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Amman Citadel
Coordinates : 31°57′17″N 35°56′03″E / 31.9547°N 35.9343°E / 31.9547; 35.9343 The AMMAN CITADEL is a historical site at the center of downtown Amman
Amman
, Jordan
Jordan
. Known in Arabic
Arabic
as JABAL AL-QAL\'A, (جبل القلعة), the L-shaped hill is one of the seven jabals(mountains) that originally made up Amman. Evidence of occupation since the pottery Neolithic
Neolithic
period has been found. It was inhabited by different peoples and cultures until the time of the Umayyads
Umayyads
, after which came a period of decline and for much of the time until 1878 the former city became an abandoned pile of ruins only sporadically used by Bedouin and seasonal farmers. Despite this gap, the Citadel of Amman
Amman
is considered to be among the world's oldest continuously inhabited places
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Ayyubid Dynasty
The AYYUBID DYNASTY (Arabic : الأيوبيون‎‎ al-Ayyūbīyūn; Kurdish : خانەدانی ئەیووبیان‎ Xanedana Eyûbiyan) was a Sunni
Sunni
Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origin, founded by Saladin
Saladin
and centered in Egypt
Egypt
. The dynasty ruled large parts of the Middle East
Middle East
during the 12th and 13th centuries. Saladin had risen to vizier of Fatimid Egypt
Egypt
in 1169, before abolishing the Fatimids in 1171. Three years later, he was proclaimed sultan following the death of his former master, the Zengid ruler Nur al-Din
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Ayyubid
The AYYUBID DYNASTY (Arabic : الأيوبيون‎‎ al-Ayyūbīyūn; Kurdish : خانەدانی ئەیووبیان‎ Xanedana Eyûbiyan) was a Sunni
Sunni
Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origin, founded by Saladin
Saladin
and centered in Egypt
Egypt
. The dynasty ruled large parts of the Middle East
Middle East
during the 12th and 13th centuries. Saladin had risen to vizier of Fatimid Egypt
Egypt
in 1169, before abolishing the Fatimids in 1171. Three years later, he was proclaimed sultan following the death of his former master, the Zengid ruler Nur al-Din
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Hellenistic Period
The HELLENISTIC PERIOD covers the period of ancient Greek (Hellenic) history and Mediterranean
Mediterranean
history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
as signified by the Battle of Actium
Battle of Actium
in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt
Egypt
the following year. At this time, Greek cultural influence and power was at its peak in Europe
Europe
, Africa
Africa
and Asia
Asia
, experiencing prosperity and progress in the arts , exploration , literature , theatre , architecture , music , mathematics , philosophy , and science . It is often considered a period of transition, sometimes even of decadence or degeneration , compared to the enlightenment of the Greek Classical era
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Achaemenid Empire
The ACHAEMENID EMPIRE (/əˈkiːmənɪd/ ; c. 550–330 BC), also called the FIRST PERSIAN EMPIRE, was an empire based in Western Asia , founded by Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great
. Ranging at its greatest extent from the Balkans
Balkans
and Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
proper in the west to the Indus Valley in the east, it was one of the largest empires in history , spanning 5.5 million square kilometers, and was larger than any previous empire in history . It is equally notable for its successful model of a centralised, bureaucratic administration (through satraps under the King of Kings ), for building infrastructure such as road systems and a postal system , the use of an official language across its territories, and the development of civil services and a large professional army. The empire's successes inspired similar systems in later empires
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Babylonian Empire
BABYLONIA was an ancient Akkadian
Akkadian
-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
(present-day Iraq
Iraq
). A small Amorite
Amorite
-ruled state emerged in 1894 BC, which contained at this time the minor administrative town of Babylon
Babylon

