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Animal
ANIMALS are multicellular , eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom ANIMALIA (also called METAZOA). The animal kingdom emerged as a clade within Apoikozoa as the sister group to the choanoflagellates . Animals are motile , meaning they can move spontaneously and independently at some point in their lives. Their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop , although some undergo a process of metamorphosis later in their lives. All animals are heterotrophs : they must ingest other organisms or their products for sustenance . Most known animal phyla appeared in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion , about 542 million years ago. Animals can be divided broadly into vertebrates and invertebrates . Vertebrates have a backbone or spine (vertebral column ), and amount to less than five percent of all described animal species . They include fish , amphibians , reptiles , birds and mammals
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Animalia (other)
ANIMALIA is the taxonomic kingdom comprising all animals. ANIMALIA may also refer to: * Animalia (book) , a 1986 children's book by Graeme Base * Animalia (TV series) , an Australian children's program based on the bookSEE ALSO * Animal (other) * Animality (other) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title ANIMALIA. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Animalia_(other) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Cryogenian
The CRYOGENIAN ( /kraɪoʊˈdʒɛniən/ , from Greek κρύος _(krýos)_, meaning "cold" and γένεσις _(génesis)_, meaning "birth") is a geologic period that lasted from 720 to 635 million years ago . It forms the second geologic period of the Neoproterozoic Era , preceded by the Tonian Period and followed by the Ediacaran . The Sturtian and Marinoan glaciations occurred during the Cryogenian period, which are the greatest ice ages known to have occurred on Earth. These events are the subject of much scientific controversy . The main debate contests whether these glaciations covered the entire planet (the so-called " Snowball Earth ") or a band of open sea survived near the equator (termed "slushball Earth")
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Holocene
The HOLOCENE ( /ˈhɒləˌsiːn, ˈhoʊ-/ ) is the geological epoch that began after the Pleistocene at approximately 11,700 years before present . The Holocene is part of the Quaternary period. Its name comes from the Ancient Greek words ὅλος (_holos_, whole or entire) and καινός (_kainos_, new), meaning "entirely recent". It has been identified with the current warm period, known as MIS 1 , and is considered by some to be an interglacial period. The Holocene encompasses the growth and impacts of the human species worldwide, including all its written history , development of major civilizations, and overall significant transition toward urban living in the present
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Hadean
The HADEAN ( /ˈheɪdiən/ ) is a geologic eon of the Earth
Earth
predating the Archean . It began with the formation of the Earth
Earth
about 4.6 billion years ago and ended, as defined by the ICS , 4 billion years ago. The geologist Preston Cloud coined the term in 1972, originally to label the period before the earliest-known rocks on Earth. W. Brian Harland later coined an almost synonymous term: the "PRISCOAN PERIOD". Other, older texts simply refer to the eon as the PRE-ARCHEAN. In 2015, traces of carbon minerals interpreted as "remains of biotic life " were found in 4.1-billion-year-old rocks in Western Australia
Western Australia
. Artist's impression of a Hadean
Hadean
landscape
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Archean
The ARCHEAN Eon ( /ɑːrˈkiːən/ , also spelled ARCHAEAN) is a geologic eon , 4,000 to 2,500 million years ago (4 to 2.5 billion years), that followed the Hadean
Hadean
Eon and preceded the Proterozoic Eon. During the Archean, the Earth's crust had cooled enough to allow the formation of continents. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology and changes in classification * 2 Earth
Earth
at the beginning of the Archean
Archean
* 2.1 Palaeoenvironment * 3 Geology
Geology
* 4 Early life in the Archean
Archean
* 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links ETYMOLOGY AND CHANGES IN CLASSIFICATION Archean
Archean
(or Archaean) comes from the ancient Greek Αρχή (_Arkhē_), meaning "beginning, origin"
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Proterozoic
The PROTEROZOIC ( /ˌproʊtərəˈzoʊɪk, prɔː-, -trə-/ ) is a geological eon representing the time just before the proliferation of complex life on Earth . The name Proterozoic comes from Greek and means "earlier life", the Greek root protero-,means "former, earlier" and zoic-, means "animal, living being". The Proterozoic Eon extended from 7016788940000000000♠2500 Ma to 7016170726616000000♠541 Ma (million years ago), and is the most recent part of the Precambrian Supereon. It is subdivided into three geologic eras (from oldest to youngest): the Paleoproterozoic , Mesoproterozoic , and Neoproterozoic
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Phanerozoic
The PHANEROZOIC Eon ( British English PHANæROZOIC) is the current geologic eon in the geologic time scale , and the one during which abundant animal and plant life has existed. It covers 541 million years to the present, and began with the Cambrian Period when diverse hard-shelled animals first appeared. Its name was derived from the Ancient Greek words φανερός (phanerós) and ζωή (zōḗ), meaning _visible life_, since it was once believed that life began in the Cambrian , the first period of this eon. The time before the Phanerozoic, called the _ Precambrian _ supereon, is now divided into the Hadean , Archaean and Proterozoic eons
