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Ancient Woodland
In the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, an ANCIENT WOODLAND is a woodland that has existed continuously since 1600 or before in England
England
, Wales
Wales
and Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
(or 1750 in Scotland
Scotland
). Before those dates, planting of new woodland was uncommon, so a wood present in 1600 was likely to have developed naturally. In most ancient woods, the trees and shrubs have been cut down periodically as part of the management cycle. Provided that the area has remained as woodland, the stand is still considered ancient. Since it may have been cut over many times in the past, ancient woodland does not necessarily contain very old trees. For many species of animal and plant, ancient woodland sites provide the sole habitat, and for many others, conditions on these sites are much more suitable than those on other sites
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Brading
The ancient 'Kynges Towne' of BRADING is the main town of the civil parish of the same name. The ecclesiastical parish of Brading
Brading
used to cover about a tenth of the Isle of Wight . The civil parish now includes the town itself and Adgestone , Morton , Nunwell and other outlying areas between Ryde , St Helens , Bembridge , Sandown and Arreton . Alverstone was transferred to the Newchurch parish some thirty years ago
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Isle Of Wight
The ISLE OF WIGHT /ˈaɪl əv ˈwaɪt/ (referred to informally as IoW ) is a county and the largest and second-most populous island in England. It is in the English Channel , about 4 miles (6 km) off the coast of Hampshire
Hampshire
, separated by the Solent . The island has resorts that have been holiday destinations since Victorian times , and is known for its mild climate, coastal scenery, and verdant landscape of fields, downland and chines . The island has been home to the poets Swinburne and Tennyson and to Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
, who built her much-loved summer residence and final home Osborne House at East Cowes . It has a maritime and industrial tradition including boat-building, sail-making, the manufacture of flying boats , the hovercraft , and Britain's space rockets
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England
ENGLAND is a country that is part of the United Kingdom . It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain (which lies in the North Atlantic ) in its centre and south; and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly , and the Isle of Wight . The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles , one of the Germanic tribes who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries
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Common Bluebell
HYACINTHOIDES NON-SCRIPTA (formerly Endymion non-scriptus or Scilla non-scripta) is a bulbous perennial plant , found in Atlantic areas from north-western Spain
Spain
to the British Isles
British Isles
, and also frequently used as a garden plant . It is known in English as the COMMON BLUEBELL or simply BLUEBELL, a name which is used in Scotland to refer to the harebell, Campanula rotundifolia . In spring, H. non-scripta produces a nodding, one-sided inflorescence of 5–12 tubular, sweet-scented violet–blue flowers, with strongly recurved tepals , and 3–6 long, linear, basal leaves. H. non-scripta is particularly associated with ancient woodland where it may dominate the understorey to produce carpets of violet–blue flowers in "bluebell woods ", but also occurs in more open habitats in western regions. It is protected under UK law, and in some other parts of its range. A related species, H
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Ramsons
ALLIUM URSINUM – known as RAMSONS, BUCKRAMS, WILD GARLIC, BROAD-LEAVED GARLIC, WOOD GARLIC, BEAR LEEK, or BEAR\'S GARLIC – is a wild relative of chives native to Europe and Asia. The Latin name is due to the brown bear 's taste for the bulbs and its habit of digging up the ground to get at them; they are also a favourite of wild boar . In Europe, where ramsons are popularly harvested from the wild, similarity to poisonous plants such as lily of the valley or Colchicum autumnale regularly leads to cases of poisoning. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Distribution * 3 Habitat * 4 Edibility * 4.1 Similarity to poisonous plants * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links DESCRIPTION Allium
Allium
ursinum is a bulbous, perennial herbaceous monocot, that reproduces primarily by seed
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Corylus Avellana
CORYLUS AVELLANA, the COMMON HAZEL, is a species of hazel native to Europe
Europe
and western Asia
Asia
, from the British Isles
British Isles
south to Iberia , Greece
Greece
, Turkey
Turkey
and Cyprus
Cyprus
, north to central Scandinavia
Scandinavia
, and east to the central Ural Mountains
Ural Mountains
, the Caucasus
Caucasus
, and northwestern Iran
Iran
. It is an important component of the hedgerows that were the traditional field boundaries in lowland England. The wood was traditionally grown as coppice , the poles cut being used for wattle-and-daub building and agricultural fencing. Common hazel is cultivated for its nuts. The name hazelnut applies to the nuts of any of the species of the genus Corylus
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United Kingdom
The UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND, commonly known as the UNITED KINGDOM (UK) or BRITAIN, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland , the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
includes the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland