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Umayyad Caliphate
The UMAYYAD CALIPHATE ( Arabic
Arabic
: ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة‎‎, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelled OMAYYAD, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad
Muhammad
. This caliphate was centred on the Umayyad dynasty ( Arabic
Arabic
: ٱلأُمَوِيُّون‎‎, al-ʾUmawiyyūn, or بَنُو أُمَيَّة, Banū ʾUmayya, "Sons of Umayya "), hailing from Mecca
Mecca
. The Umayyad family had first come to power under the third caliph, Uthman ibn Affan (r. 644–656), but the Umayyad regime was founded by Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan , long-time governor of Syria
Syria
, after the end of the First Muslim Civil War in AD 661/41 AH
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Byzantine Empire
The BYZANTINE EMPIRE, also referred to as the EASTERN ROMAN EMPIRE, was the continuation of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, when its capital city was Constantinople
Constantinople
(modern-day Istanbul
Istanbul
, which had been founded as Byzantium
Byzantium
). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe
Europe

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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Dawn Chatty
DAWN CHATTY, FBA (born 16 October 1947) is an American social anthropologist and academic, who specialises in the Middle East
Middle East
, nomadic pastoral tribes , and refugees . From 2010 to 2015, she was Professor
Professor
of Anthropology and Forced Migration at the University of Oxford . CONTENTS * 1 Early life and education * 2 Academic career * 3 Personal life * 4 Honours * 5 Selected works * 6 References EARLY LIFE AND EDUCATIONChatty was born on 16 October 1947 in New York City
New York City
, United States, to Diaeddine Chatty and Eleonora Swanson (née Dorfman). She was educated at Wakefield High School in Arlington County
Arlington County
, Virginia
Virginia
, and was a member of the class of 1965
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The United States Agency For International Development
The UNITED STATES AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (USAID) is an independent agency of the United States federal government that is primarily responsible for administering civilian foreign aid and development assistance . With a budget of over $27 billion, USAID is one of the largest official aid agencies in the world, and accounts for more than half of all U.S. foreign assistance (which in absolute dollar terms is the highest in the world). Congress passed the Foreign Assistance Act on September 4, 1961, which reorganized U.S. foreign assistance programs and mandated the creation of an agency to administer economic aid. USAID was subsequently established by the executive order of President John F. Kennedy , who sought to unite several existing foreign assistance organizations and programs under one agency. USAID became the first U.S. foreign assistance organization whose primary focus was long-term socioeconomic development
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Assyria
ASSYRIA was a major Mesopotamian
Mesopotamian
kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant
Levant
. It existed as a state from perhaps as early as the 25th century BC in the form of the Assur city-state, until its collapse between 612 BC and 609 BC, spanning the Early to Middle Bronze Age
Bronze Age
through to the late Iron Age
Iron Age

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Umayyads
The UMAYYAD CALIPHATE ( Arabic
Arabic
: ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة‎‎, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelled OMAYYAD, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad
Muhammad
. This caliphate was centred on the Umayyad dynasty
Umayyad dynasty
( Arabic
Arabic
: ٱلأُمَوِيُّون‎‎, al-ʾUmawiyyūn, or بَنُو أُمَيَّة, Banū ʾUmayya, "Sons of Umayya "), hailing from Mecca
Mecca
. The Umayyad family had first come to power under the third caliph, Uthman ibn Affan (r. 644–656), but the Umayyad regime was founded by Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan , long-time governor of Syria
Syria
, after the end of the First Muslim Civil War in AD 661/41 AH
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Neolithic
farming , animal husbandry pottery , metallurgy , wheel circular ditches , henges , megaliths Neolithic religion Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
The NEOLITHIC /ˌniːəˈlɪθᵻk/ ( listen ) AGE, ERA, or PERIOD, or NEW STONE AGE, was a period in the development of human technology , beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology , in some parts of the Middle East, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC. Traditionally considered the last part of the Stone Age
Stone Age
, the Neolithic
Neolithic
followed the terminal Holocene
Holocene
Epipaleolithic
Epipaleolithic
period and commenced with the beginning of farming , which produced the " Neolithic Revolution "
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