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American Mastodon
MASTODONS (Greek : μαστός "breast" and ὀδούς, "tooth") are any species of extinct mammutid proboscideans in the genus MAMMUT, distantly related to elephants , that inhabited North and Central America during the late Miocene
Miocene
or late Pliocene up to their extinction at the end of the Pleistocene 10,000 to 11,000 years ago. Mastodons lived in herds and were predominantly forest dwelling animals that fed on a mixed diet obtained by browsing and grazing with a seasonal preference for browsing, similar to living elephants. M. americanum, the American mastodon, is the youngest and best-known species of the genus. They disappeared from North America
North America
as part of a mass extinction of most of the Pleistocene megafauna , widely presumed to have been related to overexploitation by Clovis hunters , and possibly also to climate change. CONTENTS* 1 Taxonomy * 1.1 Evolution * 2 Description * 3 Paleobiology * 3.1 Social behavior * 3.2 Diet * 4 Distribution and habitat * 5 Extinction * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 External links TAXONOMY Exhuming the First American Mastodon, 1806 painting by Charles Willson Peale The first remnant of Mammut, a tooth some 2.2 kg (5 lb) in weight, was discovered in the village of Claverack, New York , in 1705. The mystery animal became known as the "incognitum"
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Mammut (other)
MAMMUT may refer to: * The genus of the extinct Mastodon * Mammut radar , a German radar * Mammut Sports Group , a Swiss sports group * a roller coaster in the German theme park Erlebnispark Tripsdrill * Mammút , Icelandic indiepop and rock alternative band * Original name for the 2009 movie Mammoth This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title MAMMUT. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mammut_(other) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Mastodon (other)
MASTODON is a large, elephant-like, extinct mammal. MASTODON may also refer to: * Mastodon (band) , an American heavy metal band * Mastodon (album) , a box set released by the band's former label * Mastedon , an American Christian rock band formed by brothers John Elefante and Dino Elefante* Mastodon (steam locomotive) (CPR #229), the very first steam locomotive of the 4-8-0 wheel arrangement * A nickname for the 4-8-0 wheel arrangement * Mastodon Township, Michigan * Fort Wayne Mastodons , the athletic teams and mascot of Indiana University – Purdue University Fort Wayne * Mastodon (software) , open source software for federated micro-blogging, analogous to but distinct from TwitterCOMICS * Mastodon (comics) , a comic book character who plays a minor role in the backstory of Wolverine * Mastodon (New Universe) , the code-name of one of members of the DP7 comic book superhuman groupGAMES * Mastodon, a gigantic quadrupedal walker in the game Command font-style: italic;">This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title MASTODON. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mastodon_(other) additional terms may apply
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Late Miocene
The LATE MIOCENE (also known as UPPER MIOCENE) is a sub-epoch of the Miocene
Miocene
Epoch made up of two stages . The Tortonian and Messinian stages comprise the Late Miocene
Miocene
sub-epoch. The sub-epoch lasted from 11.608 ± 0.005 Ma (million years ago) to 5.332 ± 0.005 Ma
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Late Pleistocene
The LATE PLEISTOCENE is a geochronological age of the Pleistocene Epoch and is associated with UPPER PLEISTOCENE or TARANTIAN stage Pleistocene series rocks. The beginning of the stage is defined by the base of the Eemian interglacial phase before the final glacial episode of the Pleistocene 126,000 ± 5,000 years ago. The end of the age is defined as 11,700 years ago. The age represents the end of the Pleistocene epoch and is followed by the Holocene epoch. Much of the Late Pleistocene age was dominated by glaciation (the Wisconsin glaciation in North America and corresponding glacial periods in Eurasia ). Many megafauna became extinct over this age, a trend that continued into the Holocene. Also, human species other than modern humans died out during the Pleistocene. Humanity spread to every continent except for Antarctica during the Late Pleistocene. CONTENTS * 1 North America * 2 Notes * 3 Citations * 4 References * 5 Further reading * 6 Paleoclimatology stages NORTH AMERICAAccording to George Carr Frison , _ Bison occidentalis _ and _Bison antiquus _, an extinct subspecies of the smaller present-day bison, survived the Late Pleistocene period, between about 12 and 11 ka ago. Plains and Rocky Mountain First Nations depended on these bison as their major food source
