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Amman Governorate
AMMAN GOVERNORATE, officially known as MUHAFAZAT AL-ASIMA (Arabic محافظة العاصمة, English translation: The Capital Governorate), is one of the governorates in Jordan . The governorate's capital is the city of Amman , which is also the country's capital. The administrative center of the governorate as well as all government offices and parliament are located in the Abdali district. The Amman Governorate has the largest population of the 12 governorates of Jordan . It borders Zarqa Governorate to the north and north east, the governorates of Balqa and Madaba to the west, Karak and Ma\'an governorates to the south. It also shares an international border with Saudi Arabia from the east. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Geography * 3 Demographics * 4 Administrative divisions * 4.1 Nahias * 4.2 Districts * 5 Towns and villages * 6 Education * 7 External links * 8 References HISTORYThe land covered by the Amman Governorate has been inhabited since the prehistoric age, ruins of civilizations as early as 7250 BC have been discovered at \ 'Ain Ghazal near Amman , the site itself is one of the largest prehistoric settlements in the Middle East. Amman was the capital and stronghold of the Ammonites , which they called Rabbath Ammon, the Ammonites ruled almost the entire land of the Capital Governorate
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Governorates Of Jordan
Jordan is divided into twelve governorates (_muhafazah _) by the administrative divisions system of the Ministry of Interior. In 1994, four new governorates were created: Jerash , Ajloun , Madaba and Aqaba . Jerash Governorate and Ajloun Governorate were split from Irbid Governorate , Madaba Governorate was split from Amman Governorate and Aqaba Governorate was split from Ma\'an Governorate . Governorates are further subdivided into districts (_liwa_) and often into sub-districts (_qda_). GEOGRAPHYGeographically, the governorates of Jordan are located in one of three regions: the North Region, Central Region and the South Region. The three geographical regions are not distributed by area or populations but rather by geographical connectivity and distance among the population centres. The South Region is separated from the Central Region by the Mountains of Moab in Karak Governorate . The population centres of the Central and North Region are separated geographically by the mountains of Jerash Governorate
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Jordan
JORDAN (/ˈdʒɔːrdən/ ; Arabic : الأردن‎‎ _Al-Urdunn_), officially THE HASHEMITE KINGDOM OF JORDAN ( Arabic : المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية‎‎ _Al-Mamlakah Al-Urdunnīyah Al-Ḥāshimīyah_), is an Arab kingdom in Western Asia , on the East Bank of the Jordan River . Jordan is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the east and south; Iraq to the north-east; Syria to the north; Israel , Palestine and the Dead Sea to the west; and the Red Sea in its extreme south-west. Jordan is strategically located at the crossroads of Asia, Africa and Europe. The capital, Amman , is Jordan's most populous city as well as the country's economic, political and cultural centre. What is now Jordan has been inhabited by humans since the Paleolithic period. Three stable kingdoms emerged there at the end of the Bronze Age : Ammon , Moab and Edom . Later rulers include the Nabataean Kingdom , the Roman Empire , and the Ottoman Empire . After the Great Arab Revolt against the Ottomans in 1916 during World War I , the Ottoman Empire was partitioned by Britain and France. The Emirate of Transjordan was established in 1921 by the then Emir Abdullah I and it became a British protectorate
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Amman
AMMAN (English: /ɑːˈmɑːn/ ; Arabic : عمّان‎‎ _ʻammān_ pronounced ) is the capital and most populous city of Jordan , and the country's economic, political and cultural centre. Situated in north-central Jordan, Amman is the administrative centre of the Amman Governorate . The city has a population of 4,007,526 and a land area of 1,680 square kilometres (648.7 sq mi). Today, Amman is considered to be among the most liberal and westernized Arab cities. It is a major tourist destination in the region, particularly among Arab and European tourists. The earliest evidence of settlement in the area is a Neolithic site known as \ 'Ain Ghazal . Its successor was known as "Rabbath Ammon", which was the capital of the Ammonites , then as "Philadelphia", and finally as Amman. It was initially built on seven hills but now spans over 19 hills combining 27 districts, which are administered by the Greater Amman Municipality headed by its mayor Aqel Biltaji . Areas of Amman have either gained their names from the hills (Jabal) or the valleys (Wadi) they lie on, such as Jabal Lweibdeh and Wadi Abdoun. East Amman is predominantly filled with historic sites that frequently host cultural activities, while West Amman is more modern and serves as the economic center of the city
