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Ancient Egypt Wings
Ancient history
Ancient history
is the aggregate of past events[1] from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the Post-classical Era. The span of recorded history is roughly 5,000 years, beginning with Sumerian Cuneiform
Cuneiform
script, the oldest discovered form of coherent writing from the protoliterate period around the 30th century BC.[2] The term classical antiquity is often used to refer to history in the Old World
Old World
from the beginning of recorded Greek history
Greek history
in 776 BC (First Olympiad). This roughly coincides with the traditional date of the founding of Rome in 753 BC, the beginning of the history of ancient Rome, and the beginning of the Archaic period in Ancient Greece
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Ancient (other)
Ancient or ancients may refer to:Anything considered "very old"; see List of time periods, Prehistory, in particular anything from Antiquity
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Shahr-e Sukhteh
Shahr-e Sūkhté (Persian: شهرِ سوخته‎, meaning "[The] Burnt City"), also spelled as Shahr-e Sukhteh
Shahr-e Sukhteh
and Shahr-i Shōkhta, is an archaeological site of a sizable Bronze Age
Bronze Age
urban settlement, associated with the Jiroft culture. It is located in Sistan
Sistan
and Baluchistan Province, the southeastern part of Iran, on the bank of the Helmand River, near the Zahedan- Zabol
Zabol
road. It was placed on the UNESCO World Heritage List
World Heritage List
in June 2014.[1][2]توضیحات در مورد ثبت یونسکو شدن شهر سوختهThe reasons for the unexpected rise and fall of the Burnt City are still wrapped in mystery
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Hattians
The Hattians
Hattians
(/ˈhætiənz/) were an ancient people who inhabited the land of Hatti in central Anatolia. The group was documented at least as early as the empire of Sargon of Akkad
Sargon of Akkad
(c. 2300 BC),[1] until it was gradually absorbed c. 2000–1700 BC by the Indo-European Hittites, who were subsequently associated with the "land of Hatti".Contents1 History 2 Language 3 Religion 4 Physiognomy 5 References 6 Sources 7 External linksHistory[edit]The expanded Hittite Empire (red) replaces Hatti c. 1290 BC and borders the Egyptian kingdom (green)"Land of the Hatti" is the oldest known name for central Anatolia, albeit as an exonym in extraneous sources, such as the Assyrian hatti matu, found on Mesopotamian cuneiform tablets from the period of Sargon the Great
Sargon the Great
of Akkad c
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Hurrians
The Hurrians
Hurrians
(/ˈhʊəriənz/; cuneiform: 𒄷𒌨𒊑; transliteration: Ḫu-ur-ri; also called Hari, Khurrites, Hourri, Churri, Hurri or Hurriter) were a people of the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Near East. They spoke a Hurro-Urartian language called Hurrian
Hurrian
and lived in Anatolia
Anatolia
and Northern Mesopotamia. The largest and most influential Hurrian
Hurrian
nation was the kingdom of Mitanni, the Mitanni
Mitanni
perhaps being Indo-Iranian speakers who formed a ruling class over the Hurrians. The population of the Indo-European-speaking Hittite Empire
Hittite Empire
in Anatolia included a large population of Hurrians, and there is significant Hurrian
Hurrian
influence in Hittite mythology
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Amurru Kingdom
Amurru was an Amorite kingdom established c. 2000 BC,[1] in a region spanning present-day western and north-western Syria
Syria
and northern Lebanon
Lebanon
[2][3][4] The first documented leader of Amurru was Abdi-Ashirta, under whose leadership Amurru was part of the Egyptian empire. His son Aziru
Aziru
made contact with the Hittite king Suppiluliuma I, and eventually defected to the Hittites. The Amurru kingdom
Amurru kingdom
was destroyed by the Sea Peoples
Sea Peoples
around 1200 B.C.Contents1 References1.1 Citations 1.2 Sources2 External linksReferences[edit] Citations[edit]^ Al-Maqdissi 2010, p. 140. ^ Izre'el, Sh. (1991). Amurru Akkadian: A Linguistic Study. With an Appendix on the History of Amurru by Itamar Singer. Atlanta, Georgia: Scholars Press.  ^ Singer, I. (1991). "The "Land of Amurru" and the "Lands of Amurru" in the Šaušgamuwa Treaty"
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Apum
Apum, was an ancient Amorite
Amorite
kingdom located in upper Kahbur valley, modern northeastern Syria. It was involved in the political and military struggle that dominated the first half of the 18th century BC and led to the establishment of the Babylonian Empire. Apum was incorporated into Babylon in 1728 BC and disappeared from the records.Contents1 History1.1 Rulers2 See also 3 References3.1 CitationsHistory[edit] The majority of the kingdom inhabitants were Amorites.[1] Originally, Apum was a small city perhaps located in the vicinity of modern-day Qamishli.[2] The kingdom was attested for the first time in the Archives of Mari (c
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Isuwa
Isuwa (transcribed Išuwa and sometimes rendered Ishuwa) was the ancient Hittite name for one of its neighboring Anatolian kingdoms to the east, in an area which later became the Luwian
Luwian
Neo-Hittite
Neo-Hittite
state of Kammanu.Contents1 The land 2 The people 3 History of Isuwa3.1 The Hittite period 3.2 Neo-Hittite