Ireland
and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
is the only part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
that shares a land border with another sovereign state‍—‌the Republic of Ireland
Ireland

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Woodland
WOODLAND /ˈwʊdlənd/ ( listen ) is a low-density forest forming open habitats with plenty of sunlight and limited shade. Woodlands may support an understory of shrubs and herbaceous plants including grasses . Woodland may form a transition to shrubland under drier conditions or during early stages of primary or secondary succession . Higher density areas of trees with a largely closed canopy that provides extensive and nearly continuous shade are referred to as forests . Conservationists have worked hard to preserve woodlands, because people are destroying animal habitats when building homes and other buildings. For example, the woodlands in Northwest Indiana have been preserved as part of the Indiana Dunes
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Wales
WALES (/ˈweɪlz/ (_ listen ); Welsh : Cymru_ (_ listen )) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the island of Great Britain . It is bordered by England
England
to the east , the Irish Sea to the north and west, and the Bristol Channel to the south. It had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2 (8,023 sq mi). Wales
Wales
has over 1,680 miles (2,700 km) of coastline and is largely mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon
Snowdon
(Yr Wyddfa_), its highest summit. The country lies within the north temperate zone and has a changeable, maritime climate . Welsh national identity emerged among the Celtic Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, and Wales
Wales
is regarded as one of the modern Celtic nations
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Northern Ireland
NORTHERN IRELAND (Irish : _Tuaisceart Éireann_ (_ listen ); Ulster-Scots : Norlin Airlann_) is a country of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
located in the north-east of the island of Ireland
Ireland
. It has been variously described as a country, province, region, or "part" of the United Kingdom, amongst other terms. Northern Ireland
Ireland
shares a border to the south and west with the Republic of Ireland
Ireland
. In 2011 , its population was 1,810,863, constituting about 30% of the island's total population and about 3% of the UK\'s population . Established by the Northern Ireland Act 1998 as part of the Good Friday Agreement , the Northern Ireland Assembly holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters, while other areas are reserved for the British government
British government

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Scotland
SCOTLAND (/ˈskɒt.lənd/ ; Scots : ; Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
: _ Alba
Alba
_ ( listen )) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
. It shares a border with England
England
to the south, and is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
, with the North Sea
North Sea
to the east and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the south-west. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides
Hebrides
. The Kingdom of Scotland
Kingdom of Scotland
emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707
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Rainforest
RAINFORESTS are forests characterized by high rainfall , with annual rainfall in the case of tropical rainforests between 250 and 450 centimetres (98 and 177 in), and definitions varying by region for temperate rainforests . The monsoon trough , alternatively known as the intertropical convergence zone , plays a significant role in creating the climatic conditions necessary for the Earth 's tropical rainforests. Around 40% to 75% of all biotic species are indigenous to the rainforests. It has been estimated that there may be many millions of species of plants, insects and microorganisms still undiscovered in tropical rainforests. Tropical rainforests have been called the "jewels of the Earth" and the "world\'s largest pharmacy ", because over one quarter of natural medicines have been discovered there
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Natural Capital
NATURAL CAPITAL is the world's stock of natural resources , which includes geology, soils, air, water and all living organisms. Some natural capital assets provide people with free goods and services, often called ecosystem services . Two of these (clean water and fertile soil) underpin our economy and society and make human life possible. Of course, the vast majority of living organisms and much of the plant's geology, contribute nothing positive to human well-being and so, technically speaking, are not "natural capital", as they have no value to human society. It is an extension of the economic notion of capital (resources which enable the production of more resources) to goods and services provided by the natural environment. For example, a well-maintained forest or river may provide an indefinitely sustainable flow of new trees or fish, whereas over-use of those resources may lead to a permanent decline in timber availability or fish stocks
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Natural England
NATURAL ENGLAND is a non-departmental public body in the United Kingdom sponsored by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs . It is responsible for ensuring that England 's natural environment, including its land, flora and fauna , freshwater and marine environments , geology and soils, are protected and improved. It also has a responsibility to help people enjoy, understand and access the natural environment
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