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Anhydrous
A substance is anhydrous if it contains no water. Many processes in chemistry can be impeded by the presence of water, therefore, it is important that water-free reagents and techniques are used. In practice, however, it is very difficult to achieve perfect dryness; anhydrous compounds gradually absorb water from the atmosphere so they must be stored carefully.Contents1 Solids 2 Liquids or solvents 3 Gases 4 See also 5 ReferencesSolids[edit] Many salts and solids can be dried using heat, or under vacuum. Dessicators can also be used to store reagents in dry conditions. Common dessicants include phosphorus pentoxide or silica gel. Chemists may also require dry glassware for sensitive reactions. This can be achieved by drying glassware in an oven, by flame, or under vacuum. Dry solids can be produced by freeze-drying/lyophilisation. Liquids or solvents[edit] In many cases, the presence of water can prevent a reaction from happening, or cause undesirable products to form
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Water
Water
Water
is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms. Its chemical formula is H2O, meaning that each of its molecules contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms that are connected by covalent bonds. Strictly speaking, water refers to the liquid state of a substance that prevails at standard ambient temperature and pressure; but it often refers also to its solid state (ice) or its gaseous state (steam or water vapor). It also occurs in nature as snow, glaciers, ice packs and icebergs, clouds, fog, dew, aquifers, and atmospheric humidity. Water
Water
covers 71% of the Earth's surface.[1] It is vital for all known forms of life
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Aqueous Solution
An aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is water. It is usually shown in chemical equations by appending (aq) to the relevant chemical formula. For example, a solution of table salt, or sodium chloride (NaCl), in water would be represented as Na+(aq) + Cl−(aq). The word aqueous means pertaining to, related to, similar to, or dissolved in, water. As water is an excellent solvent and is also naturally abundant, it is a ubiquitous solvent in chemistry. Substances that are hydrophobic ('water-fearing') often do not dissolve well in water, whereas those that are hydrophilic ('water-friendly') do. An example of a hydrophilic substance is sodium chloride. Acids and bases are aqueous solutions, as part of their Arrhenius definitions. The ability of a substance to dissolve in water is determined by whether the substance can match or exceed the strong attractive forces that water molecules generate between themselves
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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Wayback Machine
The Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
is a digital archive of the World Wide Web
World Wide Web
and other information on the Internet
Internet
created by the Internet
Internet
Archive, a nonprofit organization, based in San Francisco, California, United States.Contents1 History 2 Technical details2.1 Storage capabilities 2.2 Growth 2.3 Website exclusion policy2.3.1 Oakland Archive
Archive
Policy3 Uses3.1 In legal evidence3.1.1 Civil litigation3.1.1.1 Netbula LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. 3.1.1.2 Telewizja Polska3.1.2 Patent law 3.1.3 Limitations of utility4 Legal status 5 Archived content legal issues5.1 Scientology 5.2 Healthcare Advocates, Inc. 5.3 Suzanne Shell 5.4 Daniel Davydiuk6 Censorship and other threats 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksHistory[edit]This section needs additional citations for verification
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International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number
International Standard Serial Number
(ISSN) is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication.[1] The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, cataloging, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature.[2] The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975.[3] ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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Air-free Technique
Air-free techniques refer to a range of manipulations in the chemistry laboratory for the handling of compounds that are air-sensitive. These techniques prevent the compounds from reacting with components of air, usually water and oxygen; less commonly carbon dioxide and nitrogen. A common theme among these techniques is the use of a fine (100-10−3 Torr) or high (10−3-10−6 Torr) vacuum to remove air, and the use of an inert gas: preferably argon, but often nitrogen. The two most common types of air-free technique involve the use of a glovebox and a Schlenk line, although some rigorous applications use a high-vacuum line. In both methods, glassware (often Schlenk tubes) are pre-dried in ovens prior to use. They may be flame-dried to remove adsorbed water
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Dean-Stark Apparatus
