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Amman Citadel
Coordinates : 31°57′17″N 35°56′03″E / 31.9547°N 35.9343°E / 31.9547; 35.9343 The AMMAN CITADEL is a historical site at the center of downtown Amman , Jordan . Known in Arabic as _JABAL AL-QAL\'A_, (_جبل القلعة_), the L-shaped hill is one of the seven _jabals_(mountains) that originally made up Amman. Evidence of occupation since the pottery Neolithic period has been found. It was inhabited by different peoples and cultures until the time of the Umayyads , after which came a period of decline and for much of the time until 1878 the former city became an abandoned pile of ruins only sporadically used by Bedouin and seasonal farmers. Despite this gap, the Citadel of Amman is considered to be among the world's oldest continuously inhabited places. The Citadel is considered an important site because it has had a long history of occupation by many great civilizations. Most of the buildings still visible at the site are from the Roman, Byzantine, and Umayyad periods. The major buildings at the site are the Temple of Hercules , a Byzantine church, and the Umayyad Palace . Though the fortification walls enclose the heart of the site, the ancient periods of occupation covered large areas
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Amman
AMMAN (English: /ɑːˈmɑːn/ ; Arabic : عمّان‎‎ _ʻammān_ pronounced ) is the capital and most populous city of Jordan , and the country's economic, political and cultural centre. Situated in north-central Jordan, Amman is the administrative centre of the Amman Governorate . The city has a population of 4,007,526 and a land area of 1,680 square kilometres (648.7 sq mi). Today, Amman is considered to be among the most liberal and westernized Arab cities. It is a major tourist destination in the region, particularly among Arab and European tourists. The earliest evidence of settlement in the area is a Neolithic site known as \ 'Ain Ghazal . Its successor was known as "Rabbath Ammon", which was the capital of the Ammonites , then as "Philadelphia", and finally as Amman. It was initially built on seven hills but now spans over 19 hills combining 27 districts, which are administered by the Greater Amman Municipality headed by its mayor Aqel Biltaji . Areas of Amman have either gained their names from the hills (Jabal) or the valleys (Wadi) they lie on, such as Jabal Lweibdeh and Wadi Abdoun. East Amman is predominantly filled with historic sites that frequently host cultural activities, while West Amman is more modern and serves as the economic center of the city
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Jordan
JORDAN (/ˈdʒɔːrdən/ ; Arabic : الأردن‎‎ _Al-Urdunn_), officially THE HASHEMITE KINGDOM OF JORDAN ( Arabic : المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية‎‎ _Al-Mamlakah Al-Urdunnīyah Al-Ḥāshimīyah_), is an Arab kingdom in Western Asia , on the East Bank of the Jordan River . Jordan is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the east and south; Iraq to the north-east; Syria to the north; Israel , Palestine and the Dead Sea to the west; and the Red Sea in its extreme south-west. Jordan is strategically located at the crossroads of Asia, Africa and Europe. The capital, Amman , is Jordan's most populous city as well as the country's economic, political and cultural centre. What is now Jordan has been inhabited by humans since the Paleolithic period. Three stable kingdoms emerged there at the end of the Bronze Age : Ammon , Moab and Edom . Later rulers include the Nabataean Kingdom , the Roman Empire , and the Ottoman Empire . After the Great Arab Revolt against the Ottomans in 1916 during World War I , the Ottoman Empire was partitioned by Britain and France. The Emirate of Transjordan was established in 1921 by the then Emir Abdullah I and it became a British protectorate
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Arabic
THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS ARABIC TEXT . Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols .ARABIC ( Arabic : العَرَبِيَّة‎‎, _al-ʻarabiyyah_ (_ listen ) or Arabic : عَرَبِيّ‎‎ ʻarabī_ (_ listen ) or ) is a Central Semitic language complex that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca _ of the Arab world . It is named after the Arabs , a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti- Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. The modern written language ( Modern Standard Arabic ) is derived from Classical Arabic . It is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (_fuṣḥā_), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam . Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary . However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties
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Neolithic
farming , animal husbandry pottery , metallurgy , wheel circular ditches , henges , megaliths Neolithic religion Chalcolithic The NEOLITHIC /ˌniːəˈlɪθᵻk/ ( listen ) AGE, ERA, or PERIOD, or NEW STONE AGE, was a period in the development of human technology , beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology , in some parts of the Middle East, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC. Traditionally considered the last part of the Stone Age
Stone Age
, the Neolithic
Neolithic
followed the terminal Holocene
Holocene
_ Epipaleolithic _ period and commenced with the beginning of farming , which produced the " Neolithic Revolution ". It ended when metal tools became widespread (in the Copper Age or Bronze Age
Bronze Age
; or, in some geographical regions, in the Iron Age