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Megaannum
A YEAR is the orbital period of the Earth moving in its orbit around the Sun . Due to the Earth's axial tilt , the course of a year sees the passing of the seasons , marked by changes in weather , the hours of daylight , and, consequently, vegetation and soil fertility . In temperate and subpolar regions around the globe, four seasons are generally recognized: _spring _, _summer _, _autumn _ and _winter _. In tropical and subtropical regions several geographical sectors do not present defined seasons; but in the seasonal tropics , the annual _wet _ and _dry_ seasons are recognized and tracked. A calendar year is an approximation of the number of days of the Earth's orbital period as counted in a given calendar . The Gregorian, or modern, calendar , presents its calendar year to be either a common year of 365 days or a leap year of 366 days, as do the Julian calendars ; _see_ below . For the Gregorian calendar the average length of the calendar year (the mean year) across the complete leap cycle of 400 years is 365.2425 days. The ISO standard ISO 80000-3 , Annex C, supports the symbol "a" (for Latin _annus_) to represent a year of either 365 or 366 days. In English, the abbreviations "y" and "yr" are commonly used
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Precambrian
The PRECAMBRIAN (or PRE-CAMBRIAN, sometimes abbreviated PЄ, or CRYPTOZOIC) is the earliest period of Earth\'s history , set before the current Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
Eon. The Precambrian
Precambrian
is so named because it preceded the Cambrian, the first period of the Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
eon, which is named after Cambria
Cambria
, the Latinised name for Wales
Wales
, where rocks from this age were first studied. The Precambrian
Precambrian
accounts for 88% of the Earth's geologic time. The Precambrian
Precambrian
(colored green in the timeline figure) is a supereon that is subdivided into three eons (Hadean, Archean, Proterozoic) of the geologic time scale . It spans from the formation of Earth about 4.6 billion years ago (Ga ) to the beginning of the Cambrian
Cambrian
Period, about 541 million years ago (Ma ), when hard-shelled creatures first appeared in abundance
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Cambrian
The CAMBRIAN Period ( /ˈkæmbriən/ or /ˈkeɪmbriən/ ) was the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era, of the Phanerozoic Eon. The Cambrian lasted 55.6 million years from the end of the preceding Ediacaran Period 541 million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Ordovician Period 485.4 mya. Its subdivisions, and its base, are somewhat in flux. The period was established (as “Cambrian series”) by Adam Sedgwick , who named it after Cambria , the Latinised form of _Cymru_, the Welsh name for Wales , where Britain's Cambrian rocks are best exposed. The Cambrian is unique in its unusually high proportion of lagerstätte sedimentary deposits, sites of exceptional preservation where "soft" parts of organisms are preserved as well as their more resistant shells. As a result, our understanding of the Cambrian biology surpasses that of some later periods. The Cambrian marked a profound change in life on Earth ; prior to the Cambrian, the majority of living organisms on the whole were small, unicellular and simple; the Precambrian _ Charnia _ being exceptional. Complex, multicellular organisms gradually became more common in the millions of years immediately preceding the Cambrian, but it was not until this period that mineralized—hence readily fossilized—organisms became common
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Ordovician
The ORDOVICIAN ( /ɔːrdəˈvɪʃən/ ) is a geologic period and system , the second of six periods of the Paleozoic Era . The Ordovician
Ordovician
spans 41.2 million years from the end of the Cambrian Period 485.4 million years ago (Mya) to the start of the Silurian Period 443.8 Mya. The Ordovician, named after the Celtic tribe of the Ordovices , was defined by Charles Lapworth
Charles Lapworth
in 1879 to resolve a dispute between followers of Adam Sedgwick and Roderick Murchison
Roderick Murchison
, who were placing the same rock beds in northern Wales into the Cambrian
Cambrian
and Silurian periods, respectively. Lapworth recognized that the fossil fauna in the disputed strata were different from those of either the Cambrian or the Silurian periods, and placed them in a period of their own. It received international sanction in 1960, when it was adopted as an official period of the Paleozoic Era by the International Geological Congress . Life continued to flourish during the Ordovician
