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American Football
American football, referred to as football in the United States and Canada[citation needed] and also known as gridiron,[nb 1] is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end. The offense, which is the team controlling the oval-shaped football, attempts to advance down the field by running with or passing the ball, while the defense, which is the team without control of the ball, aims to stop the offense's advance and aims to take control of the ball for themselves. The offense must advance at least ten yards in four downs, or plays, and otherwise they turn over the football to the defense; if the offense succeeds in advancing ten yards or more, they are given a new set of four downs. Points are primarily scored by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone for a touchdown or kicking the ball through the opponent's goalposts for a field goal
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1880 College Football Season
The 1880 college football season
1880 college football season
had no clear-cut champion, with the Official NCAA Division I
NCAA Division I
Football Records Book listing Princeton and Yale as having been selected national champions.[1] On April 9, college football was first played in the state of Kentucky
Kentucky
when Kentucky
Kentucky
University defeated Centre 13¾–0 at Stoll Field
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Sports Governing Body
A sports governing body is a sports organization that has a regulatory or sanctioning function. Sports governing bodies come in various forms, and have a variety of regulatory functions. Examples of this can include disciplinary action for rule infractions and deciding on rule changes in the sport that they govern. Governing bodies have different scopes. They may cover a range of sport at an International level, such as the International Olympic Committee
International Olympic Committee
and the International Paralympic Committee, or only a single sport at a national level, such as the Rugby Football League
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Shoulder Pads
The human shoulder is made up of three bones: the clavicle (collarbone), the scapula (shoulder blade), and the humerus (upper arm bone) as well as associated muscles, ligaments and tendons. The articulations between the bones of the shoulder make up the shoulder joints. The shoulder joint also known as the glenohumeral joint, is the major joint of the shoulder, but can more broadly include the acromioclavicular joint. In human anatomy, the shoulder joint comprises the part of the body where the humerus attaches to the scapula, the head sitting in the glenoid cavity.[1] The shoulder is the group of structures in the region of the joint.[2] The shoulder joint (also known as the glenohumeral joint) is the main joint of the shoulder. It is a ball and socket joint that allows the arm to rotate in a circular fashion or to hinge out and up away from the body
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Padding
Padding is thin cushioned material sometimes added to clothes. Padding may also be referred to as batting when used as a layer in lining quilts or as a packaging or stuffing material.[1] When padding is used in clothes, it is often done in an attempt to soften impacts on certain zones of the body or enhance appearance by 'improving' a physical feature, often a sexually significant one. In fashion, there is padding for:Breasts – sometimes called falsies The male crotch – usually called a codpiece. Height – usually in shoes and often called elevator shoes Width of shoulders, called shoulder pads – in coats and other garments for men, and sometimes for women.To alter features[edit] Some padding is added to emphasize particular physical features that are usually not present. Women, for instance, rarely have prominent shoulders, but for some years shoulder pads have been added to dresses (blouses, etc.)
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New Brunswick, New Jersey
Alfred E. Smith
Alfred E. Smith
to Lew Dockstader
Lew Dockstader
in December 1923 on Dockstader's fall at what is now the State Theater.[20]New Brunswick is a city in Middlesex County, New Jersey, United States. It is the county seat of Middlesex County,[21] and the home of Rutgers University. The city is on the Northeast Corridor
Northeast Corridor
rail line, 27 miles (43 km) southwest of Manhattan, on the southern bank of the Raritan River
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William Heffelfinger
Heffelfinger (meaning: pedigree or person came from Häfelfingen, Switzerland) is a surname, and may refer to: Heffelfinger Creek, see List of Minnesota streamsPeople[edit]Chris Heffelfinger, researcher and writer based in Washington, D.C. Frank Heffelfinger
Frank Heffelfinger
- see Early history of Minnesota Golden Gophers football Jane Heffelfinger, see Manitoba general election, 1969 Thomas B. Heffelfinger, U.S. Attorney
U.S

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Free Substitution
Free substitution is a rule in some sports that allows players to enter and leave the game for other players many times during the course of the game; and for coaches to bring in and take out players an unlimited number of times.Contents1 Sports that allow free substitution 2 Sports that do not allow free substitution 3 Sports with hybrid systems 4 ReferencesSports that allow free substitution[edit]Basketball. Basketball
Basketball
allows unlimited substitution of players at dead balls, such as full times-out, out-of-bounds turnovers and fouls. Players are allowed to go out and come in again many times, unless they are disqualified or ejected. Players are often substituted for, since it is physically difficult to play an entire basketball game (40 minutes in most competitions, 48 in the NBA). Substitutions are also made if a player is getting too many personal fouls and is in danger of disqualification. Gridiron football
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Knee Pads
