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Ancient Greek Language
ANCIENT GREEK includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece
Greece
and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
(3rd century BC to the 6th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek
Mycenaean Greek
. The language of the Hellenistic phase is known as Koine (common). Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek
Medieval Greek
. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects
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Ionic Greek
IONIC GREEK was a subdialect of the Attic–Ionic or Eastern dialect group of Ancient Greek (see Greek dialects ). CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Phonology * 2.1 Vowels * 2.2 Consonants * 3 Grammar * 3.1 Word order * 4 Glossary * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 Sources HISTORYThe Ionic dialect appears to have originally spread from the Greek mainland across the Aegean at the time of the Dorian invasions , around the 11th century BC. By the end of the Greek Dark Ages in the 5th-century BC, the central west coast of Asia Minor
Asia Minor
, along with the islands of Chios
Chios
and Samos , formed the heartland of Ionia proper. The Ionic dialect was also spoken on islands across the central Aegean and on the large island of Euboea north of Athens
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Aeolic Greek
In linguistics , AEOLIC GREEK (/iːˈɒlɪk/ ; also AEOLIAN /iːˈoʊliən/ , LESBIAN or LESBIC DIALECT) is the set of dialects of Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
spoken mainly in Boeotia
Boeotia
(a region in Central Greece
Central Greece
); Thessaly
Thessaly
, in the Aegean island of Lesbos
Lesbos
; and the Greek colonies of Asia Minor
Asia Minor
( Aeolis
Aeolis
). The Aeolic dialect shows many archaisms in comparison to the other Ancient Greek dialects
Ancient Greek dialects
(Attic , Ionic , Doric , Northwestern and Arcadocypriot ), as well as many innovations. Aeolic Greek
Aeolic Greek
is widely known as the language of Sappho
Sappho
and of Alcaeus of Mytilene
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Arcadocypriot Greek
ARCADOCYPRIOT or SOUTHERN ACHAEAN was an ancient Greek dialect spoken in Arcadia
Arcadia
in the central Peloponnese
Peloponnese
and in Cyprus
Cyprus
. Its resemblance to Mycenaean Greek
Mycenaean Greek
, as it is known from the Linear B
Linear B
corpus, suggests that Arcadocypriot is its descendant. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Later developments * 3 Glossary * 3.1 Arcadian * 3.2 Cypriot * 3.2.1 Paphian * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Bibliography HISTORYProto-Arcadocypriot (around 1200 BC) is supposed to have been spoken by Achaeans in the Peloponnese
Peloponnese
before the arrival of Dorians
Dorians
so it is also called southern Achaean. The isoglosses of the Cypriot and Arcadian dialects testify that the Achaeans had settled in Cyprus
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Homeric Greek
HOMERIC GREEK is the form of the Greek language that was used by Homer in the Iliad and Odyssey
Odyssey
and in the Homeric Hymns . It is a literary dialect of Archaic Greek consisting mainly of Ionic and Aeolic , with a few forms from Arcadocypriot and non-Greek languages, and a written form influenced by Attic . It was later named EPIC GREEK because it was used as the language of epic poetry , typically in dactylic hexameter , by poets such as Hesiod and Theognis of Megara . Compositions in Epic Greek may date from as late as the 3rd century AD, though its decline was inevitable with the rise of Koine Greek
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Pluricentric Language
A PLURICENTRIC LANGUAGE or POLYCENTRIC LANGUAGE is a language with several interacting codified standard versions , often corresponding to different countries. Examples include English , French , Portuguese , German , Korean , Spanish , Swedish , Armenian and Chinese . A language that has only one formally standardized version is monocentric. Examples include Russian and Japanese . In some cases the different standards of a pluricentric language may be elaborated until they become autonomous languages , as happened with Malaysian and Indonesian or Hindi
Hindi
and Urdu
Urdu
. The same process is underway in Serbo-Croatian
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Renaissance
The RENAISSANCE (UK : /rᵻˈneɪsəns/ , US : /rɛnəˈsɑːns/ ) was a period in European history , from the 14th to the 17th century, regarded as the cultural bridge between the Middle Ages and modern history . It started as a cultural movement in Italy
Italy
in the Late Medieval period and later spread to the rest of Europe, marking the beginning of the Early Modern Age . The intellectual basis of the Renaissance
Renaissance
was its own invented version of humanism , derived from the rediscovery of classical Greek philosophy, such as that of Protagoras , who said that "Man is the measure of all things." This new thinking became manifest in art, architecture, politics, science and literature. Early examples were the development of perspective in oil painting and the recycled knowledge of how to make concrete
