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Anglo-Norman
The ANGLO-NORMANS were the medieval ruling class in England, composed mainly of a combination of ethnic Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxons
and Normans
Normans
, following the Norman conquest . A small number of Normans
Normans
had earlier befriended future Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
King of England
King of England
, Edward the Confessor
Edward the Confessor
, during his exile in his mother's homeland of Normandy. When he returned to England some of them went with him, and so there were Normans
Normans
already settled in England prior to the conquest
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History Of Education In England
The HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN ENGLAND is documented from Saxon settlement of England, and the setting up of the first cathedral schools in 597 and 604 . Before then education was an oral affair, or followed the Roman model in diaspora and integrated families. During the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, schools were established to teach Latin grammar to the sons of the aristocracy. Two universities were established in affiliation with the church: the University of Oxford
University of Oxford
, followed by the University of Cambridge
University of Cambridge
, to assist in training the clergy. A reformed system of "free grammar schools" was established in the reign of Edward VI . Apprenticeship
Apprenticeship
was the main way for youths to enter practical occupations
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Kingdom Of Great Britain
The KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN, officially called simply GREAT BRITAIN, was a sovereign state in western Europe from 1 May 1707 to 31 December 1800. The state came into being following the Treaty of Union in 1706, ratified by the Acts of Union 1707
Acts of Union 1707
, which united the kingdoms of England
England
and Scotland
Scotland
to form a single kingdom encompassing the whole island of Great Britain
Great Britain
and its outlying islands, with the exception of the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
and the Channel Islands . It also did not include Ireland
Ireland
, which remained a separate realm. The unitary state was governed by a single parliament and government that was based in Westminster
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Counties Of England
COUNTIES OF ENGLAND are areas used for the purposes of administrative, geographical, cultural or political demarcation. For administrative purposes, England
England
outside Greater London
Greater London
and the Isles of Scilly is divided into 83 metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties . These counties may consist of a single district or be divided into several districts. As of April 2009, 27 of these counties are divided into districts and have a county council . Six of the counties, covering the major conurbations , are known as metropolitan counties , which do not have county councils, although some functions are organised on a county-wide basis by their districts (metropolitan boroughs ) acting jointly. All of England
England
(including Greater London
Greater London
and the Isles of Scilly) is also divided into 48 ceremonial counties , which are also known as geographic counties
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History Of Bedfordshire
BEDFORDSHIRE is an English shire county which lies between approximately 25 miles and 55 miles (or approximately 40 and 90 kilometres) north of central London
London
. CONTENTS * 1 Anglian Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire
* 2 Political history * 3 Sub county level administration * 3.1 Before 1835 * 3.2 1835 - 1894 * 3.3 1894 - 1974 * 3.4 1974 - 2009 * 3.5 2009 - present * 4 Industry and agriculture * 5 Prominent landed families * 6 Ecclesiastical history * 7 Antiquities and architecture * 8 Notes * 9 References ANGLIAN BEDFORDSHIREThe Angle invaders were naturally attracted to Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire
by its abundant water supply and suitability for agriculture, but the remains of their settlements are few and scattered. With one exception, they all occur south of the Ouse
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Political History Of The United Kingdom (1945–present)
When Britain emerged victorious from World War II, the Labour Party under Clement Attlee
Clement Attlee
came to power and created a comprehensive welfare state , with the establishment of the National Health Service
National Health Service
, entitling free healthcare to all British citizens and other reforms included the introduction of old-age pensions , free education at all levels, sickness benefits and unemployment benefits , most of which was covered by the newly introduced national insurance , paid by all workers. The Bank of England
Bank of England
, railways, heavy industry, coal mining and public utilities were all nationalised . The most controversial issue was nationalisation of steel, which was profitable unlike the others. Economic recovery was slow, housing was in short supply, bread was rationed along with many necessities in short supply. It was an "age of austerity"
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Social History Of The United Kingdom (1945–present)
The SOCIAL HISTORY OF THE UNITED KINGDOM FROM 1945 began with the aftermath of the Second World War
Second World War
. The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
was one of the victors, but victory was costly in human and economic terms. Thus, the late 1940s was a time of austerity and economic restraint, which gave way to prosperity in the 1950s. The Labour Party held control from 1945–51, and granted independence to India in 1947. Most of the other major colonies became independent in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Britain collaborated closely with the United States during the Cold War
Cold War
after 1947, and in 1949 helped form NATO
NATO
as a military alliance against Soviet Communism
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Victorian Era
In the history of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, the VICTORIAN ERA was the period of Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. The era followed the Georgian period and preceded the Edwardian period , and its later half overlaps with the first part of the Belle Époque