Knee
Knee
pads or kneepads are protective gear worn on knees to protect them against impact injury from falling to the ground or hitting an obstacle, or to provide padding for extended kneeling.Contents1 In sports 2 In trades and military use 3 See also 4 External linksIn sports[edit] Knee
Knee
pads are standard PPE for polo players Knee
Knee
pads are worn in many recreational and sporting activities such as cycling, rollerskating, skateboarding, cricket, volleyball, handball, basketball, American football, polo, dancing, etc
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Prolate Spheroid
A spheroid, or ellipsoid of revolution, is a quadric surface obtained by rotating an ellipse about one of its principal axes; in other words, an ellipsoid with two equal semi-diameters. If the ellipse is rotated about its major axis, the result is a prolate (elongated) spheroid, shaped like an American football
American football
or rugby ball. If the ellipse is rotated about its minor axis, the result is an oblate (flattened) spheroid, shaped like a lentil. If the generating ellipse is a circle, the result is a sphere. A spheroid has circular symmetry. Because of the combined effects of gravity and rotation, the shape of the Earth, and of all planets, is not quite a sphere but instead is slightly flattened in the direction of its axis of rotation. For that reason, in cartography the Earth
Earth
is often approximated by an oblate spheroid instead of a sphere
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Ball Game
Ball
Ball
games (or ballgames), also ball sports, are any form of game or sport which feature a ball as part of play. These include games such as association football (soccer), baseball, basketball, and American football. Such games have diverse rules and histories and are of mostly unrelated origins
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Substitution (sport)
In team sports, substitution (or interchange) is replacing one player with another during a match. Substitute players that are not in the starting lineup (also known as bench players, backups, or reserves) reside on the bench and are available to substitute for a starter. Later in the match, that substitute may be substituted for by another substitute or by a starter who is currently on the bench. Some sports have restrictions on substituting or interchanging players whereas others do not. American football, ice hockey, and basketball are examples of sports which practice "unlimited" substitution, albeit subject to certain rules. Substitution is unlimited during play in ice hockey. In basketball, substitution is permitted only during stoppages of play, but is otherwise unlimited
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1874 Harvard Vs. McGill Football Game
The 1874 Harvard vs. McGill football game
1874 Harvard vs. McGill football game
was the first rugby-style football game played in the United States.[1] The Harvard Crimson played the McGill Redmen on May 15, 1874 in Cambridge, Massachusetts.[2] The game used three periods or "games" and ended in a scoreless tie.[3][4] A Princeton vs. Rutgers football game was played five years earlier in 1869, but under a variation of England's Football Association
Football Association
rules closer to contemporary soccer than American football.Contents1 Background 2 Aftermath 3 See also 4 ReferencesBackground[edit] On October 20, 1873, representatives from Yale, Columbia, Princeton, and Rutgers met at the Fifth Avenue Hotel in New York City to codify the first set of intercollegiate football rules. Before this meeting, each school had its own set of rules and games were usually played using the home team's own particular code
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Offense (sports)
In sports, offense (US) or offence (Can.) (see spelling differences; pronounced with first-syllable stress; from Latin offensus), also known as attack, is the action of attacking or engaging an opposing team with the objective of scoring points or goals. The term may refer to the tactics involved in offense, or a sub-team whose primary responsibility is offense. Generally, goals are scored by teams' offenses, but in sports such as American football
American football
it is common to see defenses and special teams (which serve as a team's offensive unit on kicking plays and defensive on returning plays) score as well. The fielding side in cricket is also generally known as the bowling attack despite the batting side being the side that scores runs
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Association Football
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer,[a] is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport.[3][4][5][6] The game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with outstretched hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers within their penalty area. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may also use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms. The team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition
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Demonstration Sport
A demonstration sport is a sport which is played to promote it, most commonly during the Olympic Games, but also at other sporting events. Demonstration sports were officially introduced in 1912 Summer Olympics, when Sweden
Sweden
decided to include glima, traditional Icelandic wrestling, in the Olympic program, but with its medals not counting as official. Most organizing committees then decided to include at least one demonstration sport at each edition of the Games, usually some typical or popular sport in the host country, like baseball at the 1984 Los Angeles Olympic Games
Olympic Games
and taekwondo at the 1988 Seoul Olympic Games. From 1912 to 1992, only two editions of the Summer Olympics did not have demonstration sports on their program. Some demonstration sports eventually gained enough popularity to become an official sport in a subsequent edition of the Games
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