Ordovician
as it did in the earlier Cambrian
Cambrian
period, although the end of the period was marked by the Ordovician– Silurian extinction event . Invertebrates, namely molluscs and arthropods , dominated the oceans
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Silurian
The SILURIAN is a geologic period and system spanning 24.6 million years from the end of the Ordovician Period, at 443.8 million years ago (Mya ), to the beginning of the Devonian Period, 419.2 Mya. As with other geologic periods, the rock beds that define the period's start and end are well identified, but the exact dates are uncertain by several million years. The base of the Silurian is set at a major Ordovician-Silurian extinction event when 60% of marine species were wiped out. A significant evolutionary milestone during the Silurian was the diversification of jawed and bony fish. Multi-cellular life also began to appear on land in the form of small, bryophyte -like and vascular plants that grew beside lakes, streams, and coastlines, and terrestrial arthropods are also first found on land during the Silurian. However, terrestrial life would not greatly diversify and affect the landscape until the Devonian
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Devonian
The DEVONIAN is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic , spanning 60 million years from the end of the Silurian , 419.2 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Carboniferous , 358.9 Mya. It is named after Devon , England , where rocks from this period were first studied. The first significant adaptive radiation of life on dry land occurred during the Devonian. Free-sporing vascular plants began to spread across dry land , forming extensive forests which covered the continents . By the middle of the Devonian, several groups of plants had evolved leaves and true roots, and by the end of the period the first seed-bearing plants appeared. Various terrestrial arthropods also became well-established. Fish reached substantial diversity during this time, leading the Devonian to often be dubbed the "AGE OF FISH". The first ray-finned and lobe-finned bony fish appeared, while the placodermi began dominating almost every known aquatic environment. The ancestors of all four-limbed vertebrates (tetrapods ) began adapting to walking on land, as their strong pectoral and pelvic fins gradually evolved into legs. In the oceans, primitive sharks became more numerous than in the Silurian and Late Ordovician . The first ammonites , species of molluscs , appeared. Trilobites , the mollusk-like brachiopods and the great coral reefs , were still common
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Carboniferous
The CARBONIFEROUS is a geologic period and system that spans 60 million years from the end of the Devonian Period 358.9 million years ago (Mya ), to the beginning of the Permian Period, 298.9 Mya. The name _Carboniferous_ means "coal-bearing" and derives from the Latin words _carbō_ ("coal ") and _ferō_ ("I bear, I carry"), and was coined by geologists William Conybeare and William Phillips in 1822. Based on a study of the British rock succession, it was the first of the modern 'system' names to be employed, and reflects the fact that many coal beds were formed globally during that time. The Carboniferous is often treated in North America as two geological periods, the earlier Mississippian and the later Pennsylvanian . Terrestrial life was well established by the Carboniferous period. Amphibians were the dominant land vertebrates, of which one branch would eventually evolve into amniotes , the first solely terrestrial vertebrates. Arthropods were also very common, and many (such as _ Meganeura _) were much larger than those of today. Vast swaths of forest covered the land, which would eventually be laid down and become the coal beds characteristic of the Carboniferous stratigraphy evident today
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Permian
