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Ancient Greek
ANCIENT GREEK includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece
Greece
and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period (3rd century BC to the 6th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek
Mycenaean Greek
. The language of the Hellenistic phase is known as Koine (common). Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek . Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects
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Glottolog
GLOTTOLOG is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and formerly maintained at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig
Leipzig
, Germany. There are two components: Languoid catalogue, the catalog of the world's languages and language families; and Langdoc, the bibliography. It differs from the similar catalogue Ethnologue in several ways, in that it attempts only to accept languages which the editors have been able to confirm both exist and are distinct (varieties which have not been confirmed, but are inherited from another source, are tagged as "spurious" or "unattested"); it attempts only to classify languages into families which have been demonstrated to be valid; extensive bibliographic information is provided, especially for lesser-known languages; and, to a limited extent, alternative names are listed according to the sources which use them
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ISO 639-2
ISO 639-2:1998, Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code, is the second part of the ISO 639 standard , which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages . The three-letter codes given for each language in this part of the standard are referred to as "Alpha-3" codes. There are 464 entries in the list of ISO 639-2 codes . The US Library of Congress is the registration authority for ISO 639-2 (referred to as ISO 639-2/RA). As registration authority, the LOC receives and reviews proposed changes; they also have representation on the ISO 639-RA Joint Advisory Committee responsible for maintaining the ISO 639 code tables
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Pluricentric Language
A PLURICENTRIC LANGUAGE or POLYCENTRIC LANGUAGE is a language with several interacting codified standard versions , often corresponding to different countries. Examples include English , French , Portuguese , German , Korean , Spanish , Swedish , Armenian and Chinese . A language that has only one formally standardized version is monocentric. Examples include Russian and Japanese . In some cases the different standards of a pluricentric language may be elaborated until they become autonomous languages , as happened with Malaysian and Indonesian or Hindi
Hindi
and Urdu
Urdu
. The same process is underway in Serbo-Croatian
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ISO 639-3
ISO 639-3:2007, Codes for the representation of names of languages – Part 3: Alpha-3 code for comprehensive coverage of languages, is an international standard for language codes in the ISO 639 series. It defines three-letter codes for identifying languages. The standard was published by ISO on 1 February 2007. ISO 639-3 extends the ISO 639-2 alpha-3 codes with an aim to cover all known natural languages . The extended language coverage was based primarily on the language codes used in the Ethnologue (volumes 10-14) published by SIL International , which is now the registration authority for ISO 639-3. It provides an enumeration of languages as complete as possible, including living and extinct, ancient and constructed, major and minor, written and unwritten. However, it does not include reconstructed languages such as Proto-Indo-European
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Language Family
A LANGUAGE FAMILY is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics , which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree , or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy . Linguists therefore describe the daughter languages within a language family as being genetically related. Estimates of the number of living languages vary from 5,000 to 8,000, depending on the precision of one's definition of "language", and in particular on how one classifies dialects . The 2013 edition of Ethnologue catalogs just over 7,000 living human languages. A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people
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Western World
The WESTERN WORLD, or simply THE WEST, is a term usually referring to various nations, depending on the context , most often including at least part of Europe
Europe
. There are many accepted definitions based on commonalities. The Western world
Western world
is also known as THE OCCIDENT (from Latin
Latin
: occidens "sunset, West", as contrasted with Orient
Orient
). The concept of the Western part of the Earth has its roots in Greco-Roman world in Europe
Europe
, Judaism and the advent of Christianity in Ancient Israel . In the modern era, Western culture has been heavily influenced by the traditions of the Renaissance
Renaissance
, Protestant Reformation , Age of Enlightenment – and shaped by the expansive imperialism and colonialism of the 15th to 20th centuries
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Lesbos
LESBOS (/ˈlɛzbɒs/ , US : /ˈlɛzboʊs/ ; Greek : Λέσβος Lesvos, pronounced ), sometimes referred to as Mytilini after its capital , is a Greek island located in the northeastern Aegean Sea . It has an area of 1,633 km2 (631 sq mi) with 320 kilometres (199 miles) of coastline , making it the third largest island in Greece
Greece
. It is separated from Turkey
Turkey
