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Andes
The ANDES or ANDEAN MOUNTAINS (Spanish : Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world. They form a continuous highland along the western edge of South America
South America
. This range is about 7,000 km (4,300 mi) long, about 200 to 700 km (120 to 430 mi) wide (widest between 18° south and 20° south latitude ), and of an average height of about 4,000 m (13,000 ft). The Andes
Andes
extend from north to south through seven South American countries: Venezuela , Colombia
Colombia
, Ecuador
Ecuador
, Peru
Peru
, Bolivia
Bolivia
, Argentina
Argentina
and Chile
Chile
. Along their length, the Andes
Andes
are split into several ranges, which are separated by intermediate depressions
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Sucre
1538 * Pre-Hispanic Times: Charcas * September 29, 1538 (official) :La Plata de la Nueva Toledo (City of The Silver of the New Toledo) * August 6, 1826: Sucre
Sucre
(Capital Section) FOUNDED BY Pedro Anzures as “La Plata” in 1538 GOVERNMENT • TYPE C.S
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Continental Crust
The CONTINENTAL CRUST is the layer of igneous , sedimentary , and metamorphic rocks that forms the continents and the areas of shallow seabed close to their shores, known as continental shelves . This layer is sometimes called sial because its bulk composition is more felsic compared to the oceanic crust , called sima which has a more mafic bulk composition. Changes in seismic wave velocities have shown that at a certain depth (the Conrad discontinuity ), there is a reasonably sharp contrast between the more felsic upper continental crust and the lower continental crust, which is more mafic in character. The continental crust consists of various layers, with a bulk composition that is intermediate to felsic. The average density of continental crust is about 2.7 g/cm3, less dense than the ultramafic material that makes up the mantle , which has a density of around 3.3 g/cm3
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Depression (geology)
A DEPRESSION in geology is a landform sunken or depressed below the surrounding area. Depressions form by various mechanisms. Erosion-related: * Blowout : a depression created by wind erosion typically in either a partially vegetated sand dune ecosystem or dry soils (such as a post-glacial loess environment). * Glacial valley : a depression carved by erosion by a glacier . * River valley : a depression carved by fluvial erosion by a river. * Area of subsidence caused by the collapse of an underlying structure such as sinkholes in karst terrain. * Sink : an endorheic depression generally containing a persistent or intermittent (seasonal) lake , a salt flat (playa) or dry lake , or an ephemeral lake .Collapse-related: * Sinkhole : a depression formed as a result of the collapse of rocks lying above a hollow
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18th Parallel South
The 18TH PARALLEL SOUTH is a circle of latitude that is 18 degrees south of the Earth\'s equatorial plane . It crosses the Atlantic Ocean , Africa
Africa
, the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
, Australasia
Australasia
, the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
and South
South
America
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Latitude
In geography , LATITUDE is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north –south position of a point on the Earth's surface. Latitude
Latitude
is an angle (defined below) which ranges from 0° at the Equator
Equator
to 90° ( North
North
or South) at the poles. Lines of constant latitude, or parallels, run east–west as circles parallel to the equator. Latitude
Latitude
is used together with longitude to specify the precise location of features on the surface of the Earth. Without qualification the term latitude should be taken to be the geodetic latitude as defined in the following sections. Also defined are six auxiliary latitudes which are used in special applications
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20th Parallel South
The 20TH PARALLEL SOUTH is a circle of latitude that is 20 degrees south of the Earth\'s equatorial plane . It crosses the Atlantic Ocean , Africa
Africa
, the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
, Australasia
Australasia
, the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
and South
South
America
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Summit
A SUMMIT is a point on a surface that is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. Mathematically , a summit is a local maximum in elevation. The topographic terms "acme", "apex", "peak" , and "zenith " are synonymous . CONTENTS* 1 Definition * 1.1 Western United States * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links DEFINITIONThe term "top" is generally used only for a mountain peck with some significant amount of topographic prominence (height above the lowest point end route to the nearest higher peak) or topographic isolation (distance from the nearest point of higher elevation); for example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are often considered subsummits (or subpeaks) of the higher peak, and are considered as part of the same mountain
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Summit (topography)
