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Anekantavada
ANEKāNTAVāDA ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: अनेकान्तवाद, "many-sidedness") refers to the Jain doctrine about metaphysical truths that emerged in ancient India
India
. It states that the ultimate truth and reality is complex, has multiple aspects. Anekantavada
Anekantavada
has also been interpreted to mean non-absolutism, "intellectual Ahimsa", religious pluralism, as well as a rejection of fanaticism that leads to terror attacks and mass violence. According to Jainism
Jainism
, no single, specific statement can describe the nature of existence and the absolute truth . This knowledge (_Kevala Jnana _), it adds, is comprehended only by the Arihants . Other beings and their statements about absolute truth are incomplete, and at best a partial truth. Anekāntavādais a fundamental doctrine of Jainism. The origins of _anekāntavāda_ can be traced back to the teachings of Mahāvīra (599–527 BCE
BCE
), the 24th Jain _Tīrthankara _. The dialectical concepts of _syādvāda_ "conditioned viewpoints" and _nayavāda_ "partial viewpoints" arose from _anekāntavāda_ in the medieval era, providing Jainism
Jainism
with more detailed logical structure and expression
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Jainism
JAINISM (/ˈdʒeɪnɪzəm/ or /ˈdʒaɪnɪzəm/ ), traditionally known as JAIN DHARMA, is an ancient Indian religion . Jainism followers are called "Jains", a word derived from the Sanskrit word _jina _ (victor) and connoting the path of victory in crossing over life's stream of rebirths through an ethical and spiritual life. Jains trace their history through a succession of twenty-four victorious saviors and teachers known as _Tirthankaras _, with the first being Rishabhanatha , who is believed to have lived millions of years ago, and twenty-fourth being the Mahavira around 500 BCE. Jains believe that Jainism is an eternal _dharma _ with the Tirthankaras guiding every cycle of the Jain cosmology. The main religious premises of Jainism are _ahimsa _ ("non-violence"), _anekantavada _ ("many-sidedness"), _aparigraha _ ("non-attachment") and _asceticism _. Followers of Jainism take five main vows: _ahimsa _ ("non-violence"), _satya _ ("truth"), _asteya _ ("not stealing"), _brahmacharya _ ("celibacy or chastity"), and _aparigraha _ ("non-attachment"). These principles have impacted Jain culture in many ways, such as leading to a predominantly vegetarian lifestyle that avoids harm to animals and their life cycles. _ Parasparopagraho Jivanam _ ("the function of souls is to help one another") is the motto of Jainism
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Bhaktamara Stotra
BHAKTAMARA STOTRA is a famous Jain
Jain
Sanskrit
Sanskrit
prayer. It was composed by Acharya Manatunga
Manatunga
(seventh century CE). The name Bhaktamara comes from a combination of two sanskrit names, "Bhakta" (Devotee) and "Amar" (Immortal). The prayer praises _ Rishabhanatha
Rishabhanatha
_(adinath) , the first _Tirthankara _ of Jainism. There are forty-eight verses in total. The last verse gives the name of the author _Manatunga_. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Legend * 3 History * 4 Verses * 5 Art * 6 References * 7 Sources OVERVIEW Illustrative of Rishabhanatha, Folio Bhaktamara Stotra
Stotra
Bhaktamar verses have been recited as a stotra (prayer), and sung as a stavan (hymn ), somewhat interchangeably. Other Jain
Jain
prayers have taken after these (such as the Kalyānamandira stotra, devoted to the twenty-third tirthankara , and the Svayambhu stotra, to all twenty-four); additional verses here praise the omniscience of Adinatha, while devotionals are considered a source for lay understandings of Jain
Jain
doctrine. LEGENDAccording to legends, the Jain
Jain
monk Manatunga
Manatunga
was chained and imprisoned by the local King Bhoja
Bhoja

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Micchami Dukkadam
MICCHāMI DUKKAḍAṃ (मिच्छामि दुक्कडम्) is an ancient Indian phrase, which is translated from Prakrit
Prakrit
to literally mean "may all the evil that has been done be fruitless." It is commonly used to seek forgiveness and to mean, "If I have offended you in any way, knowingly or unknowingly, in thought, word or deed, then I seek your forgiveness." It is used widely in the Jain religion on the last day ( Samvatsari or Kshamavani ) of Paryushana
Paryushana
, the most important annual holy event of the Jain calendar. As a matter of ritual, Jains greet their friends and relatives on this last day with Micchāmi Dukkaḍaṃ, seeking their forgiveness. No private quarrel or dispute should be carried beyond this time. The importance of forgiveness in Jainism
Jainism
may be compared to the importance of forgiveness in other religions . The phrase is also used by Jains throughout the year when a person makes a mistake, or recollects making one in everyday life, or when asking for forgiveness in advance for inadvertent ones
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Namokar Mantra
