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Ancient Woodland
In the United Kingdom, an ancient woodland is a woodland that has existed continuously since 1600 or before in England, Wales
Wales
and Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
(or 1750 in Scotland).[1][2] Before those dates, planting of new woodland was uncommon, so a wood present in 1600 was likely to have developed naturally.[3] In most ancient woods, the trees and shrubs have been cut down periodically as part of the management cycle. Provided that the area has remained as woodland, the stand is still considered ancient. Since it may have been cut over many times in the past, ancient woodland does not necessarily contain very old trees.[1] For many species of animal and plant, ancient woodland sites provide the sole habitat, and for many others, conditions on these sites are much more suitable than those on other sites
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Brading
The ancient 'Kynges Towne' of Brading
Brading
is the main town of the civil parish[3] of the same name. The ecclesiastical parish of Brading
Brading
used to cover about a tenth of the Isle of Wight. The civil parish now includes the town itself and Adgestone, Morton, Nunwell
Nunwell
and other outlying areas between Ryde, St Helens, Bembridge, Sandown
Sandown
and Arreton
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Hazel
Lopima DochnahlYoung male catkins of Corylus avellanaThe hazel (Corylus) is a genus of deciduous trees and large shrubs native to the temperate Northern Hemisphere. The genus is usually placed in the birch family Betulaceae,[2][3][4][5] though some botanists split the hazels (with the hornbeams and allied genera) into a separate family Corylaceae.[6][7] The fruit of the hazel is the hazelnut. Hazels have simple, rounded leaves with double-serrate margins. The flowers are produced very early in spring before the leaves, and are monoecious, with single-sex catkins, the male catkins are pale yellow and 5–12 cm long, and the female ones are very small and largely concealed in the buds, with only the bright-red, 1-to-3 mm-long styles visible
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Lichen
A lichen is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria living among filaments of multiple fungi[1] in a symbiotic relationship.[2][3][4] The combined lichen has properties different from those of its component organisms. Lichens
Lichens
come in many colours, sizes, and forms. The properties are sometimes plant-like, but lichens are not plants
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Bryophytes
Bryophytes are an informal group consisting of three divisions of non-vascular land plants (embryophytes), the liverworts, hornworts and mosses.[1] They are characteristically limited in size and prefer moist habitats although they can survive in drier environments.[2] The bryophytes consist of about 20,000 plant species.[3][4] Bryophytes produce enclosed reproductive structures (gametangia and sporangia), but they do not produce flowers or seeds. They reproduce via spores. Bryophytes are usually considered to be a paraphyletic group and not a monophyletic group, although some studies have produced contrary results. Regardless of their status, the name is convenient and remains in use as an informal collective term
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Palynology
Palynology
Palynology
is the "study of dust" (from Greek: παλύνω palunō, "strew, sprinkle"[2] and -logy) or "particles that are strewn". A classic palynologist analyses particulate samples collected from the air, from water, or from deposits including sediments of any age
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Vascular Plant
Vascular plants (from Latin vasculum: duct), also known as tracheophytes (from the equivalent Greek term trachea) and also higher plants, form a large group of plants (c. 308,312 accepted known species [5]) that are defined as those land plants that have lignified tissues (the xylem) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant. They also have a specialized non-lignified tissue (the phloem) to conduct products of photosynthesis. Vascular plants include the clubmosses, horsetails, ferns, gymnosperms (including conifers) and angiosperms (flowering plants). Scientific names for the group include Tracheophyta[6][4]:251 and Tracheobionta.[7]Contents1 Characteristics 2 Phylogeny 3 Nutrient distribution3.1 Transpiration 3.2 Absorption 3.3 Conduction4 See also 5 References 6 BibliographyCharacteristics[edit] Vascular plants are distinguished by two primary characteristics:Vascular plants have vascular tissues which distribute resources through the plant
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Nature Conservancy Council
Protected areas or conservation areas are locations which receive protection because of their recognized natural, ecological or cultural values. There are several kinds of protected areas, which vary by level of protection depending on the enabling laws of each country or the regulations of the international organizations involved. The term "protected area" also includes Marine Protected Areas, the boundaries of which will include some area of ocean, and Transboundary Protected Areas that overlap multiple countries which remove the borders inside the area for conservation and economic purposes
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Indicator Species
An indicator species is any biological species that defines a trait or characteristic of the environment. For an example, a species may delineate an ecoregion or indicate an environmental condition such as a disease outbreak, pollution, species competition or climate change. Indicator species can be among the most sensitive species in a region, and sometimes act as an early warning to monitoring biologists. Animal species have been used for indicators for decades to collect information about the many regions. Vertebrate are used as population trends and habitat for other species.[1] Species identification is very important for the conservation of biodiversity. Approximately 1.9 million species have been identified, but there are 3 to 100 million species. Some of them haven't been studied
