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American Mastodon
Mastodons (Greek: μαστός "breast" and ὀδούς, "tooth") are any species of extinct mammutid proboscideans in the genus Mammut, distantly related to elephants, that inhabited North and Central America during the late Miocene
Miocene
or late Pliocene
Pliocene
up to their extinction at the end of the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
10,000 to 11,000 years ago.[1] Mastodons lived in herds and were predominantly forest dwelling animals that fed on a mixed diet obtained by browsing and grazing with a seasonal preference for browsing, similar to living elephants. M. americanum, the American mastodon, is the youngest and best-known species of the genus
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Mammut (other)
Mammut may refer to:The genus of the extinct Mastodon Mammut radar, a German radar Mammut Sports Group, a Swiss sports group a roller coaster in the German theme park Erlebnispark Tripsdrill Mammút, Icelandic indiepop and rock alternative band Original name for the 2009 movie MammothThis disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Mammut. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the
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Central America
Central America
Central America
(Spanish: América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast. Central America is bordered by Mexico
Mexico
to the north, Colombia
Colombia
to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
to the east, and the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
to the west. Central America
Central America
consists of seven countries: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama
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Species
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition. Scientists and conservationists need a species definition which allows them to work, regardless of the theoretical difficulties. If as Linnaeus
Linnaeus
thought, species were fixed, there would be no problem, but evolutionary processes cause species to change continually, and to grade into one another. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction. While this definition is often adequate, when looked at more closely it is problematic. For example, with hybridisation, in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies, or in a ring species, the boundaries between closely related species become unclear
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Henry Fairfield Osborn
Henry Fairfield Osborn, Sr. ForMemRS[1] (August 8, 1857 – November 6, 1935) was an American geologist, paleontologist, and eugenist, and the president of the American Museum of Natural History
American Museum of Natural History
for 25 years. Contents1 Early life and career 2 Eponyms 3 Theories3.1 Dawn Man Theory 3.2 Evolutionary views4 Published books 5 References5.1 Works cited6 Further reading 7 External linksEarly life and career[edit]Osborn in 1890Son of the prominent railroad tycoon William Henry Osborn and his wife, Virginia Reed Osborn, Henry Fairfield Osborn
Henry Fairfield Osborn
was born in Fairfield, Connecticut, 1857. He studied at Princeton University (1873–1877), obtaining a B.A. in geology and archaeology, where he was mentored by paleontologist Edward Drinker Cope
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Leonard Peter Schultz
Leonard Peter Schultz (1901–1986) was an American ichthyologist. Biography[edit] Schultz was born in 1901, at Albion, Michigan. He received education on ichthyology at Albion College, in which he got his bachelor's degree, in 1924. In 1926, he got his master's degree from the University of Michigan, and then in 1932 from the University of Washington. Starting from 1928 till 1936, he taught at the College of Fisheries at University of Washington. He was appointed as an assistant curator at the Division of Fishes of the United States National Museum.[1] During the same year he joined Smithsonian Institution, where he remained till retirement in 1968.[2] In 1938 he became a curator of the Division. While in retirement, he continued to work as a Research Associate of the Division of Fishes.[1] He was one of the scientists that was sent to work for the U.S. Navy, on Operation Crossroads, that was conducted at the Bikini Atoll
Bikini Atoll
in 1946
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Zygolophodon
Zygolophodon
Zygolophodon
is an extinct genus of African, Asian, North American and European mammutid that lived from the Miocene
Miocene
to the Middle Pleistocene.[1][2] Taxonomy[edit] Zygolophodon
Zygolophodon
tapiroides tusks excavated in Milia (Greece)Skeletal diagram of a large Z. borsoni from Milia (Greece)It may have evolved from Tetralophodon. While collecting fossils in the Clarno Formation
Clarno Formation
of Oregon during 1941, noted paleobotanists Alonzo W. Hancock and Chester A. Arnold recovered the most complete Zygolophodon
Zygolophodon
skull known at the time. Description[edit] Zygolophodon
Zygolophodon
borsoni is a large species that was sometimes considered as a species of Mammut, and it was one of the largest terrestrial mammals of all time
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Synonym (taxonomy)
In scientific nomenclature, a synonym is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name,[1] although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature.[2] For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name which is Picea abies. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription, position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature)
