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Amortization
Amortization (or amortisation; see spelling differences) is paying off an amount owed over time by making planned, incremental payments of principal and interest. To amortize a loan means "to kill it off".[1] In accounting, amortization refers to charging or writing off an intangible asset's cost as an operational expense over its estimated useful life to reduce a company's taxable income.[2][1]Contents1 Etymology 2 Applications of amortization 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksEtymology[edit] The word comes from Middle English amortisen to kill, alienate in mortmain, from Anglo-French amorteser, alteration of amortir, from Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
admortire "to kill", from Latin
Latin
ad- and mort-, "death". Applications of amortization[edit]When used in the context of a home purchase, amortization is the process by which loan principal decreases over the life of a loan, typically an amortizing loan
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Spelling Differences
Many of the differences between American and British English
British English
date back to a time when spelling standards had not yet developed. For instance, some spellings seen as "American" today were once commonly used in Britain and some spellings seen as "British" were once commonly used in the United States
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Principal (finance)
In finance, a bond is an instrument of indebtedness of the bond issuer to the holders. The most common types of bonds include municipal bonds and corporate bonds. The bond is a debt security, under which the issuer owes the holders a debt and (depending on the terms of the bond) is obliged to pay them interest (the coupon) or to repay the principal at a later date, termed the maturity date.[1] Interest
Interest
is usually payable at fixed intervals (semiannual, annual, sometimes monthly). Very often the bond is negotiable, that is, the ownership of the instrument can be transferred in the secondary market. This means that once the transfer agents at the bank medallion stamp the bond, it is highly liquid on the secondary market.[2] Thus a bond is a form of loan or IOU: the holder of the bond is the lender (creditor), the issuer of the bond is the borrower (debtor), and the coupon is the interest
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Special
Special
Special
or the specials or variation, may refer to:.mw-parser-output .tocright float:right;clear:right;width:auto;background:none;padding:.5em 0 .8em 1.4em;margin-bottom:.5em .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-left clear:left .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-both clear:both .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-none clear:none Contents1 Policing 2 Literature 3 Film and television 4 Music4.1 Albums 4.2 Songs5 Computing 6 Other uses 7 See alsoPolicing[edit] Specials, Ulster
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Clifford Stein
Clifford Seth Stein (born December 14, 1965), a computer scientist, is a professor of industrial engineering and operations research at Columbia University
Columbia University
in New York, NY, where he also holds an appointment in the Department of Computer Science. Stein is chair of the Industrial Engineering and Operations Research Department at Columbia University
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Ron Rivest
Ronald Linn Rivest (/rɪˈvɛst/;[5][6] born May 6, 1947) is a cryptographer and an Institute Professor at MIT.[2] He is a member of MIT's Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
Computer Science
(EECS) and a member of MIT's Computer Science
Computer Science
and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL). He was a member of the Election Assistance Commission's Technical Guidelines Development Committee, tasked with assisting the EAC in drafting the Voluntary Voting
Voting
System Guidelines.[7] Rivest is one of the inventors of the RSA algorithm (along with Adi Shamir and Len Adleman).[1] He is the inventor of the symmetric key encryption algorithms RC2, RC4, RC5, and co-inventor of RC6. The "RC" stands for "Rivest Cipher", or alternatively, "Ron's Code"
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Charles E. Leiserson
Charles Eric Leiserson is a computer scientist, specializing in the theory of parallel computing and distributed computing, and particularly practical applications thereof. As part of this effort, he developed the Cilk multithreaded language. He invented the fat-tree interconnection network, a hardware-universal interconnection network used in many supercomputers, including the Connection Machine
Connection Machine
CM5, for which he was network architect. He helped pioneer the development of VLSI theory, including the retiming method of digital optimization with James B. Saxe and systolic arrays with H. T. Kung. He conceived of the notion of cache-oblivious algorithms, which are algorithms that have no tuning parameters for cache size or cache-line length, but nevertheless use cache near-optimally
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Thomas H. Cormen
Thomas H. Cormen[1] is the co-author of Introduction to Algorithms, along with Charles Leiserson, Ron Rivest, and Cliff Stein. In 2013, he published a new book titled Algorithms Unlocked. He is a professor of computer science at Dartmouth College
Dartmouth College
and former Chair of the Dartmouth College
Dartmouth College
Department of Computer Science. Between 2004 and 2008 he directed the Dartmouth College
Dartmouth College
Writing Program.[2] His research interests are algorithm engineering, parallel computing, speeding up computations with high latency.Contents1 Early life and education 2 Honors and awards 3 Bibliography 4 Notes 5 External linksEarly life and education[edit] Thomas H. Cormen was born in New York City
New York City
in 1956
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Zoning
Zoning
Zoning
is the process of dividing land in a municipality into zones (e.g. residential, industrial) in which certain land uses are permitted or prohibited.[1] In addition, the sizes, bulk, and placement of buildings may be regulated. The type of zone determines whether planning permission for a given development is granted. Zoning may specify a variety of outright and conditional uses of land. It may also indicate the size and dimensions of land area as well as the form and scale of buildings
