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Andes
The Andes
Andes
or Andean Mountains (Spanish: Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world. They form a continuous highland along the western edge of South America. This range is about 7,000 km (4,300 mi) long, about 200 to 700 km (120 to 430 mi) wide (widest between 18° south and 20° south latitude), and of an average height of about 4,000 m (13,000 ft). The Andes
Andes
extend from north to south through seven South American countries: Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Argentina
Argentina
and Chile. Along their length, the Andes
Andes
are split into several ranges, which are separated by intermediate depressions. The Andes
Andes
are the location of several high plateaus – some of which host major cities such as Quito, Bogotá, Arequipa, Medellín, Sucre, Mérida and La Paz
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Equatorial Bulge
An equatorial bulge is a difference between the equatorial and polar diameters of a planet, due to the force exerted by its rotation. A rotating body tends to form an oblate spheroid rather than a sphere. The Earth
Earth
has an equatorial bulge of 42.77 km (26.58 mi); that is, its diameter measured across the equatorial plane (12,756.27 km (7,926.38 mi)) is 42.77 km more than that measured between the poles (12,713.56 km (7,899.84 mi)). An observer standing at sea level on either pole, therefore, is 21.36 km closer to Earth's centrepoint than if standing at sea level on the equator. The value of Earth's radius may be approximated by the average of these radii. An often-cited result of Earth's equatorial bulge is that the highest point on Earth, measured from the center outwards, is the peak of Mount Chimborazo in Ecuador, rather than Mount Everest
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Continental Crust
Continental crust
Continental crust
is the layer of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks that forms the continents and the areas of shallow seabed close to their shores, known as continental shelves. This layer is sometimes called sial because its bulk composition is more felsic compared to the oceanic crust, called sima which has a more mafic bulk composition. Changes in seismic wave velocities have shown that at a certain depth (the Conrad discontinuity), there is a reasonably sharp contrast between the more felsic upper continental crust and the lower continental crust, which is more mafic in character. The continental crust consists of various layers, with a bulk composition that is intermediate to felsic. The average density of continental crust is about 2.7 g/cm3, less dense than the ultramafic material that makes up the mantle, which has a density of around 3.3 g/cm3
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Summit (topography)
A summit is a point on a surface that is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. Mathematically, a summit is a local maximum in elevation. The topographic terms "acme", "apex", "peak", and "zenith" are synonymous.Contents1 Definition1.1 Western United States 1.2 Summit
Summit
climbing equipment2 See also 3 References 4 External linksDefinition[edit] The term "top" is generally used only for a mountain peak that is located some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are often considered subsummits (or subpeaks) of the higher peak, and are considered as part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top
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Tibetan Plateau
The Tibetan Plateau
Plateau
(Tibetan: བོད་ས་མཐོ།, Wylie: bod sa mtho), also known in China
China
as the Qinghai– Tibet
Tibet
Plateau[1] or the Qing–Zang Plateau[2] (Chinese: 青藏高原; pinyin: Qīng–Zàng Gāoyuán) or Himalayan Plateau, is a vast elevated plateau in Central Asia[3][4][5][6] and East Asia,[7][8][9][10] covering most of the Tibet Autonomous Region
Tibet Autonomous Region
and Qinghai
Qinghai
in western China, as well as part of Ladakh
Ladakh
in Jammu and Kashmir, India. It stretches approximately 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) north to south and 2,500 kilometres (1,600 mi) east to west
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Sucre
1538Pre-Hispanic Times: Charcas September 29, 1538 (official) :La Plata de la Nueva Toledo (City of The Silver of the New Toledo) August 6, 1826: Sucre
Sucre
(Capital Section)Founded by Pedro Anzures as “La Plata” in 1538Government • Type C.S
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Depression (geology)
A depression in geology is a landform sunken or depressed below the surrounding area. Depressions form by various mechanisms. Erosion-related:Blowout: a depression created by wind erosion typically in either a partially vegetated sand dune ecosystem or dry soils (such as a post-glacial loess environment).[1] Glacial valley: a depression carved by erosion by a glacier. River valley: a depression carved by fluvial erosion by a river. Area of subsidence caused by the collapse of an underlying structure such as sinkholes in karst terrain. Sink: an endorheic depression generally containing a persistent or intermittent (seasonal) lake, a salt flat (playa) or dry lake, or an ephemeral lake.Collapse-related:Sinkhole: a depression formed as a result of the collapse of rocks lying above a hollow
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Latitude
In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface. Latitude
Latitude
is an angle (defined below) which ranges from 0° at the Equator
Equator
to 90° ( North
North
or South) at the poles. Lines of constant latitude, or parallels, run east–west as circles parallel to the equator. Latitude
Latitude
is used together with longitude to specify the precise location of features on the surface of the Earth. Without qualification the term latitude should be taken to be the geodetic latitude as defined in the following sections
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Earth's Rotation
Earth's rotation
Earth's rotation
is the rotation of Planet Earth
Earth
around its own axis. Earth
Earth
rotates eastward, in prograde motion. As viewed from the north pole star Polaris, Earth
Earth
turns counterclockwise. The North Pole, also known as the Geographic North Pole
North Pole
or Terrestrial North Pole, is the point in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
where Earth's axis of rotation meets its surface. This point is distinct from Earth's North Magnetic Pole. The South Pole
South Pole
is the other point where Earth's axis of rotation intersects its surface, in Antarctica. Earth
Earth
rotates once in about 24 hours with respect to the Sun, but once every 23 hours, 56 minutes, and 4 seconds with respect to the stars (see below)
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18th Parallel South
The 18th parallel south
18th parallel south
is a circle of latitude that is 18 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane
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20th Parallel South
The 20th parallel south
20th parallel south
is a circle of latitude that is 20 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane
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Summit
A summit is a point on a surface that is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. Mathematically, a summit is a local maximum in elevation. The topographic terms "acme", "apex", "peak", and "zenith" are synonymous.Contents1 Definition1.1 Western United States 1.2 Summit
Summit
climbing equipment2 See also 3 References 4 External linksDefinition[edit] The term "top" is generally used only for a mountain peak that is located some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are often considered subsummits (or subpeaks) of the higher peak, and are considered as part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[n 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position
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Spanish Language
The Spanish language
Spanish language
(/ˈspænɪʃ/ ( listen);  Español (help·info)), also called the Castilian language[4] (/kæˈstɪliən/ ( listen),  castellano (help·info)), is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain
Spain
and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin
Latin
America and Spain. It is usually considered the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.[5][6][7][8][9] Spanish is a part of the Ibero-Romance group of languages, which evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
in Iberia after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
in the 5th century
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Plateau
In geology and physical geography a plateau ( /pləˈtoʊ/, /plæˈtoʊ/ or /ˈplætoʊ/; plural plateaus or plateaux[1][2]),is also called a high plain or a tableland, it is an area of a highland, usually consisting of relatively flat terrain that is raised significantly above the surrounding area, often with one or more sides with steep slopes. Plateaus can be formed by a number of processes, including upwelling of volcanic magma, extrusion of lava, and erosion by water and glaciers
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Las Heras Department
Las Heras is a department located in the north west of Mendoza Province in Argentina. The provincial subdivision has a population of about 183,000 inhabitants in an area of 8,955 km², and its capital city is Las Heras, which is located around 1,095 km from Capital Federal
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