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Hedge (barrier)
A hedge or hedgerow is a line of closely spaced shrubs and sometimes trees, planted and trained to form a barrier or to mark the boundary of an area, such as between neighbouring properties. Hedges used to separate a road from adjoining fields or one field from another, and of sufficient age to incorporate larger trees, are known as hedgerows. Often they serve as windbreaks to improve conditions for the adjacent crops, as in bocage country
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Estovers
In English law, an estover is an allowance made to a person out of an estate, or other thing, for his or her support. Estovers are wood, that a tenant is allowed to take, for life or a period of years, from the land he holds for the repair of his house, the implements of husbandry, hedges and fences, and for firewood.[1]Contents1 History 2 See also 3 Notes 4 ReferencesHistory[edit] The word derives from the French estover, estovoir, a verb used as a substantive meaning "that which is necessary". This word is of disputed origin; it has been referred to the Latin stare, to stand, or studere, to desire.[1] The Old English word for estover was bote or boot, also spelled bot or bót, (literally meaning 'good' or 'profit' and cognate with the word better). The various kinds of estovers were known as house-bote, cart or plough-bote, hedge or hay-bote, and fire-bote
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Pannage
Pannage
Pannage
is the practice of releasing domestic pigs in a forest, so that they can feed on fallen acorns, beechmast, chestnuts or other nuts. Historically, it was a right or privilege granted to local people on common land or in royal forests.[1] Especially in the eastern shires of England, pannage was so prominent a value in the economic importance of woodland that it was often employed, as in Domesday Book
Domesday Book
(1086), as a measurement. Customarily a pig was given to the lord of the manor for every certain number of pigs loosed de herbagio, as the right of pannage was entered.[1] Edward Hasted quotes the Domesday Survey details for Norton in Kent. "Wood for the pannage of forty hogs".[2] Pannage
Pannage
is no longer carried out in most areas, but is still observed in the New Forest
New Forest
of Southern England, where it is also known as common of mast
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Wattle And Daub
Wattle and daub
Wattle and daub
is a composite building material used for making walls, in which a woven lattice of wooden strips called wattle is daubed with a sticky material usually made of some combination of wet soil, clay, sand, animal dung and straw. Wattle and daub
Wattle and daub
has been used for at least 6,000 years and is still an important construction material in many parts of the world
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Isle Of Wight
The Isle of Wight
Isle of Wight
(/waɪt/; also referred to informally as IoW or The Island)[4] is a county and the largest and second-most populous island in England. It is in the English Channel, about 2 miles (3.2 km) off the coast of Hampshire, separated by the Solent. The island has resorts that have been holiday destinations since Victorian times, and is known for its mild climate, coastal scenery, and verdant landscape of fields, downland and chines. The island has been home to the poets Swinburne and Tennyson and to Queen Victoria, who built her much-loved summer residence and final home Osborne House
Osborne House
at East Cowes. It has a maritime and industrial tradition including boat-building, sail-making, the manufacture of flying boats, the hovercraft, and Britain's space rockets
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Park
A park is an area of natural, semi-natural or planted space set aside for human enjoyment and recreation or for the protection of wildlife or natural habitats. It may consist of grassy areas, rocks, soil and trees, but may also contain buildings and other artifacts such as monuments, fountains or playground structures. In North America, many parks have fields for playing sports such as association football, baseball and football, and paved areas for games such as basketball. Many parks have trails for walking, biking and other activities. Some parks are built adjacent to bodies of water or watercourses and may comprise a beach or boat dock area. Often, the smallest parks are in urban areas, where a park may take up only a city block or less and is ideally within a 10-Minute Walk
10-Minute Walk
of its residents. Urban parks often have benches for sitting and may contain picnic tables and barbecue grills
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Heathland
A heath (/ˈhiːθ/) is a shrubland habitat found mainly on free-draining infertile, acidic soils and is characterised by open, low-growing woody vegetation. Moorland
Moorland
is generally related to high-ground heaths[1] with—especially in Great Britain—a cooler and more damp climate. Heaths are widespread worldwide, but are fast disappearing and considered a rare habitat in Europe.[2] They form extensive and highly diverse communities across Australia
Australia
in humid and sub-humid areas where fire regimes with recurring burning are required for the maintenance of the heathlands.[3] Even more diverse though less widespread heath communities occur in Southern Africa. Extensive heath communities can also be found in the California
California
chaparral, New Caledonia, central Chile
Chile
and along the shores of the Mediterranean Sea
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