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American River
The AMERICAN RIVER (RíO DE LOS AMERICANOS during the period before 1847 ruled by Mexico) is a 120-mile-long river in California
California
that runs from the Sierra Nevada mountain range to its confluence with the Sacramento River
Sacramento River
in the Sacramento Valley . Via the Sacramento
Sacramento
River, it is part of the San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
watershed. This river is fed by the melting snowpack of the Sierra Nevada and its many headwaters and tributaries, including the North Fork American River , the Middle Fork American River
American River
, and the South Fork American River
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Gabriel Moraga
GABRIEL MORAGA (1765 – June 14, 1823) was a Spanish army officer in the Viceroyalty of New Spain , an Alta California
Alta California
explorer, and son of the pioneer José Joaquín Moraga . Although born in Fronteras
Fronteras
, Sonora, Mexico, Moraga spent most of his life in Alta California
Alta California
. He died in Santa Barbara . CONTENTS * 1 De Anza expeditions * 2 Early career * 3 Central Valley * 4 Legacy * 5 References * 6 External links DE ANZA EXPEDITIONSThe elder Moraga was a member of both expeditions of Juan Bautista de Anza to explore and consolidate the north-western limits of Spain\'s colonial claims in Alta California
Alta California
. The first expedition in 1774 established a new overland route from Sonora, Mexico to Mission San Gabriel . The second, in 1775-6, went as far north as San Francisco Bay
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Marsh
A MARSH is a wetland that is dominated by herbaceous rather than woody plant species. Marshes can often be found at the edges of lakes and streams, where they form a transition between the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems . They are often dominated by grasses, rushes or reeds. If woody plants are present they tend to be low-growing shrubs. This form of vegetation is what differentiates marshes from other types of wetland such as swamps , which are dominated by trees, and mires , which are wetlands that have accumulated deposits of acidic peat
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Ebbetts Pass
EBBETTS PASS, named after John Ebbetts, (el. 8,736 ft or 2,663 m) is a high mountain pass through the Sierra Nevada range in Alpine County, California . Ebbetts is the eastern of two passes in the area traversed by State Route 4 . The western pass is the Pacific Grade Summit (el 8,050 ft or 2,450 m). The pass is registered as a California Historical Landmark
California Historical Landmark
. The Pacific Crest Trail , a 2,650-mile (4,260 km) long National Scenic Trail crosses State Route 4 at Ebbetts Pass
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Roundhouse (dwelling)
A ROUNDHOUSE is a type of house with a circular plan, usually with a conical roof. In the later part of the 20th century modern designs of roundhouse eco-buildings started to be built using techniques such as cob , cordwood or straw bale walls and reciprocal frame green roofs . CONTENTS* 1 Europe * 1.1 British Isles * 1.1.1 Modern British roundhouses * 1.2 Ireland * 1.3 Italy * 1.4 Spain * 1.4.1 Galicia – Asturias * 1.4.1.1 Pallozas * 1.4.1.2 Castros * 2 Africa * 3 North America * 4 Oceania * 4.1 Raun Haus, Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
* 5 References * 6 External links EUROPEBRITISH ISLES A reconstruction of a British Iron Age
British Iron Age
Celtic roundhouse. Roundhouses were the standard form of housing built in Britain from the Bronze Age throughout the Iron Age , and in some areas well into the Sub Roman period
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Americans
AMERICANS are citizens of the United States of America . The country is home to people of many different national origins. As a result, Americans
Americans
do not equate their nationality with ethnicity , but with citizenship and allegiance . Although citizens make up the majority of Americans, non-citizen residents, dual citizens, and expatriates may also claim an American identity. English-speakers, and even speakers of many other languages, typically use the term "American" to exclusively mean people of the United States; this developed from its original use to differentiate English people of the American colonies from English people of England. The word "American " can also refer to people from the Americas in general. See Names for United States citizens
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San Francisco Bay
SAN FRANCISCO BAY is a shallow estuary in the U.S. state of California
California
. It is surrounded by a contiguous region known as the San Francisco Bay Area (often simply "the Bay Area"), and is dominated by the large cities San Francisco
San Francisco
, Oakland , and San Jose . San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay drains water from approximately 40 percent of California. Water from the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers , and from the Sierra Nevada mountains , flow into Suisun Bay , which then travels through the Carquinez Strait to meet with the Napa River at the entrance to San Pablo Bay , which connects at its south end to San Francisco Bay. The Guadalupe River
River
enters the bay at it southernmost point in San Jose
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Spaniards
Spain
Spain
Nationals 41,539,400 (for a total population of 47,059,533) HUNDREDS OF MILLIONS WITH SPANISH ANCESTRY IN FORMER COLONIES Nationals Abroad : 2,183,043 Total abroad: 2,183,043, which of them: 733,387 are born in Spain 1,303,043 are born in the country of residence 137,391 others REGIONS WITH SIGNIFICANT POPULATIONS ARGENTINA 404,111 (92,610 born in Spain
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Alta California
ALTA CALIFORNIA (English: Upper California), founded in 1769 by Gaspar de Portolà
Gaspar de Portolà
, was a polity of New Spain
New Spain
and after the Mexican War of Independence in 1822, a territory of Mexico
Mexico
. The region included all of the modern American states of California
California
, Nevada
Nevada