Iron Age
). The Neolithic
Neolithic
is a progression of behavioral and cultural characteristics and changes, including the use of wild and domestic crops and of domesticated animals . The beginning of the Neolithic
Neolithic
culture is considered to be in the Levant
Levant
( Jericho , modern-day West Bank
West Bank
) about 10,200–8800 BC
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Umayyads
The UMAYYAD CALIPHATE ( Arabic
Arabic
: ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة‎‎, trans. _Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah_), also spelled OMAYYAD, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad
Muhammad
. This caliphate was centred on the Umayyad dynasty ( Arabic
Arabic
: ٱلأُمَوِيُّون‎‎, _al-ʾUmawiyyūn_, or بَنُو أُمَيَّة, _Banū ʾUmayya_, "Sons of Umayya "), hailing from Mecca
Mecca
. The Umayyad family had first come to power under the third caliph, Uthman ibn Affan
Uthman ibn Affan
(r. 644–656), but the Umayyad regime was founded by Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan , long-time governor of Syria
Syria
, after the end of the First Muslim Civil War in AD 661/41 AH . Syria remained the Umayyads' main power base thereafter, and Damascus
Damascus
was their capital. The Umayyads continued the Muslim conquests , incorporating the Caucasus
Caucasus
, Transoxiana , Sindh
Sindh
, the Maghreb
Maghreb
and the Iberian Peninsula ( Al-Andalus ) into the Muslim world
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List Of Oldest Continuously Inhabited Cities
This is a list of present-day cities by the time period over which they have been CONTINUOUSLY INHABITED. The age claims listed are generally disputed. Differences in opinion can result from different definitions of "city " as well as "continuously inhabited" and historical evidence is often disputed. Caveats (and sources) to the validity of each claim are discussed in the "Notes" column. CONTENTS * 1 World * 2 Africa * 2.1 Northern and the Horn * 2.2 Sub-Saharan * 3 Americas * 3.1 North America * 3.2 South America * 4 Asia * 4.1 Central and Southern * 4.2 Eastern * 4.3 Southeastern * 4.4 Western * 5 Australasia * 6 Europe * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links WORLD Ruins of Port in Byblos
Byblos
Several cities listed here, which are over 5000 years old, popularly claim to be "THE OLDEST CITY IN THE WORLD"
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Temple Of Hercules (Jordan)
TEMPLE OF HERCULES is a historic site in the Amman Citadel in Amman , Jordan . It was built in the same period as the Roman amphitheater below between (162-166) AD. It is thought to be the most significant Roman structure in the Amman Citadel , according to an inscription the temple was built when Geminius Marcianus was governor of the Province of Arabia (AD 162-166). The site also contains a hand carved out of stones resembling the hand of Hercules. REFERENCES * ^ "Temple of Hercules, Citadel, Amman, Jordan". art-and-archaeology.com. * ^ "The Temple of Hercules". Rough Guides. Coordinates : 31°57′14″N 35°56′06″E / 31.9538°N 35.9349°E / 31.9538; 35.9349 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Temple_of_Hercules_(Amman) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Umayyad Palace
The UMAYYAD PALACE is a large palatial complex from the Umayyad period, located on the Citadel Hill (Jabal al-Qal'a) of Amman , Jordan . Built during the first half of the 8th century, it is now largely ruined, with a restored domed entrance chamber, known as the "kiosk" or "monumental gateway"
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Middle Bronze Age
arsenical bronze writing , literature sword , chariot ↓Iron Age The BRONZE AGE is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze , proto-writing , and other early features of urban civilization . The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the three-age Stone-Bronze-Iron system , as proposed in modern times by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen , for classifying and studying ancient societies. An ancient civilization is defined to be in the Bronze Age either by producing bronze by smelting its own copper and alloying with tin , arsenic , or other metals, or by trading for bronze from production areas elsewhere. Bronze itself is harder and more durable than other metals available at the time, allowing Bronze Age civilisations to gain a technological advantage. Copper-tin ores are rare, as reflected in the fact that there were no tin bronzes in Western Asia before trading in bronze began in the 3rd millennium BC . Worldwide, the Bronze Age generally followed the Neolithic period, with the Chalcolithic serving as a transition. Although the Iron Age generally followed the Bronze Age, in some areas (such as Sub-Saharan Africa ), the Iron Age intruded directly on the Neolithic. Bronze Age cultures differed in their development of the first writing . According to archaeological evidence, cultures in Mesopotamia (cuneiform script ) and Egypt (hieroglyphs ) developed the earliest viable writing systems
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Iron Age
The IRON AGE is an archaeological era , referring to a period of time in the prehistory and protohistory of the Old World ( Afro-Eurasia ) when the dominant toolmaking material was iron . It is commonly preceded by the Bronze Age in Europe and Asia and the Stone Age in Africa, with exceptions. Meteoric iron has been used by humans since at least 3200 BC. Ancient iron production did not become widespread until the ability to smelt iron ore , remove impurities and regulate the amount of carbon in the alloy were developed. The start of the Iron Age proper is considered by many to fall between around 1200 BC and 600 BC, depending on the region
