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André Beaufre
Rif
Rif
War World War IIBattle of FranceFirst Indochina War Suez Crisis Algerian War André Beaufre
André Beaufre
(25 January 1902 – 13 February 1975) was a French Army officer and military strategist who attained the rank of Général d'Armée
Général d'Armée
(Army General) before his retirement in 1961. He was born in Neuilly-sur-Seine
Neuilly-sur-Seine
and entered the military academy at École Spéciale Militaire de Saint-Cyr
École Spéciale Militaire de Saint-Cyr
in 1921, where he met the future French president Charles de Gaulle, who was an instructor. In 1925 he saw action in Morocco
Morocco
against the Rif, who opposed French rule
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Base Léonore
Base Léonore, or the Léonore database, is a French database that lists the records of the members of the National Order of the Legion of Honor. The database lists the records of those inducted into the Legion of Honor since its 1802 inception and died before 1977.[1] As of January 2014[update], the database contained 390,000 records.[2] References[edit]^ "Présentation de la base de données Léonore" (in French). Paris: Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication. 13 November 2014. Archived from the original on 16 March 2016.  ^ "Léonore" (in French). Paris: Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication. 1 January 2014. Archived from the original on 7 November 2014. External links[edit]Official website Wikidata
Wikidata
has the property: Léonore (P640) (see talk; uses)This database-related article is a stub
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President Of France
The President of the French Republic (French: Président de la République française, French pronunciation: ​[pʁezidɑ̃ də la ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛz]) is the executive head of state of France
France
in the French Fifth Republic. In French terms, the presidency is the supreme magistracy of the country. The powers, functions and duties of prior presidential offices, and their relation with the Prime Minister and Cabinet, have over time differed with the various French constitutions since 1848 (the final end of the French Monarchy). The President of the French Republic is also the ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra, Grand Master of the Légion d'honneur and the Ordre national du Mérite, and honorary proto-canon of the Basilica of St. John Lateran
Basilica of St

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Soviet Union
The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(Russian: Сове́тский Сою́з, tr. Sovétsky Soyúz, IPA: [sɐˈvʲɛt͡skʲɪj sɐˈjus] ( listen)), officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик, tr. Soyúz Sovétskikh Sotsialistícheskikh Respúblik, IPA: [sɐˈjus sɐˈvʲɛtskʲɪx sətsɨəlʲɪsˈtʲitɕɪskʲɪx rʲɪˈspublʲɪk] ( listen)), abbreviated as the USSR (Russian: СССР, tr. SSSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia
Eurasia
that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics,[a] its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow
Moscow
as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
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Holocaust
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah,[b] was a genocide during World War II
World War II
in which Adolf Hitler's Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered some six million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.[c] Jews
Jews
were targeted for extermination as part of a larger event involving the persecution and murder of other groups, including in particular the Roma, ethnic Poles, and "incurably sick",[6] as well as political opponents, homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses, and Soviet prisoners of war.[7] Germany implemented the persecution in stages. Following Hitler's rise to power in 1933, the government passed laws to exclude Jews
Jews
from civil society, most prominently the Nuremberg Laws
Nuremberg Laws
in 1935
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Communist
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin
Latin
communis, "common, universal")[1][2] is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money[3][4] and the state.[5][6] Communism
Communism
includes a variety of schools of thought, which broadly include Marxism
Marxism
and anarchism (anarcho-communism), as well as the political ideologies grouped around both. All of these share the analysis that the current order of society stems from its economic system, capitalism; that in this system there are two major social classes; that conflict between these two classes is the root of all problems in society; and that this situation will ultimately be resolved through a social revolution
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Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
Europe
is the eastern part of the European continent. There is no consensus on the precise area it covers, partly because the term has a wide range of geopolitical, geographical, cultural, and socioeconomic connotations. There are "almost as many definitions of Eastern Europe
Europe
as there are scholars of the region".[1] A related United Nations
United Nations
paper adds that "every assessment of spatial identities is essentially a social and cultural construct".[2] One definition describes Eastern Europe
Europe
as a cultural entity: the region lying in Europe
Europe
with the main characteristics consisting of Greek, Byzantine, Eastern Orthodox, Russian, and some Ottoman culture influences.[3][4] Another definition was created during the Cold War and used more or less synonymously with the term Eastern Bloc
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Thames Television
Thames Television
Thames Television
was a franchise holder for a region of the British ITV television network serving London
London
and surrounding area on weekdays from 30 July 1968 until the night of 31 December 1992. Formed as a joint company, it merged the television interests of British Electric Traction