Belle Époque
era of continental Europe . Defined according to sensibilities and political concerns, the period is sometimes considered to begin with the passage of the Reform Act 1832
Reform Act 1832
. The period is characterised as one of relative peace among the great powers (as established by the Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
), increased economic activity, "refined sensibilities" and national self-confidence for Great Britain
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Edwardian Era
The EDWARDIAN ERA or EDWARDIAN PERIOD of British history covers the brief reign of King Edward VII
Edward VII
, 1901 to 1910, and is sometimes extended in both directions to capture long-term trends from the 1890s to the First World War. The death of Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
in January 1901 marked the end of the Victorian era
Victorian era
. The new king Edward VII
Edward VII
was already the leader of a fashionable elite that set a style influenced by the art and fashions of continental Europe. Samuel Hynes described the Edwardian era
Edwardian era
as a "leisurely time when women wore picture hats and did not vote, when the rich were not ashamed to live conspicuously, and the sun really never set on the British flag'"
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History Of The United Kingdom During The First World War
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
was one of the Allied Powers during the First World War
First World War
of 1914–1918, fighting against the Central Powers
Central Powers
(the German Empire
German Empire
, the Austro-Hungarian Empire , the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and the Kingdom of Bulgaria
Kingdom of Bulgaria
). The state's armed forces were reorganised—the war marked the creation of the Royal Air Force , for example—and increased in size because of the introduction, in January 1916, of conscription for the first time in the kingdom's history as well as the raising of what was, at the time, the largest all-volunteer army in history, known as Kitchener\'s Army , of more than two million men
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History Of Berkshire
Historically, BERKSHIRE has been bordered to the north by the ancient boundary of the River Thames
River Thames
. However, much of the border with Oxfordshire
Oxfordshire
for the western part of the county was moved in 1974. Alfred the Great
Alfred the Great
was born in Wantage
Wantage
, previously in Berkshire
Berkshire
but now in Oxfordshire. The Great Western Railway reached Didcot
Didcot
in 1839. MG (part of Morris Motors
Morris Motors
) was founded in Abingdon in 1929. The Vale of White Horse
Vale of White Horse
and parts of Oxfordshire
Oxfordshire
south of the River Thames were previously part of Berkshire
Berkshire
, but were lost to the county in 1974
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History Of Bristol
Bristol
Bristol
is a city with a population of nearly half a million people in south west England
England
, situated between Somerset
Somerset
and Gloucestershire on the tidal River Avon . It has been among the country's largest and most economically and culturally important cities for eight centuries. The Bristol
Bristol
area has been settled since the Stone Age and there is evidence of Roman occupation. A mint was established in the Saxon burgh of Brycgstow by the 10th century and the town rose to prominence in the Norman era, gaining a charter and county status in 1373. The change in the form of the name 'Bristol' is due to the local pronunciation of 'ow' as 'ol'
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History Of Derbyshire
DERBYSHIRE was traditionally divided into six hundreds , namely Appletree , High Peak , Morleyston and Litchurch , Repton
Repton
and Gresley , Scarsdale , Wirksworth . These were based on the seven earlier wapentakes recorded in the Domesday Book
Domesday Book
, with the merging of Repton and Gresley wapentakes. Derbyshire
Derbyshire
came into existence at the same time as Warwickshire, Leicestershire
Leicestershire
and Staffordshire (see the histories of each for details) as an administrative division of the Kingdom of Mercia
Mercia
. The actual date for this is unclear but would be in the mid to late 10th Century. Evidence of this division can be seen from the map layout around the village of No Man\'s Heath where the four counties still effectively meet
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History Of Devon
DEVON is a county in south west England
England
, bordering Cornwall
Cornwall
to the west with Dorset
Dorset
and Somerset
Somerset
to the east. There is evidence of occupation in the county from Stone Age times onward. Its history starts in the Roman period when it was a civitas . It was then a separate kingdom for a number of centuries until it was incorporated into early England
England
. It has remained a largely agriculture based region ever since though tourism is now very important
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History Of Dorset
DORSET is a rural county in south west England
England
. Its archaeology documents much of the history of southern England. CONTENTS * 1 Pre-Roman * 2 Roman * 3 Post Roman * 4 Saxon * 5 Middle Ages * 6 Early Modern * 7 Modern * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 Bibliography * 11 External links PRE-ROMAN Maiden Castle is one of the largest hill forts in Europe. Photograph taken in 1935 by Major George Allen (1891–1940). The first known settlement of Dorset
Dorset
was by Mesolithic
Mesolithic
hunters, who returned to Britain at a time when it was still attached to Europe by a land-bridge, around 12,500 BC
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History Of Durham
COUNTY DURHAM (/ˈdʌrəm/ , locally /ˈdɜːrəm/ ) is a county in North East England
England
. The county town is Durham , a cathedral city . The largest settlement is Darlington
Darlington
, closely followed by Hartlepool and Stockton-on-Tees
Stockton-on-Tees
. It borders Tyne and Wear
Tyne and Wear
to the north east, Northumberland
Northumberland
to the north, Cumbria
Cumbria
to the west and North Yorkshire to the south. The county's historic boundaries stretch between the rivers Tyne and Tees , and so includes places such as Gateshead
Gateshead
, Jarrow
Jarrow
, South Shields
South Shields
and Sunderland
Sunderland

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