A SUMMIT is a point on a surface that is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. Mathematically , a summit is a local maximum in elevation. The topographic terms "acme", "apex", "peak" , and "zenith " are synonymous . CONTENTS* 1 Definition * 1.1 Western United States * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links DEFINITIONThe term "summit" is generally used only for a mountain peak with some significant amount of topographic prominence (height above the lowest point en route to the nearest higher peak) or topographic isolation (distance from the nearest point of higher elevation); for example, a boulder next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are often considered subsummits (or subpeaks) of the higher peak, and are considered as part of the same mountain
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Tibetan Plateau
The TIBETAN PLATEAU (Tibetan : བོད་ས་མཐོ།, Wylie : bod sa mtho), also known in China
China
as the QINGHAI–TIBET PLATEAU or the QINGZANG PLATEAU (Chinese : 青藏高原; pinyin : Qīngzàng Gāoyuán) or HIMALAYAN PLATEAU, is a vast elevated plateau in Central Asia
Asia
and East Asia
East Asia
, covering most of the Tibet
Tibet
Autonomous Region and Qinghai
Qinghai
Province in western China
China
, as well as part of Ladakh
Ladakh
in Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
state of India. It stretches approximately 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) north to south and 2,500 kilometres (1,600 mi) east to west
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Earth's Rotation
EARTH\'S ROTATION is the rotation of Planet Earth
Earth
around its own axis . Earth
Earth
rotates eastward , in prograde motion . As viewed from the north pole star Polaris
Polaris
, Earth
Earth
turns counterclockwise . The North Pole , also known as the Geographic North Pole or Terrestrial North Pole, is the point in the Northern Hemisphere where Earth's axis of rotation meets its surface. This point is distinct from Earth's North Magnetic Pole . The South Pole is the other point where Earth's axis of rotation intersects its surface, in Antarctica
Antarctica
. Earth
Earth
rotates once in about 24 hours with respect to the sun and once every 23 hours, 56 minutes and 4 seconds with respect to the stars (see below )
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Boyacá Department
BOYACá (Spanish pronunciation: ) is one of the thirty-two departments of Colombia
Colombia
, and the remnant of Boyacá State
Boyacá State
, one of the original nine states of the "United States of Colombia
Colombia
". Boyacá is centrally located within Colombia, almost entirely within the mountains of the Eastern Cordillera to the border with Venezuela
Venezuela
, although the western end of the department extends to the Magdalena River at the town of Puerto Boyacá . Boyacá borders to the north with the Department of Santander , to the northeast with the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela
Venezuela
and Norte de Santander , to the east with the departments of Arauca and Casanare
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Equatorial Bulge
An EQUATORIAL BULGE is a difference between the equatorial and polar diameters of a planet, due to the force exerted by its rotation . A rotating body tends to form an oblate spheroid rather than a sphere . The Earth
Earth
has an equatorial bulge of 42.77 km (26.58 mi): that is, its diameter measured across the equatorial plane (12,756.27 km (7,926.38 mi)) is 42.77 km more than that measured between the poles (12,713.56 km (7,899.84 mi)). An observer standing at sea level on either pole, therefore, is 21.36 km closer to Earth\'s centrepoint than if standing at sea level on the equator. The value of Earth's radius may be approximated by the average of these radii. An often-cited result of Earth's equatorial bulge is that the highest point on Earth, measured from the center outwards, is the peak of Mount Chimborazo in Ecuador, rather than Mount Everest
Mount Everest

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Spanish Language
The SPANISH LANGUAGE (/ˈspænɪʃ/ ( listen ); Español (help ·info )), also called the CASTILIAN LANGUAGE (/kæˈstɪliən/ ( listen ), castellano (help ·info )), is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain
Spain
and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers around the world. It is usually considered the world\'s second-most spoken native language , after Mandarin Chinese
Mandarin Chinese
. Spanish is a part of the Ibero-Romance group of languages , which evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin in Iberia after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
in the 5th century
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Plateau
In geology and earth science , a PLATEAU ( /pləˈtoʊ/ , /plæˈtoʊ/ or /ˈplætoʊ/ ; plural PLATEAUS or PLATEAUX), also called a HIGH PLAIN or TABLELAND, is an area of highland , usually consisting of relatively flat terrain that is raised significantly above the surrounding area, often with one or more sides with steep slopes. Plateaus can be formed by a number of processes, including upwelling of volcanic magma , extrusion of lava , and erosion by water and glaciers.Plateaus are classified according to their surrounding environment as intermontane, Piedmont, or continental
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