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Ancient Woodland
In the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, an ANCIENT WOODLAND is a woodland that has existed continuously since 1600 or before in England
England
, Wales
Wales
and Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
(or 1750 in Scotland
Scotland
). Before those dates, planting of new woodland was uncommon, so a wood present in 1600 was likely to have developed naturally. In most ancient woods, the trees and shrubs have been cut down periodically as part of the management cycle. Provided that the area has remained as woodland, the stand is still considered ancient. Since it may have been cut over many times in the past, ancient woodland does not necessarily contain very old trees. For many species of animal and plant, ancient woodland sites provide the sole habitat, and for many others, conditions on these sites are much more suitable than those on other sites
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Estovers
In English law
English law
, an ESTOVER is an allowance made to a person out of an estate, or other thing, for his or her support. ESTOVERS are wood, that a tenant is allowed to take, for life or a period of years, from the land he holds for the repair of his house , the implements of husbandry , hedges and fences , and for firewood . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 See also * 3 Notes * 4 References HISTORYThe word derives from the French estover, estovoir, a verb used as a substantive meaning "that which is necessary". This word is of disputed origin; it has been referred to the Latin stare, to stand, or studere, to desire. The Old English word for estover was bote or boot, also spelled bot or bót, (literally meaning 'good' or 'profit' and cognate with the word better). The various kinds of estovers were known as house-bote, cart or plough-bote, hedge or hay-bote, and fire-bote
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Hedge (barrier)
A HEDGE or HEDGEROW is a line of closely spaced shrubs and/or tree species, planted and trained to form a barrier or to mark the boundary of an area, such as between neighbouring properties. Hedges used to separate a road from adjoining fields or one field from another, and of sufficient age to incorporate larger trees, are known as hedgerows. Often they serve as windbreaks to improve conditions for the adjacent crops . When clipped and maintained, hedges are also a simple form of topiary
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Pannage
PANNAGE is the practice of releasing domestic pigs in a forest , so that they can feed on fallen acorns , beechmast , chestnuts or other nuts . Historically, it was a right or privilege granted to local people on common land or in royal forests . Especially in the eastern shires of England, pannage was so prominent a value in the economic importance of woodland that it was often employed, as in Domesday Book
Domesday Book
(1086), as a measurement. Customarily a pig was given to the lord of the manor for every certain number of pigs loosed de herbagio, as the right of pannage was entered. Edward Hasted quotes the Domesday Survey details for Norton in Kent. "Wood for the pannage of forty hogs". Pannage
Pannage
is no longer carried out in most areas, but is still observed in the New Forest of Southern England , where it is also known as COMMON OF MAST
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Hazel
Lopima Dochnahl Young male catkins of Corylus avellana
Corylus avellana
The HAZEL (Corylus) is a genus of deciduous trees and large shrubs native to the temperate Northern Hemisphere. The genus is usually placed in the birch family Betulaceae
Betulaceae
, though some botanists split the hazels (with the hornbeams and allied genera) into a separate family Corylaceae . The fruit of the hazel is the hazelnut . Hazels have simple, rounded leaves with double-serrate margins. The flowers are produced very early in spring before the leaves, and are monoecious , with single-sex catkins , the male catkins are pale yellow and 5–12 cm long, and the female ones are very small and largely concealed in the buds, with only the bright-red, 1-to-3 mm-long styles visible. The fruits are nuts 1–2.5 cm long and 1–2 cm diameter, surrounded by an involucre (husk) which partly to fully encloses the nut
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Wattle And Daub
WATTLE AND DAUB is a composite building material used for making walls, in which a woven lattice of wooden strips called wattle is daubed with a sticky material usually made of some combination of wet soil , clay , sand , animal dung and straw. Wattle and daub
Wattle and daub
has been used for at least 6,000 years and is still an important construction material in many parts of the world. Many historic buildings include wattle and daub construction, and the technique is becoming popular again in more developed areas as a low-impact sustainable building technique. CONTENTS * 1 Construction * 2 History * 3 Styles of panels * 3.1 Close-studding * 3.2 Square panels * 4 Acacias * 5 Variations * 5.1 Pug and pine * 5.2 Mud and stud * 6 See also * 7 References CONSTRUCTION Wattle in construction The wattle is made by weaving thin branches (either whole, or more usually split) or slats between upright stakes
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Indicator Species
An INDICATOR SPECIES is any biological species that defines a trait or characteristic of the environment. For an example, a species may delineate an ecoregion or indicate an environmental condition such as a disease outbreak, pollution , species competition or climate change. Indicator species can be among the most sensitive species in a region, and sometimes act as an early warning to monitoring biologists. Animal species have been used for indicators for decades to collect information about the many regions. Vertebrate are used as population trends and habitat for other species. Species identification is very important for the conservation of biodiversity. Approximately 1.9 million species have been identified, but there are 3 to 100 million species. Some of them haven't been studied. There are new species every year that are unknown and are still being discovered each year. Indicator species serve as measured environmental conditions