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List Of Ancient Greek Tribes
The ANCIENT GREEK TRIBES ( Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Ἑλλήνων ἔθνη) were groups of Greek-speaking populations living in Greece
Greece
, Cyprus
Cyprus
, and the various Greek colonies
Greek colonies
. They were primarily divided by geographic , dialectal , political , and cultural criteria, as well as distinct traditions in mythology and religion . Some groups were of mixed origin, forming a syncretic culture through absorption and assimilation of previous and neighboring populations into the Greek language and customs. With the dominion of land passing on from one tribe to the other, cultural exchange through art and trade, and frequent alliances toward common goals, the ethnic character of the different tribes had become primarily political by the dawn of the Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period

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Fifth-century Athens
FIFTH-CENTURY ATHENS is the Greek city-state of Athens
Athens
in the time from 480 BC-404 BC. This was a period of Athenian political hegemony , economic growth and cultural flourishing formerly known as the GOLDEN AGE OF ATHENS with the later part THE AGE OF PERICLES
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Ancient Greek Philosophy
ANCIENT GREEK PHILOSOPHY arose in the 6th century BC and continued throughout the Hellenistic period and the period in which Ancient Greece was part of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. Philosophy
Philosophy
was used to make sense out of the world in a non-religious way. It dealt with a wide variety of subjects, including political philosophy , ethics , metaphysics , ontology , logic , biology , rhetoric , and aesthetics . Many philosophers around the world agree that Greek philosophy has influenced much of Western culture since its inception
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Western World
The WESTERN WORLD, or simply THE WEST, is a term usually referring to various nations, depending on the context , most often including at least part of Europe
Europe
. There are many accepted definitions based on commonalities. The Western world
Western world
is also known as THE OCCIDENT (from Latin
Latin
: occidens "sunset, West", as contrasted with Orient
Orient
). The concept of the Western part of the Earth has its roots in Greco-Roman world in Europe
Europe
, Judaism and the advent of Christianity in Ancient Israel . In the modern era, Western culture has been heavily influenced by the traditions of the Renaissance
Renaissance
, Protestant Reformation , Age of Enlightenment – and shaped by the expansive imperialism and colonialism of the 15th to 20th centuries
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Epic Poetry
An EPIC POEM, EPIC, EPOS, or EPOPEE is a lengthy narrative poem , ordinarily concerning a serious subject containing details of heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation. Milman Parry and Albert Lord have argued that the Homeric epics, the earliest works of Western literature, were fundamentally an oral poetic form. These works form the basis of the epic genre in Western literature. Nearly all of Western epic (including Virgil's Aeneid
Aeneid
and Dante's Divine Comedy
Comedy
) self-consciously presents itself as a continuation of the tradition begun by these poems. Classical epic poetry employs a meter called dactylic hexameter and recounts a journey, either physical (as typified by Odysseus in the Odyssey
Odyssey
) or mental (as typified by Achilles in the Iliad
Iliad
) or both
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Iliad
Achilles tending the wounded Patroclus (Attic red-figure kylix , c. 500 BC) THE WAR SETTING: Troy
Troy
(modern Hisarlik , Turkey
Turkey
) PERIOD: Bronze Age TRADITIONAL DATING: c. 1194–1184 BC MODERN DATING: c
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Boeotia
BOEOTIA, sometimes alternatively Latinised as BOIOTIA, or BEOTIA (/biːˈoʊʃiə/ or /biːˈoʊʃə/ ; Greek : Βοιωτία, Modern Greek: , Ancient Greek: ; modern transliteration Voiotía, also Viotía, formerly Cadmeis), is one of the regional units of Greece
Greece
. It is part of the region of Central Greece
Greece
. It was also a region of ancient Greece
Greece
. Its capital is Livadeia
Livadeia
, and its largest city is Thebes
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Pindar
PINDAR (/ˈpɪndər/ ; Greek : Πίνδαρος Pindaros, pronounced ; Latin : Pindarus) (c. 522 – c. 443 BC) was an Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
lyric poet from Thebes . Of the canonical nine lyric poets of ancient Greece, his work is the best preserved. Quintilian wrote, "Of the nine lyric poets, Pindar
Pindar
is by far the greatest, in virtue of his inspired magnificence, the beauty of his thoughts and figures, the rich exuberance of his language and matter, and his rolling flood of eloquence, characteristics which, as Horace
Horace
rightly held, make him inimitable." His poems can also, however, seem difficult and even peculiar. The Athenian comic playwright Eupolis once remarked that they "are already reduced to silence by the disinclination of the multitude for elegant learning"
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