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Anaerobic Organism
An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth. It may react negatively or even die if oxygen is present. (In contrast, an aerobic organism (aerobe) is an organism that can survive and grow in an oxygenated environment.) An anaerobic organism may be unicellular (e.g
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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Hydrogen
Hydrogen
Hydrogen
is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1. With a standard atomic weight of 7000100800000000000♠1.008, hydrogen is the lightest element on the periodic table. Its monatomic form (H) is the most abundant chemical substance in the Universe, constituting roughly 75% of all baryonic mass.[7][note 1] Non-remnant stars are mainly composed of hydrogen in the plasma state. The most common isotope of hydrogen, termed protium (name rarely used, symbol 1H), has one proton and no neutrons. The universal emergence of atomic hydrogen first occurred during the recombination epoch. At standard temperature and pressure, hydrogen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, nonmetallic, highly combustible diatomic gas with the molecular formula H2. Since hydrogen readily forms covalent compounds with most nonmetallic elements, most of the hydrogen on Earth exists in molecular forms such as water or organic compounds
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Kilojoule Per Mole
The joule per mole (symbol: J·mole−1 or J/mol) is an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material. Energy is measured in joules, and the amount of material is measured in moles. For example, Gibbs free energy is quantified as joules per mole. Since 1 mole = 6.02214179×1023 particles (atoms, molecules, ions etc.), 1 Joule
Joule
per mole is equal to 1 Joule
Joule
multiplied by 6.02214179×1023 particles, or( 6.022×10^23 particles/mole),1.66054×10−24  Joule
Joule
per particle. This very small amount of energy is often expressed in terms of a smaller unit such as the electronvolt (eV, see below). Physical quantities measured in J·mol−1 usually describe quantities of energy transferred during phase transformations or chemical reactions
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Propionic Acid
Propionic acid
Propionic acid
(from the Greek words protos, meaning "first", and pion, meaning "fat"; also known as propanoic acid) is a naturally occurring carboxylic acid with chemical formula C2H5COOH. It is a liquid with a pungent and unpleasant smell somewhat resembling body odor
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Butanediol Fermentation
2,3- Butanediol fermentation is anaerobic fermentation of glucose with 2,3-butanediol
2,3-butanediol
as one of the end products. The overall stoichiometry of the reaction is2 pyruvate + NADH
NADH
--> 2CO2 + 2,3-butanediol. Butanediol fermentation is typical for the facultative anaerobes Klebsiella
Klebsiella
and Enterobacter[1] and is tested for using the Voges–Proskauer
Voges–Proskauer
(VP) test. The metabolic function of 2,3-butanediol
2,3-butanediol
is not known, although some have speculated that it was an evolutionary advantage for these microorganisms to produce a neutral product that's less inhibitory than other partial oxidation products and doesn't reduce the pH as much as mixed acids
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Stickland Fermentation
Stickland fermentation
Stickland fermentation
or The Stickland Reaction[1] is the name for a chemical reaction that involves the coupled oxidation and reduction of amino acids to organic acids. The electron donor amino acid is oxidised to a volatile carboxylic acid one carbon atom shorter than the original amino acid. For example, alanine with a three carbon chain is converted to acetate with two carbons. The electron acceptor amino acid is reduced to a volatile carboxylic acid the same length as the original amino acid. For example, glycine with two carbons is converted to acetate. In this way, amino acid fermenting microbes can avoid using hydrogen ions as electron acceptors to produce hydrogen gas. Amino acids can be Stickland acceptors, Stickland donors, or act as both donor and acceptor. Only histidine cannot be fermented by Stickland reactions, and is oxidised
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Acetogenesis
Acetogenesis is a process through which acetate is produced from CO2 and an electron source (e.g., H2, CO, formate, etc.) by anaerobic bacteria via the reductive acetyl-CoA or Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. The different bacterial species that are capable of acetogenesis are collectively termed acetogens. Some acetogens can synthesize acetate autotrophically from carbon dioxide and hydrogen gas.[1]Contents1 Discovery 2 Biochemistry 3 Applications 4 ReferencesDiscovery[edit] In 1932, organisms were discovered that could convert hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide into acetic acid. The first acetogenic bacterium species, Clostridium aceticum, was discovered in 1936 by Klaas Tammo Wieringa. A second species, Moorella thermoacetica, attracted wide interest when it was first isolated because of its ability to convert glucose into three moles of acetic acid.[2] Biochemistry[edit] The precursor to acetic acid is the thioester acetyl CoA
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Methanogenesis
Methanogenesis
Methanogenesis
or biomethanation is the formation of methane by microbes known as methanogens. Organisms capable of producing methane have been identified only from the domain Archaea, a group phylogenetically distinct from both eukaryotes and bacteria, although many live in close association with anaerobic bacteria. The production of methane is an important and widespread form of microbial metabolism. In most environments, it is the final step in the decomposition of biomass