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Nature Conservancy Council
The NATURE CONSERVANCY COUNCIL (NCC) was a United Kingdom
United Kingdom
government agency responsible for designating and managing National Nature Reserves and other nature conservation areas in Great Britain
Great Britain
between 1973 and 1991 (it did not cover Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
). CONTENTS * 1 Origin * 2 Structure * 2.1 Chief Scientists * 3 Break-up * 4 External links ORIGINThe NCC was established by the Nature Conservancy Council
Nature Conservancy Council
Act 1973 and replaced the Nature Conservancy , established by Royal Charter
Royal Charter
in 1949
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Lichen
A LICHEN is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria living among filaments of multiple fungi in a symbiotic relationship . The combined lichen has properties different from those of its component organisms. Lichens come in many colours, sizes, and forms. The properties are sometimes plant-like, but lichens are not plants. Lichens may have tiny, leafless branches (fruticose ), flat leaf-like structures (foliose ), flakes that lie on the surface like peeling paint (crustose ), or other growth forms. A MACROLICHEN is a lichen that is either bush-like or leafy; all other lichens are termed MICROLICHENS. Here, "macro" and "micro" do not refer to size, but to the growth form. Common names for lichens may contain the word "moss " (e.g., " Reindeer moss ", "Iceland moss "), and lichens may superficially look like and grow with mosses, but lichens are not related to mosses or any plant
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Bryophytes
BRYOPHYTES are an informal group consisting of three divisions of non-vascular land plants (embryophytes ), the liverworts , hornworts and mosses . They are characteristically limited in size and prefer moist habitats although they can survive in drier environments. The bryophytes consist of about 20,000 plant species. Bryophytes produce enclosed reproductive structures (gametangia and sporangia), but they do not produce flowers or seeds . They reproduce via spores . Bryophytes are usually considered to be a paraphyletic group and not a monophyletic group, although some studies have produced contrary results. Regardless of their status, the name is convenient and remains in use as an informal collective term. The term "bryophyte" comes from Greek βρύον, bryon "tree-moss, oyster-green" + φυτόν – phyton "plant"
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Palynology
PALYNOLOGY is the "study of dust" (from Greek παλύνω, palunō, "strew, sprinkle" and -logy ) or "particles that are strewn". A classic palynologist analyses particulate samples collected from the air, from water, or from deposits including sediments of any age. The condition and identification of those particles, organic and inorganic, give the palynologist clues to the life, environment, and energetic conditions that produced them. The term is sometimes narrowly used to refer to a subset of the discipline, which is defined as "the study of microscopic objects of macromolecular organic composition (i.e., compounds of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen), not capable of dissolution in hydrochloric or hydrofluoric acids"
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Vascular Plant
VASCULAR PLANTS (from Latin vasculum: duct), also known as TRACHEOPHYTES (from the equivalent Greek term trachea) and also HIGHER PLANTS, form a large group of plants (c. 308,312 accepted known species ) that are defined as those land plants that have lignified tissues (the xylem ) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant. They also have a specialized non-lignified tissue (the phloem ) to conduct products of photosynthesis . Vascular plants include the clubmosses , horsetails , ferns , gymnosperms (including conifers ) and angiosperms (flowering plants ). Scientific names for the group include Tracheophyta and Tracheobionta
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Park
A PARK is an area of natural, semi-natural or planted space set aside for human enjoyment and recreation or for the protection of wildlife or natural habitats. It may consist of grassy areas, rocks , soil and trees , but may also contain buildings and other artifacts such as monuments , fountains or playground structures. In North America, many parks have fields for playing sports such as association football , baseball and football , and paved areas for games such as basketball . Many parks have trails for walking, biking and other activities. Some parks are built adjacent to bodies of water or watercourses and may comprise a beach or boat dock area. Often, the smallest parks are in urban areas, where a park may take up only a city block or less. Urban parks often have benches for sitting and may contain picnic tables and barbecue grills
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Heathland
A HEATH is a shrubland habitat found mainly on free-draining infertile, acidic soils and is characterised by open, low-growing woody vegetation. Moorland
Moorland
is generally related to high-ground heaths with—especially in Great Britain
Great Britain
—a cooler and more damp climate. Heaths are widespread worldwide, but are fast disappearing and considered a rare habitat in Europe. They form extensive and highly diverse communities across Australia
Australia
in humid and sub-humid areas where fire regimes with recurring burning are required for the maintenance of the heathlands. Even more diverse though less widespread heath communities occur in Southern Africa
Southern Africa
. Extensive heath communities can also be found in the California
California
chaparral , New Caledonia , central Chile
Chile
and along the shores of the Mediterranean Sea
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Blackthorn
PRUNUS SPINOSA (BLACKTHORN, or SLOE) is a species of flowering plant in the rose family Rosaceae
Rosaceae
. It is native to Europe
Europe
, western Asia
Asia
, and locally in northwest Africa
Africa
. It is also locally naturalised in New Zealand
New Zealand
and eastern North America . CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Etymology * 2.1 Sloe-eyed * 3 Ecology * 4 Uses * 5 See also * 6 Reference