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Governor
A GOVERNOR is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the executive branch of a non-sovereign or sub-national level of government, ranking under the head of state . In federations , _governor_ may be the title of a politician who governs a constituent state and may be either appointed or elected. The power of the individual governor can vary dramatically between political systems, with some governors having only nominal and largely ceremonial power, while others having a complete control over the entire government. Historically, the title can also apply to the executive officials acting as representatives of a chartered company which has been granted exercise of sovereignty in a colonial area, such as the British East India Company or the Dutch East India Company . These companies operate as a major state within a state with its own armed forces. There can also be non-political governors: high-ranking officials in private or similar governance such as commercial and non-profit management, styled governor(s), who simply _govern_ an institution, such as a corporation or a bank. For example, in the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth countries, there are prison governors ("wardens" in the United States ), school governors and bank governors. The adjective pertaining to a governor is _gubernatorial_, from the Latin root _gubernare_
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Greenwich Mean Time
TIME IN AFRICA UTC−01:00 Cape Verde Time UTC±00:00 Greenwich Mean Time UTC±00:00 UTC+01:00 Greenwich Mean Time Greenwich Mean Time+1 UTC+01:00 West Africa Time / Central European Time UTC+01:00 UTC+02:00 West Africa Time West Africa Summer Time UTC+02:00 Central Africa Time / South African Standard Time / Eastern European Time UTC+03:00 East Africa Time UTC+04:00 Mauritius Time / Seychelles Time Light colors indicate where standard time is observed all year; dark colors indicate where daylight savings is observed. NOTE: The islands of Cape Verde are to the west of the African mainland. GREENWICH MEAN TIME (GMT) is the mean solar time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich , London . GMT was formerly used as the international civil time standard, now superseded in that function by Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) . Today GMT is considered equivalent to UTC for UK civil purposes (but this is not formalised) and for navigation is considered equivalent to UT1 (the modern form of mean solar time at 0° longitude); these two meanings can differ by up to 0.9 s. Consequently, the term GMT should not be used for precise purposes
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Byzantine Empire
The BYZANTINE EMPIRE, also referred to as the EASTERN ROMAN EMPIRE, was the continuation of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, when its capital city was Constantinople
Constantinople
(modern-day Istanbul
Istanbul
, which had been founded as Byzantium
Byzantium
). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe
Europe
. Both "Byzantine Empire" and "Eastern Roman Empire" are historiographical terms created after the end of the realm; its citizens continued to refer to their empire as the _Roman Empire_ (Greek : Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr. _Basileia tôn Rhōmaiōn_; Latin : _Imperium Romanum_), or _Romania_ (Ῥωμανία), and to themselves as "Romans". Several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empire's Greek East and Latin West divided. Constantine I
Constantine I
(r
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Umm Ar-Rasas
UMM AR-RASAS (Arabic : أم الرّصاص‎‎) (Kastrom Mefa'a, Kastron Mefa'a) is located 30 km southeast of Madaba, which is the capital city of the Madaba Governorate in central Jordan. It was once accessible by branches of the King\'s Highway , and is situated in the semi-arid steppe region of the Jordanian Desert. The site has been allied to the biblical settlement of Mephaat mentioned in the Book of Jeremiah . The Roman military utilized the site as a strategic garrison, but it was later converted and inhabited by Christian and Islamic communities. In 2004, the site was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site , and is valued by archaeologists for its extensive ruins dating to the Roman, Byzantine, and early Muslim periods. Studium Biblicum Franciscanum carried out excavations at the north end of the site in 1986, but much of the area remains buried under debris. CONTENTS * 1 Early history * 2 Mosaics * 3 Byzantine period * 4 Muslim conquest * 5 Stylite tower * 6 Gallery * 7 See also * 8 References * 8.1 Bibliography * 9 External links EARLY HISTORYParticularly during the epochs of the Early Bronze Age III-IV, Iron Age II, and Roman-Byzantine eras, dense populations inhabited the topographical regions beyond the western banks of the Dead Sea . Among these ancient settlements, the site of Mephaat has been mentioned in biblical texts as one of the cities upon the plateau to be condemned to great destruction (Jeremiah 48:21)
