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Ancient Carthage
Carthage
Carthage
(Punic: Qart-ḥadašt, 𐤒𐤓𐤕•𐤇𐤃𐤔𐤕‬, Qart-ḥadašt – "New City")[1] was the Phoenician city-state of Carthage
Carthage
and during the 7th to 3rd centuries BC, including its wider sphere of influence, the Carthaginian Empire. The empire extended over much of the coast of North Africa
North Africa
as well as encompassing substantial parts of coastal Iberia
Iberia
and the islands of the western Mediterranean Sea.[2] Carthage
Carthage
was founded in 814 BC.[3][4] A dependency of the Phoenician state of Tyre at the time, Carthage
Carthage
gained independence around 650 BC and established its political hegemony over other Phoenician settlements throughout the western Mediterranean, this lasting until the end of the 3rd century BC
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Aeneas
In Greco-Roman
Greco-Roman
mythology, Aeneas
Aeneas
(/ɪˈniːəs/;[1] Greek: Αἰνείας, Aineías, possibly derived from Greek αἰνή meaning "praised") was a Trojan hero, the son of the prince Anchises and the goddess Aphrodite
Aphrodite
(Venus). His father was a first cousin of King Priam
Priam
of Troy
Troy
(both being grandsons of Ilus, founder of Troy), making Aeneas
Aeneas
a second cousin to Priam's children (such as Hector
Hector
and Paris). He is a character in Greek mythology
Greek mythology
and is mentioned in Homer's Iliad. Aeneas
Aeneas
receives full treatment in Roman mythology, most extensively in Virgil's Aeneid, where he is an ancestor of Romulus
Romulus
and Remus
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Shophet
In Hebrew and several other Semitic languages, shopheṭ or shofeṭ (plural shophṭim or shofeṭim) literally means "Judge", from the verb "Š-P-Ṭ", "to pass judgment"
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City-state
A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories. Historically, this included cities such as Rome, Athens, Carthage,[1] and the Italian city-states
Italian city-states
during the Renaissance. As of March 2018 only a handful of sovereign city-states exist, with some disagreement as to which are city-states. A great deal of consensus exists that the term properly applies currently to Singapore, Monaco, and Vatican City. City states are also sometimes called micro-states which however also includes other configurations of very small countries. A number of other small states share similar characteristics, and therefore are sometimes also cited as modern city-states
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Spain
Coordinates: 40°N 4°W / 40°N 4°W / 40; -4Kingdom of SpainReino de España  (Spanish) 4 other official names[a][b] Catalan:Regne d'EspanyaBasque:Espainiako ErresumaGalician:Reino de EspañaOccitan:Reiaume d'Espanha Flag Coat of arms Motto: "Plus ultra" (Latin) "Further Beyond"Anthem: "Marcha Real" (Spanish)[2] "Royal March" Show globeShow map of EuropeLocation of .mw-parser-output .nobold font-weight:normal Spain (dark green)– in Europe (green & dark grey)– in the European Union (green)Capitaland largest cityMadrid40°26′N 3°42′W / 40.433°N 3.700°W / 40.433; -3.700Official language and national languageSpanish[c]Ethnic groups (2019)[4]89.67% Spaniards10.33% othersReligion (2019)[5]67.0% Catholicism27.2% No religion3.1% Other religionsDemonym(s)S
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Tyre, Lebanon
Tyre (Arabic: صور‎, Ṣūr; Phoenician: 𐤑𐤓‬, Ṣur; Hebrew: צוֹר‬, Tsor; Tiberian Hebrew
Tiberian Hebrew
צֹר‬, Ṣōr; Akkadian: 𒀫𒊒, Ṣurru; Greek: Τύρος, Týros; Turkish: Sur; Latin: Tyrus, Armenian: Տիր, Tir), sometimes romanized as Sour, is a district capital in the South Governorate
South Governorate
of Lebanon. There were approximately 117,000 inhabitants in 2003.[1] However, the government of Lebanon
Lebanon
has released only rough estimates of population numbers since 1932, so an accurate statistical accounting is not possible.[2] Tyre juts out from the coast of the Mediterranean and is located about 80 km (50 mi) south of Beirut. The name of the city means "rock"[3] after the rocky formation on which the town was originally built
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Gibraltar
Gibraltar
Gibraltar
(/dʒɪˈbrɔːltə/, /dʒɪˈbrɒltə/ or other permutations; Spanish pronunciation: [xiβɾalˈtaɾ]) is a British Overseas Territory
British Overseas Territory
located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.[8][9] It has an area of 6.7 km2 (2.6 sq mi) and is bordered to the north by Spain. The landscape is dominated by the Rock of Gibraltar
Rock of Gibraltar
at the foot of which is a densely populated city area, home to over 30,000 people, primarily Gibraltarians.[10] In 1704, Anglo-Dutch forces captured Gibraltar
Gibraltar
from Spain
Spain
during the War of the Spanish Succession
War of the Spanish Succession
on behalf of the Habsburg
Habsburg
claim to the Spanish throne
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France
France
France
(French: [fʁɑ̃s]), officially the French Republic (French: République française [ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛz]), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France
France
in western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France
France
extends from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the English Channel
English Channel