by the narrow Mytilini Strait and in late Palaeolithic/Mesolithic times was joined to the Anatolian mainland before the end of the last glacial period . Lesbos
Lesbos
is also the name of a regional unit of the North Aegean region, within which Lesbos
Lesbos
island is one of five governing islands. The others are Chios
Chios
, Ikaria
Ikaria
, Lemnos
Lemnos
, and Samos
Samos

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Language
LANGUAGE is the ability to acquire and use complex systems of communication , particularly the human ability to do so, and A LANGUAGE is any specific example of such a system. The scientific study of language is called linguistics . Questions concerning the philosophy of language , such as whether words can represent experience, have been debated since Gorgias
Gorgias
and Plato
Plato
in Ancient Greece . Thinkers such as Rousseau
Rousseau
have argued that language originated from emotions while others like Kant have held that it originated from rational and logical thought. 20th-century philosophers such as Wittgenstein argued that philosophy is really the study of language. Major figures in linguistics include Ferdinand de Saussure and Noam Chomsky . Estimates of the number of languages in the world vary between 5,000 and 7,000
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Writing System
A WRITING SYSTEM is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication . While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages , writing differs in also being a reliable form of information storage and transfer . The processes of encoding and decoding writing systems involve shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script. Writing
Writing
is usually recorded onto a durable medium , such as paper or electronic storage , although non-durable methods may also be used, such as writing on a computer display , in sand, or by skywriting . The general attributes of writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabets , syllabaries , or logographies . Any particular system can have attributes of more than one category
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Renaissance
The RENAISSANCE (UK : /rᵻˈneɪsəns/ , US : /rɛnəˈsɑːns/ ) was a period in European history , from the 14th to the 17th century, regarded as the cultural bridge between the Middle Ages and modern history . It started as a cultural movement in Italy
Italy
in the Late Medieval period and later spread to the rest of Europe, marking the beginning of the Early Modern Age . The intellectual basis of the Renaissance
Renaissance
was its own invented version of humanism , derived from the rediscovery of classical Greek philosophy, such as that of Protagoras , who said that "Man is the measure of all things." This new thinking became manifest in art, architecture, politics, science and literature. Early examples were the development of perspective in oil painting and the recycled knowledge of how to make concrete
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Mediterranean Sea
The MEDITERRANEAN SEA is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean , surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin
Mediterranean Basin
and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe
Southern Europe
and Anatolia , on the south by North Africa , and on the east by the Levant
Levant
. Although the sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, it is usually identified as a separate body of water. Geological evidence indicates that around 5.9 million years ago, the Mediterranean was cut off from the Atlantic and was partly or completely desiccated over a period of some 600,000 years before being refilled by the Zanclean flood . The name Mediterranean is derived from the Latin
Latin
mediterraneus, meaning "inland" or "in the middle of land" (from medius, "middle" and terra, "land")
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Fifth-century Athens
FIFTH-CENTURY ATHENS is the Greek city-state of Athens
Athens
in the time from 480 BC-404 BC. This was a period of Athenian political hegemony , economic growth and cultural flourishing formerly known as the GOLDEN AGE OF ATHENS with the later part THE AGE OF PERICLES
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Boeotia
BOEOTIA, sometimes alternatively Latinised as BOIOTIA, or BEOTIA (/biːˈoʊʃiə/ or /biːˈoʊʃə/ ; Greek : Βοιωτία, Modern Greek: , Ancient Greek: ; modern transliteration Voiotía, also Viotía, formerly Cadmeis), is one of the regional units of Greece
Greece
. It is part of the region of Central Greece
Greece
. It was also a region of ancient Greece
Greece
. Its capital is Livadeia
Livadeia
, and its largest city is Thebes
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Proto-Indo-European Language
Pontic Steppe * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan
Kurgan
* Kurgan
Kurgan
culture * Steppe cultures * Bug-Dniester * Sredny Sto
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Athena Parthenos
ATHENA PARTHENOS (Ancient Greek : Ἀθηνᾶ Παρθένος; literally, " Athena
Athena
the Virgin
Virgin
") is a lost massive chryselephantine (gold and ivory) sculpture of the Greek goddess Athena
Athena
, made by Phidias and his assistants and housed in the Parthenon
Parthenon
in Athens
Athens
. Despite the dynamic architectural characteristics of the Parthenon, the statue of Athena
Athena
was designed to be the focal point. Its epithet was an essential character of the goddess herself. A number of replicas and works inspired by it, both ancient and modern, have been made. It was the most renowned cult image of Athens, considered one of the greatest achievements of the most acclaimed sculptor of ancient Greece. Phidias began his work around 447 BC
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