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'Ain Ghazal
AYN GHAZAL ('Ain Ghazal, ʿayn ġazāl عين غزال ) is a neolithic archaeological site located in metropolitan Amman , Jordan , about 2 km north-west of Amman Civil Airport . CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Location & physical dimensions * 3 Economy * 4 Genetics * 5 Culture * 5.1 Statues * 5.2 Burial practices * 6 Excavation and conservation * 7 References * 8 External links BACKGROUNDThe settlement at 'Ain Ghazal ("Spring of the Gazelles") first appeared in the Middle Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (MPPNB ) and is split into two phases. Phase I starts circa 10,300 BP and ends c. 9,950 BP, while phase II ends c. 9,550 BP. The 9th millennium MPPNB period in the Levant represented a major transformation in prehistoric lifeways from small bands of mobile hunter–gatherers to large settled farming and herding villages in the Mediterranean zone, the process having been initiated some 2–3 millennia earlier. In its prime era circa 7000 BCE, the site extended over 10–15 hectares (25–37 ac) and was inhabited by ca. 3000 people (four to five times the population of contemporary Jericho ). After 6500 BC, however, the population dropped sharply to about one sixth within only a few generations, probably due to environmental degradation (Köhler-Rollefson 1992). LOCATION 81% of the figurines have been found to belong to the MPPNB while only 19% belonging to the LPPNB and PPNC. The vast majority of figurines are of cattle
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Jordan Archaeological Museum
The JORDAN ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM is located in the Amman Citadel of Amman , Jordan . Built in 1951, it presents artifacts from archaeological sites in Jordan, dating from prehistoric times to the 15th century. The collections are arranged in chronological order and include items of everyday life such as flint, glass, metal and pottery objects, as well as more artistic items such as jewelry and statues. The museum also includes a coin collection. The museum formerly housed some of the Dead Sea Scrolls , including the only copper scroll , which are now on display in the newly established Jordan Museum , along with the Ain Ghazal statues, which are among the oldest statues ever made by human civilization.. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Location * 3 Time Periods Represented * 4 References HISTORYThe museum was established in 1951 on top of the Amman Citadel in the heart of Amman . Another branch of the museum was established in East Jerusalem which was under Jordanian rule prior to the 1967 war . Once East Jerusalem fell to Israel in 1967, the museum lost all of its collection in the Jerusalem branch including most of the Dead Sea Scrolls . LOCATION ruins of the Roman Temple of Hercules on Citadel Hill The museum is located in the Amman Citadel in Amman , one of the oldest continuously inhabited places in the world
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Arabic Language
THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS ARABIC TEXT . Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols .ARABIC ( Arabic
Arabic
: العَرَبِيَّة‎‎, _al-ʻarabiyyah_ (_ listen ) or Arabic
Arabic
: عَرَبِيّ‎‎ ʻarabī_ (_ listen ) or ) is a Central Semitic language complex that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca _ of the Arab world . It is named after the Arabs
Arabs
, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east to the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. The modern written language ( Modern Standard Arabic ) is derived from Classical Arabic . It is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic
Arabic
(_fuṣḥā_), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam
Islam
. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary
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English Language
ENGLISH /ˈɪŋɡlɪʃ/ (_ listen ) is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca _. Named after the Angles , one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to England , it ultimately derives its name from the Anglia (Angeln) peninsula in the Baltic Sea . It is closely related to the Frisian languages , but its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages particularly Norse (a North Germanic language ), as well as by Latin and Romance languages , particularly French . English has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years. The earliest forms of English, a set of Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the 5th century, are called Old English . Middle English began in the late 11th century with the Norman conquest of England , and was a period in which the language was influenced by French. Early Modern English began in the late 15th century with the introduction of the printing press to London and the King James Bible , and the start of the Great Vowel Shift . Through the worldwide influence of the British Empire , modern English spread around the world from the 17th to mid-20th centuries