and the North Sea, and from the Rhine
Rhine
to the Atlantic Ocean. The overseas territories include French Guiana
French Guiana
in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans
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Algeria
Coordinates: 28°N 2°E / 28°N 2°E / 28; 2People's Democratic Republic
Republic
of Algeriaالجمهورية الجزائرية الديمقراطية الشعبية (Arabic)République Algérienne Démocratique et Populaire  (French) Flag Emblem Motto: بالشّعب وللشّعب("By the people and for the people")[1][2]Anthem: Kassaman(English: "We Pledge")Location of Algeria (dark green)Capitaland largest cityAlgiers36°42′N 3°13′E / 36.700°N 3.21
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Hispania
Hispania
Hispania
(/hɪˈspænjə, -eɪniə/; Latin: [hɪsˈpaːnia]) was the Roman and Greek name for the Iberian Peninsula. Under the Republic, Hispania
Hispania
was divided into two provinces: Hispania
Hispania
Citerior and Hispania
Hispania
Ulterior. During the Principate, Hispania Ulterior
Hispania Ulterior
was divided into two new provinces, Baetica
Baetica
and Lusitania, while Hispania Citerior was renamed Hispania
Hispania
Tarraconensis. Subsequently, the western part of Tarraconensis
Tarraconensis
was split off, first as Hispania
Hispania
Nova, later renamed Callaecia (or Gallaecia, whence modern Galicia)
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Lebanon
Coordinates: 33°50′N 35°50′E / 33.833°N 35.833°E / 33.833; 35.833Lebanese Republic الجمهورية اللبنانية (Arabic) al-Jumhūrīyah al-LubnānīyahFlagCoat of armsAnthem: كلّنا للوطن Kulluna lil-watan All Of Us, For the Country!Capital and largest city Beirut 33°54′N 35°32′E / 33.900°N 35.533°E / 33.900; 35.533Official languages Arabic[nb 1]Recognised languages FrenchDemonym LebaneseGovernment Unitary parliamentary multi-confessionalist republic[1]• PresidentMichel Aoun[2]• Prime MinisterSaad Hariri• Speaker of the ParliamentNabih BerriLegislature ParliamentEstablishment• Greater Lebanon1 September 1920• Constitution23 May 1926• Independence declared22 November 1943• Independence (Joined U
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Justin (historian)
Justin (Latin: Marcus Junianus Justinus Frontinus;[n 1] c. second century) was a Latin
Latin
historian who lived under the Roman Empire.Contents1 Life 2 Works 3 Legacy 4 Notes 5 References 6 Bibliography 7 External linksLife[edit] Almost nothing is known of Justin's personal history, his name appearing only in the title of his work. He must have lived after Gnaeus Pompeius Trogus, whose work he excerpted, and his references to the Romans and Parthians' having divided the world between themselves would have been anachronistic after the rise of the Sassanians in the third century. His Latin
Latin
appears to be consistent with the style of the second century
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Acerbas
Acerbas was a Tyrian priest of Hercules, who married Elissa, the daughter of king Mattan I, and sister of Pygmalion. He was possessed of considerable wealth, which, knowing the avarice of Pygmalion, who had succeeded his father, he concealed in the earth. But Pygmalion, who heard of these hidden treasures, had Acerbas murdered, in hopes that through his sister he might obtain possession of them
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Pygmalion Of Tyre
Pygmalion (also known as Pu'mayyaton) was king of Tyre[1] from 831 to 785 BC and a son of King Mattan I (840-832 BC). During Pygmalion's reign, Tyre seems to have shifted the heart of its trading empire from the Middle East
Middle East
to the Mediterranean, as can be judged from the building of new colonies including Kition
Kition
on Cyprus, Sardinia
Sardinia
(see Nora Stone
Nora Stone
discussion below), and, according to tradition, Carthage
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King
King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen regnant,[1] while the title of queen on its own usually refers to the consort of a king.In the context of prehistory, antiquity and contemporary indigenous peoples, the title may refer to tribal kingship. Germanic kingship is cognate with Indo-European traditions of tribal rulership (c.f. Indic rājan, Gothic reiks, and Old Irish rí, etc.). In the context of classical antiquity, king may translate in Latin as rex and in Greek as archon or basileus. In classical European feudalism, the title of king as the ruler of a kingdom is understood to be the highest rank in the feudal order, potentially subject, at least nominally, only to an emperor (harking back to the client kings of the Roman Empire).[2] In a modern context, the title may refer to the ruler of one of a number of modern monarchies (either absolute or constitutional)
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Melqart
Melqart
Melqart
(Phoenician: 𐤌𐤋𐤊𐤒𐤓𐤕‬, lit. Melek-qart, "King of the City";[1][2] Akkadian: Milqartu) was the tutelary god of the Phoenician city of Tyre. Melqart
Melqart
was often titled Ba‘l Ṣūr, "Lord of Tyre", and considered to be the ancestor of the Tyrian royal family.[citation needed] In Greek, by interpretatio graeca he was identified with Heracles
Heracles
and referred to as the Tyrian Herakles. As Tyrian trade and colonization expanded, Melqart
Melqart
became venerated in Phoenician and Punic
Punic
cultures from Lebanon to Spain
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