Neo-Hittite
period4 Archaeology of Isuwa4.1 Excavations 4.2 Culture5 See also 6 Bibliography 7 External linksThe land[edit] The land of Isuwa was situated in the upper Euphrates
Euphrates
river region. The river valley was here surrounded by the Anti-Taurus Mountains. To the northeast of the river lay a vast plain stretching up to the Black Sea mountain range. The plain had favourable climatic conditions due to the abundance of water from springs and rainfall. Irrigation of fields was possible without the need to build complex canals
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Nuhašše
Nuhašše, also Nuhašša, was a region in northwestern Syria
Syria
that flourished in the 2nd millennium BC. It was a federacy ruled by different kings who collaborated and probably had a high king. Nuhašše
Nuhašše
changed hands between different powers in the region such as Egypt, Mitanni
Mitanni
and the Hittites
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Kurda
Kurda, was an ancient Semitic Amorite
Amorite
kingdom located in Northern Mesopotamia
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Ṭābetu
Tell Taban
Tell Taban
is an archaeological site in north-eastern Syria
Syria
in the Al-Hasakah Governorate
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Tepe Sialk
Tepe Sialk
Tepe Sialk
(Persian: تپه سیلک‎) is a large ancient archeological site (a tepe, "hill" or "mound") in a suburb of the city of Kashan, Isfahan
Isfahan
Province, in central Iran, close to Fin Garden. The culture that inhabited this area has been linked to the Zayandeh River Culture.[1]Contents1 History 2 Archaeology 3 Northern mound 4 Southern mound4.1 Metallurgy5 Second millennium BC 6 Images 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External linksHistory[edit] The Sialk ziggurat was built around the 3000 BC. A joint study between Iran's Cultural Heritage Organization, the Louvre, and the Institut Francais de Recherche en Iran
Iran
also verifies the oldest settlements in Sialk to date back to 5500–6000 BC.[2][3] Sialk, and the entire area around it, is thought to have originated as a result of the pristine large water sources nearby that still run today
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Teppe Hasanlu
Teppe Hasanlu
Teppe Hasanlu
or Tappeh Hassanlu (Persian: تپه حسنلو) is an archeological site of an ancient city[1] located in northwest Iran
Iran
(in the province of West Azerbaijan), a short distance south of Lake Urmia. The nature of its destruction at the end of the 9th century BC essentially froze one layer of the city in time, providing researchers with extremely well preserved buildings, artifacts, and skeletal remains from the victims and enemy combatants of the attack. Hasanlu Tepe is the largest site in the Gadar River valley and dominates the small plain known as Solduz. The site consists of a 25m high central "citadel" mound, with massive fortifications and paved streets, surrounded by a low outer town, 8m above the surrounding plain
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Tureng Tepe
Tureng Tepe
Tureng Tepe
(Persian: تورنگ تپه‎, "Hill of the Pheasants")[1] (alternatively spelled in English as Turang Tappe/Tape/Tappa/Tappeh) is a Neolithic
Neolithic
and Chalcolithic archaeological site in northeastern Iran, in the Gorgan
Gorgan
plain,[2][3] approximately 17 km northeast of the town of Gorgan.[4] Nearby is a village of Turang Tappeh.Contents1 Description 2 Figurines 3 Chronology3.1 Neolithic
Neolithic
and Chalcolithic 3.2 Bronze Age 3.3 Iron Age 3.4 Historical time4 See also 5 References 6 Additional sources 7 External linksDescription[edit] Tureng Tepe
Tureng Tepe
consists of a group of mounds interspersed with ponds and water courses. The whole archaeological pattern is about 800 – 900 m in diameter
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Old Assyrian Empire
 IraqThe Old Assyrian Empire is one of four periods in which the history of Assyria is divided, the other three being: the Early Assyrian Period, the Middle Assyrian Period and the New Assyrian Period. Assyria was a major Mesopotamian Semitic languages-speaking kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East. Centered on the Tigris-Euphrates River System in Upper Mesopotamia, the Assyrian people came to rule powerful empires at several times
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Godin Tepe
Godin Tepe is an archaeological site in western Iran, situated in the valley of Kangavar in Kermanshah Province. Discovered in 1961, the site was excavated from 1965 to 1973 by a Canadian expedition headed by T. Cuyler Young Jr. and sponsored by the Royal Ontario Museum (Toronto, Ontario, Canada).[1][2][3][4][5] The importance of the site may have been due to its role as a trading outpost in the early Mesopotamian trade networks.Contents1 Archaeology1.1 Seh Gabi 1.2 Level VIII 1.3 Level V1.3.1 Early wine-making1.4 Level IV 1.5 Level III 1.6 Level II 1.7 Level I2 See also 3 Notes 4 External links 5 ReferencesArchaeology[edit] The earliest evidence for occupation at Godin comes from Periods XI through VII, spanning the Early and Middle Chalcolithic. The site was already inhabited as early as c. 5200 BC. Seh Gabi[edit] Because Godin has such a deep stratigraphy, it was decided that a related site of Seh Gabi nearby should also be studied
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