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Dicotyledon
The dicotyledons, also known as dicots (or more rarely dicotyls[2]), are one of the two groups into which all the flowering plants or angiosperms were formerly divided. The name refers to one of the typical characteristics of the group, namely that the seed has two embryonic leaves or cotyledons. There are around 200,000 species within this group.[3] The other group of flowering plants were called monocotyledons or monocots, typically having one cotyledon. Historically, these two groups formed the two divisions of the flowering plants. Largely from the 1990s onwards, molecular phylogenetic research confirmed what had already been suspected, namely that dicotyledons are not a group made up of all the descendants of a common ancestor (i.e. they are not a monophyletic group). Rather, a number of lineages, such as the magnoliids and groups now collectively known as the basal angiosperms, diverged earlier than the monocots did. The traditional dicots are thus a paraphyletic group
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Sodium Borohydride
Sodium
Sodium
borohydride, also known as sodium tetrahydridoborate and sodium tetrahydroborate,[2] is an inorganic compound with the formula NaBH4. This white solid, usually encountered as a powder, is a reducing agent that finds wide application in chemistry, both in the laboratory and on a technical scale. It has been tested as pretreatment for pulping of wood, but is too costly to be commercialized.[3][4] The compound is soluble in alcohols, certain ethers, and even water, although it slowly hydrolyzes[5] The compound was discovered in the 1940s by H. I
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Sodium Bicarbonate
Sodium
Sodium
bicarbonate (IUPAC name: sodium hydrogen carbonate), commonly known as baking soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. It is a salt composed of sodium ions and bicarbonate ions. Sodium bicarbonate is a white solid that is crystalline but often appears as a fine powder. It has a slightly salty, alkaline taste resembling that of washing soda (sodium carbonate). The natural mineral form is nahcolite
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Loricifera
Loricifera
Loricifera
(from Latin, lorica, corselet (armour) + ferre, to bear) is a phylum of very small to microscopic marine cycloneuralian sediment-dwelling animals with 37 described species, in nine genera.[3][4][5] Aside from these described species, there are approximately 100 more that have been collected and not yet described.[4] Their sizes range from 100 µm to ca. 1 mm.[6] They are characterised by a protective outer case called a lorica and their habitat, which is in the spaces between marine gravel to which they attach themselves
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Mitochondria
1 Outer membrane1.1 Porin2 Intermembrane space2.1 Intracristal space 2.2 Peripheral space3 Lamella3.1 Inner membrane3.11 Inner boundary membrane 3.12 Cristal membrane3.2 Matrix 3.3 Cristæ4 Mitochondrial DNA 5 Matrix granule 6 Ribosome 7 ATP synthaseThe mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms. Some cells in some multicellular organisms may however lack them (for example, mature mammalian red blood cells). A number of unicellular organisms, such as microsporidia, parabasalids, and diplomonads, have also reduced or transformed their mitochondria into other structures.[1] To date, only one eukaryote, Monocercomonoides, is known to have completely lost its mitochondria.[2] The word mitochondrion comes from the Greek μίτος, mitos, "thread", and χονδρίον, chondrion, "granule"[3] or "grain-like"
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Hypersaline
A hypersaline lake is a landlocked body of water that contains significant concentrations of sodium chloride or other salts, with saline levels surpassing that of ocean water (3.5%, i.e. 35 grams per litre or 0.29 pounds per US gallon). Specific microbial and crustacean species thrive in these high salinity environments[1] that are inhospitable to most lifeforms. Some of these species enter a dormant state when desiccated, and some species are thought to survive for over 250 million years.[2] The water of hypersaline lakes has great buoyancy due to a high salt content. The most saline water body in the world is the Don Juan Pond, located in the McMurdo Dry Valleys
McMurdo Dry Valleys
in Antarctica. Its volume is some 3,000 cubic meters, but is constantly changing. The Don Juan Pond
Don Juan Pond
has a salinity level of over 44%,[3] (i.e. 12 times saltier than ocean water)
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Anoxic Waters
Anoxic waters
Anoxic waters
are areas of sea water, fresh water, or groundwater that are depleted of dissolved oxygen and are a more severe condition of hypoxia. The US Geological Survey defines anoxic groundwater as those with dissolved oxygen concentration of less than 0.5 milligrams per litre.[1] This condition is generally found in areas that have restricted water exchange. In most cases, oxygen is prevented from reaching the deeper levels by a physical barrier[2] as well as by a pronounced density stratification, in which, for instance, heavier hypersaline waters rest at the bottom of a basin. Anoxic conditions will occur if the rate of oxidation of organic matter by bacteria is greater than the supply of dissolved oxygen. Anoxic waters
Anoxic waters
are a natural phenomenon,[3] and have occurred throughout geological history
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