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Animal
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, reproduce sexually, and grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula, during embryonic development. Over 1.5 million living animal species have been described—of which around 1 million are insects—but it has been estimated there are over 7 million in total. Animals range in size from 8.5 millionths of a metre to 33.6 metres (110 ft) long and have complex interactions with each other and their environments, forming intricate food webs. The study of animals is called zoology. Aristotle divided animals into those with blood and those without. Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
created the first hierarchical biological classification for animals in 1758 with his Systema Naturae, which Jean-Baptiste Lamarck expanded into 14 phyla by 1809
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Hadean
The Hadean
Hadean
( /ˈheɪdiən/) is a geologic eon of the Earth
Earth
predating the Archean. It began with the formation of the Earth
Earth
about 4.6 billion years ago and ended, as defined by the ICS, 4 billion years ago.[1] As of 2016[update], the ICS describes its status as informal.[2] The geologist Preston Cloud coined the term in 1972, originally to label the period before the earliest-known rocks on Earth. W. Brian Harland later coined an almost synonymous term: the "Priscoan period"
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Archean
The Archean
Archean
Eon ( /ɑːrˈkiːən/, also spelled Archaean) is a geologic eon, 4,000 to 2,500 million years ago (4 to 2.5 billion years), that followed the Hadean
Hadean
Eon and preceded the Proterozoic
Proterozoic
Eon. During the Archean, the Earth's crust had cooled enough to allow the formation of continents.Contents1 Etymology and changes in classification 2 Earth
Earth
at the beginning of the Archean2.1 Palaeoenvironment3 Geology 4 Early life in the Archean 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksEtymology and changes in classification[edit] Archean
Archean
(or Archaean) comes from the ancient Greek Αρχή (Arkhē), meaning "beginning, origin"
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Proterozoic
The Proterozoic
Proterozoic
( /ˌproʊtərəˈzoʊɪk, prɔː-, -trə-/[1][2]) is a geological eon representing the time just before the proliferation of complex life on Earth. The name Proterozoic
Proterozoic
comes from Greek and means "earlier life": the Greek root "protero-" means "former, earlier" and "zoic-" means "animal, living being".[3] The Proterozoic Eon extended from 7016788940000000000♠2500 Ma to 7016170726616000000♠541 Ma (million years ago), and is the most recent part of the Precambrian
Precambrian
Supereon. It can be also described as the time range between the appearance of oxygen in Earth's atmosphere and the appearance of first complex life forms (like trilobites or corals)
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Holocene
The Holocene
Holocene
( /ˈhɒləˌsiːn, ˈhoʊ-/)[2][3] is the current geological epoch. It began after the Pleistocene[4], approximately 11,650 cal years before present.[5] The Holocene
Holocene
is part of the Quaternary
Quaternary
period. Its name comes from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
words ὅλος (holos, whole or entire) and καινός (kainos, new), meaning "entirely recent".[6] It has been identified with the current warm period, known as MIS 1, and is considered by some to be an interglacial period. The Holocene
Holocene
encompasses the growth and impacts of the human species worldwide, including all its written history, development of major civilizations, and overall significant transition toward urban living in the present
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Phanerozoic
The Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
Eon[3] is the current geologic eon in the geologic time scale, and the one during which abundant animal and plant life has existed. It covers 541 million years to the present,[4] and began with the Cambrian
Cambrian
Period when diverse hard-shelled animals first appeared. Its name was derived from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
words φανερός (phanerós) and ζωή (zōḗ), meaning visible life, since it was once believed that life began in the Cambrian, the first period of this eon
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Cryogenian
The Cryogenian ( /kraɪoʊˈdʒɛniən/, from Greek κρύος (krýos), meaning "cold" and γένεσις (génesis), meaning "birth") is a geologic period that lasted from 720 to 635 million years ago.[9] It forms the second geologic period of the Neoproterozoic Era, preceded by the Tonian Period and followed by the Ediacaran. The Sturtian and Marinoan glaciations occurred during the Cryogenian period,[10] which are the greatest ice ages known to have occurred on Earth
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Bivalve
See textEmpty shell of the giant clam (Tridacna gigas)Empty shells of the sword razor ( Ensis