ṆAMōKāRA MANTRA is the most significant mantra in Jainism
Jainism
. This is the first prayer recited by the Jains while meditating . The mantra is also variously referred to as the _Pancha Namaskāra Mantra_, _Navakāra Mantra_ or _Namaskāra Mantra_. While reciting this mantra, the devotee bows with respect to the _Panch Parameshti_ (the Supreme Five): * _Arihant _— Those who have destroyed the four inimical _karmas _ * _ Siddha _ — The liberated souls * _Acharyas _ — The spiritual leaders or Preceptors * _Upadhayaya_ — Preceptor of less advanced ascetics * _Sādhu_ — The monks or sages in the worldThere is no mention of any particular names of the gods or any specific person. The prayer is done towards the guṇa (the good qualities) of the gods, teachers and the saints. Jains do not ask for any favors or material benefits from the tirthankaras or monastics. This mantra simply serves as a gesture of deep respect towards beings whom they believe are spiritually ahead, as well as to remind the people of their ultimate goal i.e. _moksha _ (liberation). Navkar Mantra consists of 35 letters
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Jai Jinendra
JAI JINENDRA! ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: जय जिनेन्द्र Jaya Jinēndra) is a common greeting used by the Jains . The phrase means "Honor to the Supreme _Jinas_ (Tirthankaras )" The reverential greeting is a combination of two sanskrit words: _Jai_ and _Jinendra_ The word, _Jai_ is used to praise somebody. In Jai Jinendra, it is used to praise the qualities of the _Jinas_ (conquerors). The word _Jinendra_ is a compound-word derived from the word _Jina_, referring to a human being who has conquered all inner passions and possess Kevala Gyan(pure infinite knowledge), and the word "Indra," which means chief or lord. SEE ALSO * God in Jainism
Jainism
* Mahavira
Mahavira
NOTES * ^ _A_ _B_ Rankin 2013 , p. 37. * ^ Sangave 2001 , p. 16. * ^ Sangave 2001 , p. 164.REFERENCES * Rankin, Aidan (2013), "Chapter 1
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Jain Cosmology
JAIN COSMOLOGY is the description of the shape and functioning of the Universe
Universe
(_loka_) and its constituents (such as living beings, matter, space, time etc.) according to Jainism
Jainism
. Jain cosmology
Jain cosmology
considers the universe, as an uncreated entity, existing since infinity, having neither beginning nor end. Jain texts describe the shape of the universe as similar to a man standing with legs apart and arm resting on his waist. This Universe, according to Jainism, is broad at the top, narrow at the middle and once again becomes broad at the bottom. CONTENTS * 1 Six eternal substances * 2 Universe
Universe
and its structure * 2.1 Three lokas * 2.2 Urdhva Loka, the upper world * 2.3 Madhya Loka, the middle world * 2.4 Adho Loka, the lower world * 3 Time cycle * 4 Śalākāpuruṣas - The deeds of the 63 Illustrious Men * 5 See also * 6 References * 6.1 Notes * 6.2 Citations * 6.3 Sources SIX ETERNAL SUBSTANCES Main article: Dravya
Dravya
(Jainism) _ Chart showing the classification of dravya_ and _astikaya_ According to Jains, the Universe
Universe
is made up of six simple and eternal substances called _dravya_ classified as follows: * _Jīva _ (Living Substances) Jīva (Jainism)Jīva i.e. Souls - _Jīva_ exists as a reality, having a separate existence from the body that houses it
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Ahimsa In Jainism
_AHIMSā_ (_Ahiṃsā_) in Jainism
Jainism
is a fundamental principle forming the cornerstone of its ethics and doctrine. The term _ahimsa _ means nonviolence , non-injury or absence of desire to harm any life forms. Vegetarianism and other nonviolent practices and rituals of Jains flow from the principle of _ahimsa_. The Jain
Jain
concept of _ahimsa_ is very different from the concept of nonviolence found in other philosophies. Violence is usually associated with causing harm to others. But according to the Jain philosophy , violence refers primarily to injuring one's own self – behaviour which inhibits the soul's own ability to attain _moksha _ (liberation from the cycle of births and deaths). At the same time it also means violence to others because it is this tendency to harm others that ultimately harms one's own soul. Furthermore, the Jains extend the concept of _ahimsa_ not only to humans but to all animals, plants, micro-organisms and all beings having life or life potential. All life is sacred and everyone has a right to live fearlessly to its maximum potential. The living beings do not have any fear from those who have taken the vow of _ahimsa_. According to Jainism, protection of life, also known as _abhayadānam_, is the supreme charity that a person can make. _Ahimsa_ does not merely indicate absence of physical violence, but also indicates absence of desire to indulge in any sort of violence
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Karma In Jainism
KARMA is the basic principle within an overarching psycho-cosmology in Jainism