The Dean–Stark apparatus, Dean–Stark receiver, distilling trap, or Dean–Stark Head is a piece of laboratory glassware used in synthetic chemistry to collect water[1][2] (or occasionally other liquid) from a reactor. It is used in combination with a reflux condenser and a batch reactor for continuous removal of the water that is produced during a chemical reaction performed at reflux temperature
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Ammonium Hydroxide
Ammonia
Ammonia
solution, also known as ammonia water, ammonical liquor, ammonia liquor, aqua ammonia, aqueous ammonia, or (inaccurately) ammonia, is a solution of ammonia in water. It can be denoted by the symbols NH3(aq). It is sometimes thought of as a solution of ammonium hydroxide. Although the name ammonium hydroxide suggests an alkali with composition [NH4+][OH−], it is actually impossible to isolate samples of NH4OH
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Desiccator
Desiccators are sealable enclosures containing desiccants used for preserving moisture-sensitive items such as cobalt chloride paper for another use. A common use for desiccators is to protect chemicals which are hygroscopic or which react with water from humidity. The contents of desiccators are exposed to atmospheric moisture whenever the desiccators are opened. It also requires some time to achieve a low humidity. Hence they are not appropriate for storing chemicals which react quickly or violently with atmospheric moisture such as the alkali metals; a glovebox or Schlenk-type apparatus may be more suitable for these purposes. Desiccators are sometimes used to remove traces of water from an almost-dry sample
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Molecular Sieve
A molecular sieve is a material with pores (very small holes) of uniform size. These pore diameters are similar in size to small molecules, and thus large molecules cannot enter or be adsorbed, while smaller molecules can. As a mixture of molecules migrate through the stationary bed of porous, semi-solid substance referred to as a sieve (or matrix), the components of highest molecular weight (which are unable to pass into the molecular pores) leave the bed first, followed by successively smaller molecules. Some molecular sieves are used in chromatography, a separation technique that sorts molecules based on their size. Other molecular sieves are used as desiccants (some examples include activated charcoal and silica gel).[1] The diameter of a molecular sieve is measured in ångströms (Å) or nanometres (nm)
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Wurtz Reaction
The Wurtz reaction, named after Charles-Adolphe Wurtz, is a coupling reaction in organic chemistry, organometallic chemistry and recently inorganic main group polymers, whereby two alkyl halides are reacted with sodium metal in dry ether solution to form a higher alkane:2R–X + 2Na → R–R + 2Na+X−Other metals have also been used to effect the Wurtz coupling, among them silver, zinc, iron, activated copper, indium and a mixture of manganese and copper chloride.[1] The related reaction dealing with aryl halides is called the Wurtz-Fittig reaction.This can be explained by the formation of free radical intermediate and its subsequent disproportionation to give alkene
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Grignard Reaction
The Grignard reaction
Grignard reaction
(pronounced /ɡriɲar/) is an organometallic chemical reaction in which alkyl, vinyl, or aryl-magnesium halides (Grignard reagents) add to a carbonyl group in an aldehyde or ketone.[1][2] This reaction is an important tool for the formation of carbon–carbon bonds.[3][4] The reaction of an organic halide with magnesium is not a Grignard reaction, but provides a Grignard reagent.[5]Grignard reactions and reagents were discovered by and are named after the French chemist François Auguste Victor Grignard
Victor Grignard
(University of Nancy, France), who published it in 1900 and was awarded the 1912 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Nobel Prize in Chemistry
for this work.[6] Grignard reagents are similar to organolithium reagents because both are strong nucleophiles that can form new carbon–carbon bonds
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Freeze-drying
Freeze-drying—technically known as lyophilisation, lyophilization, or cryodesiccation—is a dehydration process typically used to preserve a perishable material or make the material more convenient for transport
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Phosphorus Pentoxide
Phosphorus
Phosphorus
pentoxide is a chemical compound with molecular formula P4O10 (with its common name derived from its empirical formula, P2O5). This white crystalline solid is the anhydride of phosphoric acid. It is a powerful desiccant and dehydrating agent.Contents1 Structure 2 Preparation 3 Applications 4 Related phosphorus oxides 5 Hazards 6 Fiction 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksStructure[edit] Phosphorus
Phosphorus
pentoxide crystallizes in at least four forms or polymorphs. The most familiar one, a metastable form,[1] shown in the figure, comprises molecules of P4O10. Weak van der Waals forces hold these molecules together in a hexagonal lattice (However, in spite of the high symmetry of the molecules, the crystal packing is not a close packing[2])
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