British Electric Traction
(trading as Associated-Rediffusion) owning 49%, and Associated British Picture Corporation—soon taken over by EMI—owning 51%. It was both a broadcaster and a producer of television programmes, making shows both for the local region it covered and for networking nationally across the ITV regions
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French Indochina
French Indochina
Indochina
(previously spelled as French Indo-China)[1] (French: Indochine française; Lao: ສະຫະພັນອິນດູຈີນ; Khmer: សហភាពឥណ្ឌូចិន; Vietnamese: Đông Dương thuộc Pháp/東洋屬法, IPA: [ɗə̄wŋm jɨ̄əŋ tʰûək fǎp], frequently abbreviated to Đông Pháp; Chinese: 法属印度支那), officially known as the Indochinese Union (French: Union indochinoise)[2] after 1887 and the Indochinese Federation
Federation
(French: Fédération indochinoise) after 1947, was a grouping of French colonial territories in Southeast Asia. A grouping of the three Vietnamese regions of Tonkin (north), Annam (centre), and Cochinchina (south) with Cambodia
Cambodia
was formed in 1887. Laos
Laos
was added in 1893 and the leased Chinese territory of Guangzhouwan
Guangzhouwan
in 1898
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Nuclear Weapon
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb). Both bomb types release large quantities of energy from relatively small amounts of matter. The first test of a fission ("atomic") bomb released an amount of energy approximately equal to 20,000 tons of TNT (84 TJ). The first thermonuclear ("hydrogen") bomb test released energy approximately equal to 10 million tons of TNT (42 PJ).[1] A thermonuclear weapon weighing little more than 2,400 pounds (1,100 kg) can release energy equal to more than 1.2 million tons of TNT (5.0 PJ).[2] A nuclear device no larger than traditional bombs can devastate an entire city by blast, fire, and radiation
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Krim Belkacem
Krim Belkacem
Krim Belkacem
(in Kabyle: Krim Belqasem) (September 14, 1922, Aït Yahia Moussa, Tizi Ouzou Province
Tizi Ouzou Province
– October 18, 1970) was an Algerian revolutionary fighter and politician.Contents1 Biography 2 Political views and Assassination 3 See also 4 ReferencesBiography[edit] Krim was born in the village of Aït Yahia Moussa
Aït Yahia Moussa
(now in Tizi Ouzou Province) in the Berber-speaking Kabylie
Kabylie
region of Algeria. During the Second World War, he joined the French Army, and was promoted corporal in the First Algerian Sharpshooter Regiment, reputedly becoming an excellent shot.[1] Demobilized on October 4, 1945, he returned to his home village, where he took up a bureaucratic post
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South Africa
[Note 1]11 languagesAfrikaans Northern Sotho English Southern Ndebele Southern Sotho Swazi Tsonga Tswana Venda Xhosa ZuluEthnic groups (2014[3])80.2% Black 8.8% Coloured 8.4% White 2.5% AsianReligion See Religion in South AfricaDemonym South AfricanGovernment Unitary dominant-party parliamentary constitutional republic• PresidentCyril Ramaphosa• Deputy PresidentDavid Mabuza• Chairperson of the National Council of ProvincesThandi Modise• Speaker of the National AssemblyBaleka Mbete• Chief JusticeMogoeng MogoengLegislature Parliament• Upper houseNational Council• Lower houseNational AssemblyIndependence from the United Kingdom• Union31 May 1910• Self-governance11 December 1931• Republic31 May 1961•
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Nuclear Proliferation
Nuclear proliferation
Nuclear proliferation
is the spread of nuclear weapons, fissionable material, and weapons-applicable nuclear technology and information to nations not recognized as "Nuclear Weapon States" by the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT. Proliferation has been opposed by many nations with and without nuclear weapons, the governments of which fear that more countries with nuclear weapons may increase the possibility of nuclear warfare (up to and including the so-called "countervalue" targeting of civilians with nuclear weapons), de-stabilize international or regional relations, or infringe upon the national sovereignty of states. Four countries besides the five recognized Nuclear Weapons States have acquired, or are presumed to have acquired, nuclear weapons: India, Pakistan, North Korea, and Israel
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Nazi
National Socialism
Socialism
(German: Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism
Nazism
(/ˈnɑːtsi.ɪzəm, ˈnæt-/),[1] is the ideology and practices associated with the 20th-century German Nazi Party
Nazi Party
in Nazi Germany and of other far-right groups with similar aims
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Holy See
The Holy See
Holy See
(Italian: Santa Sede; Latin: Sancta Sedes; Ecclesiastical Latin: [ˈsaŋkta ˈsedes]), also referred to as the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity. It serves as the central point of reference for the Catholic Church everywhere and the focal point of communion due to its position as the pre-eminent episcopal see of the universal church. Today, it is responsible for the governance of all Catholics, organised in their Particular Churches, Patriarchates and religious institutes. As an independent sovereign entity, holding the Vatican City
Vatican City
enclave in Rome
Rome
as an independent state, it maintains diplomatic relations with other states
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Cold War
The Cold War
Cold War
was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
(the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc
Western Bloc
(the United States, its NATO allies and others). Historians do not fully agree on the dates, but a common timeframe is the period between 1947, the year the Truman Doctrine, a U.S. foreign policy pledging to aid nations threatened by Soviet expansionism, was announced, and either 1989, when communism fell in Eastern Europe, or 1991, when the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
collapsed
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