Jainism
. Human moral actions form the basis of the transmigration of the soul (_jīva _). The soul is constrained to a cycle of rebirth, trapped within the temporal world (_saṃsāra _), until it finally achieves liberation (_mokṣa _). Liberation is achieved by following a path of purification. Jains believe that karma is a physical substance that is everywhere in the universe. Karma
Karma
particles are attracted to the soul by the actions of that soul. Karma
Karma
particles are attracted when we do, think, or say things, when we kill something, when we lie, when we steal and so on. Karma
Karma
not only encompasses the causality of transmigration, but is also conceived of as an extremely subtle matter, which infiltrates the soul —obscuring its natural, transparent and pure qualities. Karma
Karma
is thought of as a kind of pollution, that taints the soul with various colours (_leśyā _). Based on its karma, a soul undergoes transmigration and reincarnates in various states of existence—like heavens or hells, or as humans or animals. Jains cite inequalities, sufferings, and pain as evidence for the existence of karma. Various types of karma are classified according to their effects on the potency of the soul
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Dharma (Jainism)
Jain texts assign a wide range of meaning to the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
_DHARMA_ or Prakrit
Prakrit
_DHAMMA_. It is often translated as “religion” and as such, Jainism
Jainism
is called _Jain Dharma_ by its adherents. In Jainism, the word _Dharma_ is used to refer the following: * Religion * Dharma as a dravya (substance or a reality) (the principle of motion) * The true nature of a thing * Ten virtues like forgiveness, etc. also called ten forms of DharmaCONTENTS* 1 Religion * 1.1 Ahimsa as Dharma * 1.2 Dharma bhāvanā * 1.3 Conduct * 2 The nature of a substance * 3 Dharma substance * 4 Samyaktva - Rationality of perception, knowledge and conduct * 5 Ten Virtues as Dharma * 6 References * 7 Sources RELIGIONUsage of the word _dharma_ in reference to the religion. AHIMSA AS DHARMA Main article: Ahimsa in Jainism
Jainism
According to Jain texts, Ahimsa is the greatest Dharma (अहिंसा परमॊ धर्मः : "non-violence is the highest religion") and there is no religion equal to the religion of non-violence. DHARMA BHāVANāJain texts prescribe meditation on twelve forms of reflection (_bhāvanā_) for those who wish to stop the influx of _karmas_ that extend transmigration
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Moksha (Jainism)
Sanskrit
Sanskrit
MOKSHA or Prakrit
Prakrit
MOKKHA means liberation or salvation. It is a blissful state of existence of a soul, completely free from the karmic bondage, free from saṃsāra , the cycle of birth and death. A liberated soul is said to have attained its true and pristine nature of infinite bliss, infinite knowledge and infinite perception. Such a soul is called siddha and is revered in Jainism
Jainism
. In Jainism
Jainism
, it is the highest and the noblest objective that a soul should strive to achieve. In fact, it is the only objective that a person should have; other objectives are contrary to the true nature of soul. With the right view, knowledge and efforts all souls can attain this state. That is why Jainism
Jainism
is also known as mokṣamārga or the "path to liberation". According to the Sacred Jain Text, Tattvartha sutra : Owing to the absence of the cause of bondage and with the functioning of the dissociation of karmas the annihilation of all karmas is liberation. — Tattvārthsūtra (10-2) CONTENTS * 1 Bhavyata * 2 The Path to Liberation * 3 Nirvāna * 4 Liberated soul * 5 See also * 6 Citations * 7 References BHAVYATAFrom the point of view of potentiality of mokṣa, Jain texts bifurcates the souls in two categories–bhavya and abhavya
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Kevala Jnana
KEVALA JñāNA means omniscience in Jainism
Jainism
and is roughly translated as absolute knowledge or supreme knowledge. _Kevala jnana_ is believed to be an intrinsic quality of all souls. This quality is masked by karmic particles that surround the soul. Every soul has the potential to obtain omniscience by shedding off these karmic particles. Jain scriptures speak of twelve stages through which the soul achieves this goal. A soul who has attained kevala jnana is called a _kevalin_ (केवलिन्). According to the Jains, only kevalins can comprehend objects in all aspects and manifestations; others are only capable of partial knowledge. The views of two sects of Jainism, Digambara and Śvētāmbara Jains differ on the subject of _kevalins_. According to Digambaras, a kevalin does not experience hunger or thirst, whereas according to Svetambaras, a _kevalin_ has normal human needs and he travels and preaches too. Digambara Jains believe that they do not act in the normal sense of the word, that they sit motionless in padmasana , and that their bodies emit _Divyadhvani,_ a sacred sound which is interpreted by their followers as the fundamental truth. According to both traditions, the last _kevalin_ was a disciple of one of the eleven chief disciples of the last _tirthankara _, Mahāvīra ; his name is recorded as Jambuswami
