It is remarkable that Cloudina
Cloudina
specimens often have tiny holes bored in them, which are attributed to predators, while no such borings have been found in Sinotubulites
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Burykhia
BURYKHIA HUNTI is a Precambrian
Precambrian
fossil from the White Sea
White Sea
region of Russia dating to 555 million years ago. It is considered of ascidian affinity, due to the sac-like morphology and a series of distinctly perforated bands reminiscent of a tunicate pharynx. If B. hunti is a tunicate, it could be the oldest ascidian fossil known as of its publication in 2012. It is possibly related to the slightly younger Ausia , another putative ascidian from the Vendian biota in Namibia
Namibia
. In the case of Burykhia, the narrow longitudinal vessels support affinity with the suborder Phlebobranchia . Burykhia
Burykhia
does not appear to have been colonial . SEE ALSO List of Ediacaran genera REFERENCES * ^ A B C Fedonkin, M. A.; Vickers-Rich, P.; Swalla, B. J.; Trusler, P.; Hall, M. (2012)
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Chancelloriidae
The CHANCELLORIIDS are an extinct family of animal common in sediments from the Early Cambrian
Cambrian
to the early Late Cambrian. Many of these fossils consists only of spines and other fragments, and it is not certain that they belong to the same type of organism. Other specimens appear to be more complete and to represent sessile , bag-like organisms with a soft skin armored with star-shaped calcareous sclerites from which radiate sharp spines. Classifying the chancelloriids is difficult. Some paleontologists classify them as sponges, an idea which chancelloriids' sessile lifestyle and simple structure make plausible. Other proposals suggest that they were more advanced, or at least originated from more advanced ancestors; for example chancelloriids' skins appear to be much more complex than those of any sponge
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Phanerozoic
The PHANEROZOIC Eon ( British English
British English
PHANæROZOIC) is the current geologic eon in the geologic time scale , and the one during which abundant animal and plant life has existed. It covers 541 million years to the present, and began with the Cambrian
Cambrian
Period when diverse hard-shelled animals first appeared. Its name was derived from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
words φανερός (phanerós) and ζωή (zōḗ), meaning visible life, since it was once believed that life began in the Cambrian
Cambrian
, the first period of this eon. The time before the Phanerozoic, called the Precambrian
Precambrian
supereon, is now divided into the Hadean
Hadean
, Archaean and Proterozoic
Proterozoic
eons
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Yarnemia
YARNEMIA ASCIDIFORMIS is a fossil tentatively classified as a tunicate . While Y. ascidiformis looks similar to tunicates, the oldest unequivocal tunicate, Shankouclava dates to the Cambrian period, while Y. ascidiformis is Ediacaran
Ediacaran
in age. ETYMOLOGYThe generic name Yarnemia
Yarnemia
comes from the village of Yarnema near which the first specimens were found. The specific name of the Y. ascidiformis refers to the likeness to ascidians . SEE ALSOOther Ediacaran
Ediacaran
biota tentatively identified as tunicates include * Ausia fenestrata * Burykhia hunti List of Ediacaran
Ediacaran
genera REFERENCES * ^ Chen, Jun-Yuan, et al
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Pikaiidae
PIKAIA GRACILENS is an extinct cephalochordate animal known from the Middle Cambrian
Cambrian
Burgess Shale of British Columbia
British Columbia
. Sixteen specimens are known from the Greater Phyllopod bed , where they comprised 0.03% of the community. It resembled the lancelet and perhaps swam much like an eel . CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Discovery * 3 Evolution * 3.1 Development of the head * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links DESCRIPTION Life reconstruction of Pikaia gracilens Pikaia is a primitive chordate that lacked a well-defined head and averaged about 1 1⁄2 inches (3.8 cm) in length
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Metaspriggina
METASPRIGGINA is a genus of chordate initially known from two specimens in the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale and 44 specimens found in 2012 at the Marble Canyon bed in Kootenay National Park
Kootenay National Park
. Life reconstruction of Metaspriggina
Metaspriggina
walcotti Reconstruction of Metaspriggina
Metaspriggina
based on the Burgess Shale specimens available then. Whilst named after the Ediacaran organism Spriggina , later work has shown the two to be unrelated. Metaspriggina
Metaspriggina
is considered to represent a primitive chordate , possibly transitional between cephalochordates and the earliest vertebrates , albeit this has been questioned because it seems to possess most of the characteristics attributed to craniates
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Cambroernid
The CAMBROERNIDS are a clade containing the eldoniids and Herpetogaster -like forms. It also includes the Rotadisciidae . * ^ Caron, J.; Conway Morris, S.; Shu, D.; Soares, D. (2010). Soares, Daphne, ed. "Tentaculate fossils from the Cambrian
Cambrian
of Canada (British Columbia) and China (Yunnan) interpreted as primitive deuterostomes" . PLoS ONE. 5 (3): e9586. doi :10.1371/journal.pone.0009586 . PMC 2833208  . PMID 20221405 . This article related to a Cambrian
Cambrian
animal is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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