The PERMIAN is a geologic period and system which spans 46.7 million years from the end of the Carboniferous Period 298.9 million years ago (Mya ), to the beginning of the Triassic Period 252.2 Mya. It is the last period of the Paleozoic Era; the following Triassic Period belongs to the Mesozoic Era. The concept of the Permian was introduced in 1841 by geologist Sir Roderick Murchison , who named it after the city of Perm . The Permian witnessed the diversification of the early amniotes into the ancestral groups of the mammals , turtles , lepidosaurs , and archosaurs . The world at the time was dominated by two continents known as Pangaea and Siberia , surrounded by a global ocean called Panthalassa . The Carboniferous rainforest collapse left behind vast regions of desert within the continental interior. Amniotes , who could better cope with these drier conditions, rose to dominance in place of their amphibian ancestors. The Permian (along with the Paleozoic) ended with the Permian– Triassic extinction event , the largest mass extinction in Earth's history, in which nearly 90% of marine species and 70% of terrestrial species died out. It would take well into the Triassic for life to recover from this catastrophe
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Triassic
The TRIASSIC ( /traɪˈæsɪk/ ) is a geologic period and system which spans 50.9 million years from the end of the Permian Period 252.17 million years ago (Mya ), to the beginning of the Jurassic Period 201.3 Mya. The Triassic is the first period of the Mesozoic Era . Both the start and end of the period are marked by major extinction events . The Triassic began in the wake of the Permian– Triassic extinction event , which left the earth's biosphere impoverished; it would take well into the middle of this period for life to recover its former diversity. Therapsids and archosaurs were the chief terrestrial vertebrates during this time. A specialized subgroup of archosaurs , called dinosaurs , first appeared in the Late Triassic but did not become dominant until the succeeding Jurassic Period. The first true mammals , themselves a specialized subgroup of Therapsids , also evolved during this period, as well as the first flying vertebrates, the pterosaurs , who like the dinosaurs were a specialized subgroup of archosaurs . The vast supercontinent of Pangaea existed until the mid-Triassic, after which it began to gradually rift into two separate landmasses, Laurasia to the north and Gondwana to the south. The global climate during the Triassic was mostly hot and dry, with deserts spanning much of Pangaea's interior
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Jurassic
The JURASSIC ( /dʒuːˈræsɪk/ ; from Jura Mountains ) was a geologic period and system that spanned for 56 million years from the end of the Triassic Period 201.3 million years ago (Mya ) to the beginning of the Cretaceous Period 145 Mya. The Jurassic constituted the middle period of the Mesozoic Era , also known as the Age of Reptiles. The start of the period was marked by the major Triassic–Jurassic extinction event . Two other extinction events occurred during the period: the Pliensbachian/ Toarcian event in the Early Jurassic, and the Tithonian event at the end; however, neither event ranks among the "Big Five" mass extinctions. The Jurassic is named after the Jura Mountains within the European Alps , where limestone strata from the period were first identified. By the beginning of the Jurassic, the supercontinent Pangaea had begun rifting into two landmasses, Laurasia to the north and Gondwana to the south. This created more coastlines and shifted the continental climate from dry to humid, and many of the arid deserts of the Triassic were replaced by lush rainforests. On land, the fauna transitioned from the Triassic fauna, dominated by both dinosauromorph and crocodylomorph archosaurs , to one dominated by dinosaurs alone
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Cretaceous
The CRETACEOUS ( /krᵻˈteɪʃəs/ , _krə-TAY-shəs_ ) is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period 145 million years ago (mya ) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period 66 mya. It is the last period of the Mesozoic Era . The Cretaceous Period is usually abbreviated K, for its German translation _Kreide_ (chalk). The Cretaceous was a period with a relatively warm climate , resulting in high eustatic sea levels that created numerous shallow inland seas . These oceans and seas were populated with now-extinct marine reptiles , ammonites and rudists , while dinosaurs continued to dominate on land. During this time, new groups of mammals and birds , as well as flowering plants , appeared. The Cretaceous ended with a large mass extinction , the Cretaceous– Paleogene extinction event , in which many groups, including non-avian dinosaurs, pterosaurs and large marine reptiles died out. The end of the Cretaceous is defined by the abrupt Cretaceous– Paleogene boundary (K–Pg boundary), a geologic signature associated with the mass extinction which lies between the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras
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