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Dravya
DRAVYA (Hindi : द्रव्य) is a term used to refer a substance. According to the Jain philosophy , the universe is made up of six eternal substances: sentient beings or souls (_jīva_), non-sentient substance or matter (_pudgala _), principle of motion (_dharma _), the principle of rest (_adharma _), space (_ākāśa _) and time (_kāla_). The latter five are united as the _ajiva_ (the non-living). As per the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
etymology, _dravya_ means substances or entity, but it may also mean real or fundamental categories. Jain philosophers distinguish a substance from a body, or thing, by declaring the former as a simple element or reality while the latter as a compound of one or more substances or atoms. They claim that there can be a partial or total destruction of a body or thing, but no substance can ever be destroyed. CONTENTS * 1 Jīva (living entity) * 2 Ajiva (five non-living entities) * 2.1 Pudgala (Matter) * 2.2 Dharma
Dharma
* 2.3 Adharma * 2.4 Ākāśa (space) * 2.5 Kāla (time) * 3 Astikaya * 4 Attributes of Dravya
Dravya
* 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Bibliography JīVA (LIVING ENTITY) Main article: Jīva (Jainism) According to Jain philosophy , this universe consists of infinite _jivas _ or souls that are uncreated and always existing
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Tattva (Jainism)
Jain philosophy
Jain philosophy
explains that seven TATTVA (truths or fundamental principles) constitute reality. These are: — * jīva - the soul which is characterized by consciousness * ajīva- the non-soul * āsrava (influx)- inflow of auspicious and evil karmic matter into the soul. * bandha (bondage)- mutual intermingling of the soul and karmas. * samvara (stoppage)- obstruction of the inflow of karmic matter into the soul. * nirjara (gradual dissociation)- separation or falling-off of part of karmic matter from the soul. * mokṣha (liberation)- complete annihilation of all karmic matter (bound with any particular soul).The knowledge of these reals is said to be essential for the liberation of the soul. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Jīva * 3 Ajīva * 4 Āsrava * 5 Bandha * 6 Saṃvara * 7 Nirjarā * 8 Mokṣha * 9 See also * 10 Notes * 11 References OVERVIEWThe first two are the two ontological categories of the soul jīva and the non-soul ajīva, namely the axiom that they exist. The third truth is that through the interaction, called yoga, between the two substances, soul and non-soul, karmic matter flows into the soul (āsrava), clings to it, becomes converted into karma and the fourth truth acts as a factor of bondage (bandha), restricting the manifestation of the consciousness intrinsic to it
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Brahmacharya
BRAHMACHARYA (/ˌbrɑːməˈtʃɑːrjə/ ; Devanagari
Devanagari
: ब्रह्मचर्य) literally means "going after Brahman (Supreme Reality, Self or God)". In Indian religions, it is also a concept with various context-driven meanings. In one context, _brahmacharya_ is the first of four _ashrama _ (age-based stages) of a human life, with grihastha (householder), vanaprastha (forest dweller), and sannyasa (renunciation) being the other three _asramas_. The brahmacharya (bachelor student) stage of one's life, up to twenty-five years of age, was focused on education and included the practice of celibacy . In this context, it connotes chastity during the student stage of life for the purposes of learning from a _guru_ (teacher), and during later stages of life for the purposes of attaining spiritual liberation (moksha ). In another context, _brahmacharya_ is the virtue of celibacy when unmarried and fidelity when married. It represents a virtuous lifestyle that also includes simple living, meditation and other behaviors. In the Hindu, Jain, and Buddhist monastic traditions, _brahmacharya_ implies, among other things, the mandatory renunciation of sex and marriage. It is considered necessary for a monk's spiritual practice. Western notions of the religious life as practiced in monastic settings mirror these characteristics
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Aparigraha
APARIGRAHA (Sanskrit : अपरिग्रह) is the concept of non-possessiveness , non-grasping or non-greediness. It is one of the virtues in Hinduism and Jainism
Jainism
. Aparigrah is the opposite of _parigrah_, and refers to keeping the desire for possessions to what is necessary or important, depending on one's life stage and context. The precept of _aparigraha_ is a self-restraint (temperance ) from the type of greed and avarice where one's own material gain or happiness comes by hurting, killing or destroying other human beings, life forms or nature.