Ensis
ensis)Bivalvia, in previous centuries referred to as the Lamellibranchiata and Pelecypoda, is a class of marine and freshwater molluscs that have laterally compressed bodies enclosed by a shell consisting of two hinged parts. Bivalves as a group have no head and they lack some usual molluscan organs like the radula and the odontophore. They include the clams, oysters, cockles, mussels, scallops, and numerous other families that live in saltwater, as well as a number of families that live in freshwater. The majority are filter feeders. The gills have evolved into ctenidia, specialised organs for feeding and breathing. Most bivalves bury themselves in sediment where they are relatively safe from predation. Others lie on the sea floor or attach themselves to rocks or other hard surfaces. Some bivalves, such as the scallops and file shells, can swim
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Trilobozoa
See article Trilobozoa
Trilobozoa
("three-lobed animals") is a taxon of extinct organisms which displayed tri-radial symmetry. Fossils of trilobozoans are restricted to marine strata of the Late Ediacaran
Ediacaran
period — prior to the Cambrian
Cambrian
explosion of more modern life forms. The taxonomic affinities of this groups are open to debate. Ivantsov and Fedonkin (2002) place them among the cnidarians. They reasoned that since the conulate Vendoconularia exhibited six-fold symmetry, the conularids — then regarded as a sister group to the scyphozoan cnidarians — must be nested within the trilobozoa, making the trilobozoan group part of the cnidarian phylum. Most trilobozoans were disk-shaped, typified by Tribrachidium
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Proarticulata
Proarticulata
Proarticulata
is an extinct phylum of very early, superficially bilaterally symmetrical animals known from fossils found in the Ediacaran
Ediacaran
(Vendian) marine deposits, and dates to approximately 558 to 555 million years ago. The name from Greek προ (pro-) = "before" and Articulata, i.e. prior to animals with true segmentation such as annelids and arthropods. This phylum was established by Mikhail A. Fedonkin
Mikhail A

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Phylum
In biology, a phylum (/ˈfaɪləm/; plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class. Traditionally, in botany the term division has been used instead of phylum, although the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants accepts the terms as equivalent.[1][2][3] Depending on definitions, the animal kingdom Animalia
Animalia
or Metazoa contains approximately 33 phyla, the plant kingdom Plantae
Plantae
contains about 14, and the fungus kingdom Fungi
Fungi
contains about 8 phyla
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Unikont
Unikonts or Amorphea are members of a taxonomic supergroup that includes the basal Amoebozoa and Obazoa. That latter contains the Opisthokonta, which includes the Fungi, Animals and the Choanomonada, or Choanoflagellates
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Extinction
In biology and ecology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species. The moment of extinction is generally considered to be the death of the last individual of the species, although the capacity to breed and recover may have been lost before this point. Because a species' potential range may be very large, determining this moment is difficult, and is usually done retrospectively
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10th Edition Of Systema Naturae
The 10th edition of Systema Naturae
Systema Naturae
is a book written by Carl Linnaeus and published in two volumes in 1758 and 1759, which marks the starting point of zoological nomenclature. In it, Linnaeus introduced binomial nomenclature for animals, something he had already done for plants in his 1753 publication of Species Plantarum.Contents1 Starting point 2 Revisions 3 Animals3.1 Mammalia 3.2 Aves 3.3 Amphibia 3.4 Pisces 3.5 Insecta 3.6 Vermes4 Plants 5 References 6 External linksStarting point[edit] Before 1758, most biological catalogues had used polynomial names for the taxa included, including earlier editions of Systema Naturae. The first work to consistently apply binomial nomenclature across the animal kingdom was the 10th edition of Systema Naturae
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Malacostraca
See text for orders. Malacostraca
Malacostraca
is the largest of the six classes of crustaceans, containing about 40,000 living species, divided among 16 orders. Its members, the malacostracans, display a great diversity of body forms and include crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, amphipods, mantis shrimp and many other, less familiar animals. They are abundant in all marine environments and have colonised freshwater and terrestrial habitats
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Filozoa
The Filozoa
Filozoa
are a monophyletic grouping within the Opisthokonta
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