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Algorithms
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm (/ˈælɡərɪðəm/ ( listen) AL-gə-ridh-əm) is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems. Algorithms can perform calculation, data processing and automated reasoning tasks. An algorithm is an effective method that can be expressed within a finite amount of space and time[1] and in a well-defined formal language[2] for calculating a function.[3] Starting from an initial state and initial input (perhaps empty),[4] the instructions describe a computation that, when executed, proceeds through a finite[5] number of well-defined successive states, eventually producing "output"[6] and terminating at a final ending state. The transition from one state to the next is not necessarily deterministic; some algorithms, known as randomized algorithms, incorporate random input.[7] The concept of algorithm has existed for centuries and the use of the concept can be ascribed to Greek mathematicians, e.g
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Analysis Of Algorithms
In computer science, the analysis of algorithms is the determination of the computational complexity of algorithms, that is the amount of time, storage and/or other resources necessary to execute them. Usually, this involves determining a function that relates the length of an algorithm's input to the number of steps it takes (its time complexity) or the number of storage locations it uses (its space complexity). An algorithm is said to be efficient when this function's values are small
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Computer Science
Computer science
Computer science
(sometimes called computation science or computing science, but not to be confused with computational science or software engineering) is the study of processes that interact with data and that can be represented as data in the form of programs. It enables the use of algorithms to manipulate, store, and communicate digital information. A computer scientist studies the theory of computation and the practice of designing software systems.[1] Its fields can be divided into theoretical and practical disciplines. Computational complexity theory
Computational complexity theory
is highly abstract, while computer graphics emphasizes real-world applications. Programming language theory considers approaches to the description of computational processes, while computer programming itself involves the use of programming languages and complex systems
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Intangible Property
Intangible property, also known as incorporeal property, describes something which a person or corporation can have ownership of and can transfer ownership to another person or corporation, but has no physical substance, for example brand identity or knowledge/intellectual property. It generally refers to statutory creations such as copyright, trademarks, or patents. It excludes tangible property like real property (land, buildings, and fixtures) and personal property (ships, automobiles, tools, etc.). In some jurisdictions intangible property are referred to as choses in action. Intangible property is used in distinction to tangible property. It is useful to note that there are two forms of intangible property: legal intangible property (which is discussed here) and competitive intangible property (which is the source from which legal intangible property is created but cannot be owned, extinguished, or transferred)
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Tax Law
Tax
Tax
law is an area of legal study dealing with the constitutional, common-law, statutory, tax treaty, and regulatory rules that constitute the law applicable to taxation.Contents1 Major issues 2 Education 3 Taxation by jurisdiction 4 See also 5 ReferencesMajor issues[edit] Primary taxation issues facing the governments world over include;Taxes on income and wealth (or estates). Taxation of capital gains versus labor income.[1] Ecotax
Ecotax
(short for Ecological taxation) refers to taxes intended to promote environmentally friendly activities via economic incentives. Tax
Tax
evasion and avoidance leading to reduced government revenue. Due to an Inefficient tax system in many underdeveloped countries, the majority of small businesses are not taxed.Education[edit]The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with North America and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject
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Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
Latin
or Sermō Vulgāris ("common speech") was a nonstandard form of Latin
Latin
(as opposed to Classical Latin, the standard and literary version of the language) spoken in the Mediterranean region during and after the classical period of the Roman Empire. It is from Vulgar Latin
Latin
that the Romance languages
Romance languages
developed; the best known are the national languages Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Romanian, and French. Works written in Latin
Latin
during classical times and the earlier Middle Ages used Classical Latin
Latin
rather than Vulgar Latin, with very few exceptions (most notably sections of Gaius Petronius' Satyricon). Because of its nonstandard nature, Vulgar Latin
Latin
had no official orthography
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Interest
Interest, in finance and economics, is payment from a borrower or deposit-taking financial institution to a lender or depositor of an amount above repayment of the principal sum (that is, the amount borrowed), at a particular rate.[1] It is distinct from a fee which the borrower may pay the lender or some third party. It is also distinct from dividend which is paid by a company to its shareholders (owners) from its profit or reserve, but not at a particular rate decided beforehand, rather on a pro rata basis as a share in the reward gained by risk taking entrepreneurs when the revenue earned exceeds the total costs.[2][3] For example, a customer would usually pay interest to borrow from a bank, so they pay the bank an amount which is more than the amount they borrowed; or a customer may earn interest on their savings, and so they may withdraw more than they originally deposited
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