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Al Abdali
Coordinates : 31°57′52″N 35°54′23″E / 31.96444°N 35.90639°E / 31.96444; 35.90639 Al-Abdali العبدلي District Al-Abdali location in Amman Governorate FLAG COUNTRY Jordan GOVERNORATE Amman Governorate AREA • DISTRICT 15 km2 (6 sq mi) ELEVATION 800-970 m (2,624-3,185 ft) POPULATION • URBAN 165,333 AL-ABDALI (Arabic : العبدلي‎‎) is the 9th district in the Amman Governorate out of the 27 districts, it is named relative to King Abdullah I who founded it during the 1940s. It covers an area of 15 square kilometres (6 sq mi) in the heart of Amman , with an estimated population of 165,333. Large parts of the district are residential, but due its geographical location in the center of the city, it contains several important governmental buildings and businesses. The area is known for containing several bus stations serving routes to many cities in Jordan . CONTENTS * 1 Neighborhoods * 2 The Central Business District of Amman * 3 Gallery * 4 References NEIGHBORHOODSThe district consists of 4 neighborhoods Jabal Al-Hussein, Jabal Al-Lweibdeh, Shmeisani , and Al-Madineh Al-Riyadiyah. Jabal Al-Hussein and Jabal Al-Lweibdeh are among the oldest neighborhoods in the city, they have been marked by the Greater Amman Municipality as of great historical significance. They are preferred by several western expatriates who work or study in Amman , as their accommodate
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Zarqa Governorate
ZARQA GOVERNORATE (Arabic محافظة الزرقاء Muħāfazat az-Zarqāʔ, local dialects ez-Zergā or ez-Zer'a) is the third largest governorate in Jordan by population. The capital of Zarqa governorate is Zarqa City, which is the largest city in the governorate. It is located 25 kilometres (16 mi) east of the Jordanian capital Amman . The second largest city in the governorate is Russeifa . Zarqa Governorate hosts the largest military and air bases of the Jordanian armed forces. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Geography * 3 Demographics * 4 Administrative divisions * 5 Economy * 6 References HISTORY The city of Russeifa The land of Zarqa Governorate has been inhabited since the Bronze Age , most prominent were the Ammonite kingdom and the Nabateans , who constructed the fort known as Qasr al Hallabat , which then was used as a fort by the Romans, and then as a desert palace by the Umayyads . The wetlands in Azraq The most significant historical remains are the Umayyad desert palaces, such as Qasr Amra , a World Heritage site, Qasr al Hallabat , Qasr Shabib in the center of the city of Zarqa, as well as the Castle of Azraq. The Castle of Azraq After the construction of the Hedjaz railway by the Ottoman Turks at the beginning of the 1900s, Zarqa became a strategically important hub that connects Damascus to Medina , the cities along the railway started flourishing
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Balqa Governorate
BALQA\' (Arabic : البلقاء‎‎ Al Balqā’) is one of the governorates of Jordan . It is located northwest of Amman , Jordan's capital. The governorate has the fourth largest population of the 12 governorates of Jordan, and is ranked 10th by area. It has the third highest population density in the kingdom after Irbid Governorate and Jerash Governorate . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Administrative divisions * 3 Demographics * 4 Economy * 5 Gallery * 6 References HISTORYThe historical name Balqa' was applied to the entire area of the eastern plateau of the Jordan valley as early as the 7th century when Heraclius ' brother Theodore fought an early campaign against the Arabs on the approaches to southern Syria. During World War I , the British army led by General Edmund Allenby entered Salt on 24th of March 1918, in the Battles for Amman campaign, marking the end of a 500-year Ottoman rule. On March 21, 1968, the town of Karameh near Shouna al-Janubiyya was the site of Battle of Karameh , between Israel on one side, and Jordan and Palestinian forces (Fatah , PLO ) on the other side. It was one of the largest military confrontations of the War of Attrition , in the period between the Six-Day War of 1967 and the Yom Kippur War of 1973. Ottoman prisoners near Salt during World War I Battles for Amman ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONSThe capital of the Balqa' Governorate is Salt
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