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Amman Citadel Inscription
The AMMAN CITADEL INSCRIPTION is the oldest known inscription in the so-called Ammonite language . It was discovered in 1961 in the Amman Citadel , and first published in full in 1968 by Siegfried Horn . The inscription is now in the Jordan Archaeological Museum . It is the third longest Semitic stone inscription ever found, after the Mesha Stele and the Siloam inscription . CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Bibliography * 3 Websites * 4 References DESCRIPTIONThe inscription is carved into a white limestone block of approximately 26 × 19 cm in size, with parts of the inscription lost. Most letters are clearly visible, and the stone has few traces of erosion and was therefore probably not exposed to the elements. The inscription contains eight lines. The left and right sides of the inscription are missing parts, and the bottom line does not seem to include the end of the inscription. The top line is thought to be the beginning of the inscription since there is space above it. In the eight lines, 93 letters are shown, which are interpreted to be spread between about 33 words. The size and shape of individual letters vary considerably, suggesting that the inscription comes from a novice scribe. Numerous letters have unusual shapes, for example the Heth has only two cross beams, compared to the usual three, similar to the Mesha stele
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Phoenician Alphabet
_ Egyptian hieroglyphs _ 32 c. BCE * _ Hieratic _ 32 c. BCE * _Demotic _ 7 c. BCE * _Meroitic _ 3 c. BCE* _ Proto-Sinaitic _ 19 c. BCE * _Ugaritic _ 15 c. BCE* _Epigraphic South Arabian _ 9 c. BCE * Ge’ez 5–6 c. BCE* _Phoenician_ 12 c. BCE * _ Paleo-Hebrew _ 10 c. BCE * Samaritan 6 c. BCE* _ Libyco-Berber 3 c. BCE_ * Tifinagh * _Paleohispanic _ (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE* Aramaic 8 c. BCE * _ Kharoṣṭhī _ 4 c. BCE* _Brāhmī _ 4 c. BCE * Brahmic family _(see)_ * E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE * Hangul (core letters only) 1443* Devanagari 13 c. CE * Canadian syllabics 1840 * Hebrew 3 c. BCE* _Pahlavi _ 3 c. BCE * _Avestan _ 4 c. CE * _Palmyrene _ 2 c. BCE* Syriac 2 c. BCE * _Nabataean _ 2 c. BCE * Arabic 4 c. CE * N\'Ko 1949 CE* _Sogdian _ 2 c. BCE * _Orkhon (old Turkic)_ 6 c. CE * _Old Hungarian _ c. 650 CE* _Old Uyghur _ * Mongolian 1204 CE * Mandaic 2 c. CE* Greek 8 c. BCE * _Etruscan _ 8 c. BCE * Latin 7 c. BCE * Cherokee (syllabary; letter forms only) c. 1820 CE * _Runic _ 2 c. CE * _ Ogham _ (origin uncertain) 4 c. CE * _Coptic _ 3 c. CE * _Gothic _ 3 c. CE * Armenian 405 CE * Georgian (origin uncertain) c. 430 CE * _ Glagolitic _ 862 CE* Cyrillic c
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Assyria
ASSYRIA was a major Mesopotamian East Semitic-speaking kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant . It existed as a state from perhaps as early as the 25th century BC in the form of the Assur city-state, until its lapse between 612 BC and 599 BC, spanning the Early to Middle Bronze Age through to the late Iron Age . After its fall from power by the early 6th century BC, Assyria endured for the next thirteen centuries a geopolitical region and province of other empires, although between the mid-2nd century BC and late 3rd century AD a patchwork of small independent Assyrian kingdoms arose in the form of Ashur , Adiabene , Osroene , Beth Nuhadra , Beth Garmai and Hatra during the Parthian and early Sasanian Empires , a period which also saw Assyria become a major centre of Syriac Christianity and the birthplace of the Church of the East . Centered on the Tigris in Upper Mesopotamia (modern northern Iraq , northeastern Syria , southeastern Turkey and the northwestern fringes of Iran ), the Assyrians came to rule powerful empires at several times
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Babylonian Empire
BABYLONIA was an ancient Akkadian -speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq ). A small Amorite -ruled state emerged in 1894 BC, which contained at this time the minor administrative town of Babylon . Babylon greatly expanded from the small provincial town that it had originally been during the Akkadian Empire (2335-2154 BC) during the reign of Hammurabi in the first half of the 18th century BC, becoming a major capital city. During the reign of Hammurabi and afterwards, Babylonia was called Māt Akkadī "the country of Akkad" in the Akkadian language. It was often involved in rivalry with its older fellow Akkadian-speaking state of Assyria in northern Mesopotamia, as well as Elam to the east, in Ancient Iran . Babylonia briefly became the major power in the region after Hammurabi (fl. c. 1792 – 1752 BC middle chronology, or c. 1696 – 1654 BC, short chronology ) created a short-lived empire, succeeding the earlier Akkadian Empire , Third Dynasty of Ur , and Old Assyrian Empire ; however, the Babylonian empire rapidly fell apart after the death of Hammurabi and reverted back to a small kingdom. The Babylonian state, like Assyria to the north, retained the written Akkadian language for official use (the language of its native populace), despite its Northwest Semitic -speaking Amorite founders and Kassite successors, who spoke a language isolate , not being native Mesopotamians
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