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Eukaryote
Eukaryotic organisms that cannot be classified under the kingdoms Plantae, Animalia or Fungi are sometimes grouped in the kingdom PROTISTA . A EUKARYOTE (/juːˈkæri.oʊt/ or /juːˈkæriət/ ) is any organism whose cells have a cell nucleus and other organelles enclosed within membranes . Eukaryotes belong to the taxon EUKARYA or EUKARYOTA. The defining feature that sets eukaryotic cells apart from prokaryotic cells ( Bacteria and Archaea ) is that they have membrane-bound organelles, especially the nucleus, which contains the genetic material and is enclosed by the nuclear envelope . The presence of a nucleus gives eukaryotes their name, which comes from the Greek εὖ (_eu_, "well" or "true") and κάρυον (_karyon_, "nut" or "kernel"). Eukaryotic cells also contain other membrane-bound organelles such as mitochondria and the Golgi apparatus . In addition, plants and algae contain chloroplasts
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Unikont
Opisthokonta Amoebozoa
Amoebozoa
Apusozoa
Apusozoa
? (Debated) SYNONYMS * Amorphea Adl et al., 2012 * Opimoda Derelle et al., 2015 * Podiata Cavalier-Smith, 2012UNIKONTS or AMORPHEA are members of a taxonomic supergroup that includes the Amoebozoa
Amoebozoa
and its sister clade, the Opisthokonta , which includes the Fungi , Animals and the Choanomonada, or Choanoflagellates . The taxonomic affinities of the members of this clade were originally described and proposed by Thomas Cavalier-Smith . The International Society of Protistologists, the recognised body for taxonomy of protozoa, recommended in 2012 that the term Unikont
Unikont
be changed to Amorphea because the name "Unikont" is based on a hypothesized synapomorphy that the ISP authors and other scientists later rejected
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Opisthokont
The OPISTHOKONTS (Greek : ὀπίσθιος (opísthios) = "rear, posterior" + κοντός (kontós) = "pole" i.e. "flagellum") are a broad group of eukaryotes , including both the animal and fungus kingdoms , together with the eukaryotic microorganisms that are sometimes grouped in the paraphyletic phylum Choanozoa (conventionally assigned to the protist "kingdom"). The opisthokonts, sometimes referred to as the "Fungi/ Metazoa
Metazoa
group", are generally recognized as a monophyletic clade . CONTENTS * 1 Flagella * 2 History * 3 Taxonomy * 4 Gallery * 5 References * 6 External links FLAGELLAOne common characteristic of opisthokonts is that flagellate cells, such as the sperm of most animals and the spores of the chytrid fungi , propel themselves with a single posterior flagellum. It is this feature that gives the group its name
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Holozoa
HOLOZOA is a group of organisms that includes animals and their closest single-celled relatives, but excludes fungi . Holozoa
Holozoa
is also an old name for the tunicate genus Distaplia. Because Holozoa
Holozoa
is a clade including all organisms more closely related to animals than to fungi, some authors prefer it to recognizing paraphyletic groups such as Choanozoa , which mostly consists of Holozoa
Holozoa
minus animals. Perhaps the best-known holozoans, apart from animals, are the choanoflagellates , which strongly resemble the collar cells of sponges , and so were theorized to be related to sponges even in the 19th century. Proterospongia is an example of a colonial choanoflagellate that may shed light on the origin of sponges. The affinities of the other single-celled holozoans only began to be recognized in the 1990s
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Filozoa
The FILOZOA are a monophyletic grouping within the Opisthokonta . They include animals and their nearest unicellular relatives (those organisms which are more closely related to animals than to fungi or Mesomycetozoa ). Three groups are currently assigned to the clade Filozoa: * Group Filasterea - recently erected to house the genera Ministeria and Capsaspora * Group Choanoflagellatea - collared flagellates * Kingdom Animalia - the animals properCONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Cladogram * 3 Characteristics * 4 References ETYMOLOGYFrom Latin filum meaning "THREAD" and Greek zōion meaning "ANIMAL"
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Carl Linnaeus
CARL LINNAEUS (/lɪˈniːəs, lɪˈneɪəs/ ; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as CARL VON LINNé (Swedish pronunciation: ( listen )), was a Swedish botanist , physician , and zoologist , who formalised the modern system of naming organisms called binomial nomenclature . He is known by the epithet "father of modern taxonomy". Many of his writings were in Latin , and his name is rendered in Latin as CAROLUS LINNæUS (after 1761 CAROLUS A LINNé). Linnaeus was born in the countryside of Småland , in southern Sweden . He received most of his higher education at Uppsala University , and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730. He lived abroad between 1735 and 1738, where he studied and also published a first edition of his _ Systema Naturae _ in the Netherlands. He then returned to Sweden, where he became professor of medicine and botany at Uppsala
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