, and Utah
Utah
, and parts of Arizona
Arizona
, Wyoming
Wyoming
, Colorado
Colorado
and New Mexico
New Mexico
. Neither Spain nor Mexico
Mexico
ever colonized the area beyond the southern and central coastal area of present-day California, so they never exerted any effective control north of the Sonoma area, or east of the California
California
Coast Ranges
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New Spain
NEW SPAIN (Spanish : Nueva España) was a colonial territory of the Spanish Empire in the New World north of the Isthmus of Panama . It was established following the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire in 1521, and following additional conquests, it was made a viceroyalty (Spanish: virreinato) in 1535. The first of four viceroyalties Spain created in the Americas , it comprised Mexico , Central America , much of the Southwestern and Central United States , and Spanish Florida as well as the Philippines, Guam, Mariana and Caroline Islands . After 1535 the colony was governed by the Viceroy of New Spain , an appointed minister of the King of Spain , who ruled as monarch over the colony from its capital, Mexico City
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Placer Gold
PLACER MINING (/ˈplæsər/ or /ˈpleɪsər/ ) is the mining of stream bed (alluvial ) deposits for minerals . This may be done by open-pit (also called open-cast mining ) or by various surface excavating equipment or tunnelling equipment. Placer mining
Placer mining
is frequently used for precious metal deposits (particularly gold ) and gemstones , both of which are often found in alluvial deposits—deposits of sand and gravel in modern or ancient stream beds , or occasionally glacial deposits. The metal or gemstones, having been moved by stream flow from an original source such as a vein, are typically only a minuscule portion of the total deposit. Since gems and heavy metals like gold are considerably more dense than sand , they tend to accumulate at the base of placer deposits. The containing material may be too loose to safely mine by tunnelling, though it is possible where the ground is permanently frozen
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Hydraulic Mining
HYDRAULIC MINING, or HYDRAULICKING, is a form of mining that uses high-pressure jets of water to dislodge rock material or move sediment. In the placer mining of gold or tin , the resulting water-sediment slurry is directed through sluice boxes to remove the gold. It is also used in mining kaolin and coal . Hydraulic mining
Hydraulic mining
originated out of ancient Roman techniques that used water to excavate soft underground deposits. Its modern form, using pressurized water jets produced by a nozzle called a "monitor", came about in the 1850s during the California
California
Gold
Gold
Rush in the United States. Though successful in extracting gold-rich minerals, the widespread use of the process resulted in extensive environmental damage , such as increased flooding and erosion , and sediment blocking waterways and covering over farm fields. These problems led to its legal regulation
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Leland Stanford
AMASA LELAND STANFORD (March 9, 1824 – June 21, 1893) was an American tycoon , industrialist , politician , and the founder (with his wife, Jane ) of Stanford University
Stanford University
. Migrating to California
California
from New York at the time of the Gold Rush , he became a successful merchant and wholesaler, and continued to build his business empire. He served one two-year term as governor of California
California
after his election in 1861, and later eight years as a senator from the state. As president of Southern Pacific Railroad
Southern Pacific Railroad
and, beginning in 1861, Central Pacific , he had tremendous power in the region and a lasting impact on California. He is widely considered a robber baron
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Treaty Of Guadalupe Hidalgo
The TREATY OF GUADALUPE HIDALGO (Tratado de Guadalupe Hidalgo in Spanish), officially entitled the TREATY OF PEACE, FRIENDSHIP, LIMITS AND SETTLEMENT BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND THE MEXICAN REPUBLIC, is the peace treaty signed on February 2, 1848, in the Villa de Guadalupe Hidalgo (now a neighborhood of Mexico
Mexico
City ) between the United States
United States
and Mexico
Mexico
that ended the Mexican–American War (1846–48). The treaty came into force on July 4, 1848. With the defeat of its army and the fall of its capital, Mexico entered into negotiations to end the war. The treaty called for the U.S. to pay $15 million to Mexico
Mexico
and to pay off the claims of American citizens against Mexico
Mexico
up to $3.25 million
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Mexican-American War
American victory * Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo * Mexican recognition of U.S. sovereignty over Texas
Texas
(among other territories) * End of the conflict between Mexico
Mexico
and Texas Territorial changes Mexican Cession BELLIGERENTS United States
United States
California Republic
California Republic
Mexico
Mexico
COMMANDERS AND LEADERS James K. Polk Winfield Scott
Winfield Scott
Zachary Taylor
Zachary Taylor
Stephen Watts Kearny John Drake Sloat Robert E
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Hudson's Bay Company
The HUDSON\'S BAY COMPANY (HBC; French: Compagnie de la Baie d'Hudson), commonly referred to as THE BAY (LA BAIE in French), is a Canadian retail business group. A fur trading business for much of its existence, Hudson's Bay Company
Hudson's Bay Company
owns and operates retail stores throughout Canada, Belgium, Germany, and the United States with Galeria Kaufhof , Gilt , Hudson\'s Bay , Home Outfitters , Lord the retail era had begun as the HBC began establishing stores across the country. In July 2008, HBC was acquired by NRDC Equity Partners , which also owns the upmarket American department store Lord & Taylor . From 2008 to 2012, the HBC was run through a holding company of NRDC, Hudson\'s Bay Trading Company , which was dissolved on 23 January 2012
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