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Georges Cuvier
Jean Léopold Nicolas Frédéric, Baron Cuvier (French: [kyvje]; 23 August 1769 – 13 May 1832), known as Georges Cuvier, was a French naturalist and zoologist, sometimes referred to as the "founding father of paleontology".[1] Cuvier was a major figure in natural sciences research in the early 19th century
19th century
and was instrumental in establishing the fields of comparative anatomy and paleontology through his work in comparing living animals with fossils. Cuvier's work is considered the foundation of vertebrate paleontology, and he expanded Linnaean taxonomy
Linnaean taxonomy
by grouping classes into phyla and incorporating both fossils and living species into the classification.[2] Cuvier is also known for establishing extinction as a fact—at the time, extinction was considered by many of Cuvier's contemporaries to be merely controversial speculation
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Frederick DuCane Godman
Frederick DuCane Godman
Frederick DuCane Godman
DCL FRS FLS FGS FRGS FES FZS MRI FRHS (15 January 1834 – 19 February 1919) was an English lepidopterist, entomologist and ornithologist. He was one of the twenty founding members of the British Ornithologists' Union. Along with Osbert Salvin, he is remembered for studying the fauna and flora of Central America. Godman collected Iznik, Hispano-Moresque
Hispano-Moresque
and early Iranian pottery. His collection of more than 600 pieces was donated to the British Museum through the will of his younger daughter, Catherine Edith Godman, who died in 1982.[1]Contents1 Early life and Cambridge years 2 Travels 3 Life and work 4 Works 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksEarly life and Cambridge years[edit] Frederick Godman came from a wealthy family. He was the third son of Joseph Godman who was a partner in the brewery firm Whitbread
Whitbread
& Company
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Greek Language
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά [eliniˈka], elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα [eliniˈci ˈɣlosa] ( listen), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean
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North America
North America
North America
is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.[3][4] It is bordered to the north by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the southeast by South America
South America
and the Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea. North America
North America
covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers (9,540,000 square miles), about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface
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Miocene
The Miocene
Miocene
( /ˈmaɪəˌsiːn/[2][3]) is the first geological epoch of the Neogene
Neogene
Period and extends from about 23.03 to 5.333 million years ago (Ma). The Miocene
Miocene
was named by Charles Lyell; its name comes from the Greek words μείων (meiōn, “less”) and καινός (kainos, “new”)[4] and means "less recent" because it has 18% fewer modern sea invertebrates than the Pliocene. The Miocene follows the Oligocene
Oligocene
and is followed by the Pliocene. As the earth went from the Oligocene
Oligocene
through the Miocene
Miocene
and into the Pliocene, the climate slowly cooled towards a series of ice ages
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Mastodon (other)
Mastodon is a large, elephant-like, extinct mammal. Mastodon may also refer to:Mastodon (band), an American heavy metal bandMastodon (album), a box set released by the band's former labelMastedon, an American Christian rock band formed by brothers John Elefante and Dino Elefante Mastodon (steam locomotive) (CPR #229), the very first steam locomotive of the 4-8-0 wheel arrangementA nickname for the 4-8-0 wheel arrangementMastodon Township, Michigan Fort Wayne Mastodons, the athletic teams and mascot of Indiana University – Purdue University Fort Wayne Mastodon (software), open source software for federated micro-blogging, analogous to but distinct from TwitterComics[edit]Mastodon (comics), a comic book character who plays a minor role in the backstory of Wolverine Mastodon (New Universe), the code-name of one of members of the DP7 comic book superhuman groupGames[edit]Mastodon, a gigantic quadrupedal walker in the game Com
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Pliocene
The Pliocene
Pliocene
( /ˈplaɪəˌsiːn/;[2][3] also Pleiocene[4]) Epoch is the epoch in the geologic timescale that extends from 5.333 million to 2.58[5] million years BP. It is the second and youngest epoch of the Neogene
Neogene
Period in the Cenozoic
Cenozoic
Era. The Pliocene
Pliocene
follows the Miocene Epoch and is followed by the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
Epoch. Prior to the 2009 revision of the geologic time scale, which placed the four most recent major glaciations entirely within the Pleistocene, the Pliocene
Pliocene
also included the Gelasian stage, which lasted from 2.588 to 1.806 million years ago, and is now included in the Pleistocene.[6] As with other older geologic periods, the geological strata that define the start and end are well identified but the exact dates of the start and end of the epoch are slightly uncertain
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Pleistocene
The Pleistocene
Pleistocene
( /ˈplaɪstəˌsiːn, -toʊ-/,[2] often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations
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