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American Federation Of Labor
The American Federation of Labor
American Federation of Labor
(AFL) was a national federation of labor unions in the United States founded in Columbus, Ohio, in December 1886 by an alliance of craft unions disaffected from the Knights of Labor, a national labor association. Samuel Gompers
Samuel Gompers
of the Cigar Makers' International Union
Cigar Makers' International Union
was elected president at its founding convention and reelected every year, except one, until his death in 1924. The AFL was the largest union grouping in the United States for the first half of the 20th century, even after the creation of the Congress of Industrial Organizations
Congress of Industrial Organizations
(CIO) by unions which were expelled by the AFL in 1935 over its opposition to industrial unionism
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Franklin D. Roosevelt
Governor of New York GovernorshipPresident of the United States PresidencyFirst Term1932 campaignElection1st Inauguration First 100 daysNew Deal Glass-Steagall Act WPA Social Security SEC Fireside ChatsSecond Term1936 campaignElection2nd InaugurationSupreme Court Packing National Recovery Act 1937 Recession March of Dimes Pre-war foreign policyThird Term1940 campaignElection3rd InaugurationWorld War IIWorld War IIAttack on Pearl Harbor Infamy Speech Atlantic Charter Japanese Internment Tehran Conference United Nations D-DaySecond Bill of Rights G.I
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Pragmatism
Pragmatism
Pragmatism
is a philosophical tradition that began in the United States around 1870.[1] Its origins are often attributed to the philosophers William James, John Dewey, and Charles Sanders Peirce. Peirce later described it in his pragmatic maxim: "Consider the practical effects of the objects of your conception. Then, your conception of those effects is the whole of your conception of the object."[2] Pragmatism
Pragmatism
considers thought as an instrument or tool for prediction, problem solving and action, and rejects the idea that the function of thought is to describe, represent, or mirror reality.[3] Pragmatists contend that most philosophical topics—such as the nature of knowledge, language, concepts, meaning, belief, and science—are all best viewed in terms of their practical uses and successes
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Lockout (industry)
A lockout is a temporary work stoppage or denial of employment initiated by the management of a company during a labor dispute.[1] That is different from a strike in which employees refuse to work. It is usually implemented by simply refusing to admit employees onto company premises and may include changing locks and hiring security guards for the premises. Other implementations include a fine for showing up or a simple refusal of clocking in on the time clock. It is therefore referred to as the antithesis of strike.[2]Contents1 Causes 2 Examples2.1 Ireland 2.2 United States 2.3 Australia 2.4 Denmark3 Lock-in 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksCauses[edit] A lockout is generally to try to enforce terms of employment upon a group of employees during a dispute. It can force unionized workers to accept new conditions, such as lower wages
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Strike Action
Strike action, also called labor strike, labour strike, or simply strike, is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal of employees to work. A strike usually takes place in response to employee grievances. Strikes became common during the Industrial Revolution, when mass labor became important in factories and mines. In most countries, strike actions were quickly made illegal,[citation needed] as factory owners had far more power than workers. Most Western countries partially legalized striking in the late 19th or early 20th centuries. Strikes are sometimes used to pressure governments to change policies. Occasionally, strikes destabilize the rule of a particular political party or ruler; in such cases, strikes are often part of a broader social movement taking the form of a campaign of civil resistance. Notable examples are the 1980 Gdańsk Shipyard
Gdańsk Shipyard
or 1981 Warning Strike, led by Lech Wałęsa
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Philadelphia
Philadelphia
Philadelphia
(/ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə/) is the largest city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
and the sixth-most populous city in the United States, with an estimated population of 1,567,872[7] and more than 6 million in the seventh-largest metropolitan statistical area, as of 2016[update].[5] Philadelphia
Philadelphia
is the economic and cultural anchor of the Delaware
Delaware
Valley, located along the lower Delaware
Delaware
and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis
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Baltimore
Baltimore
Baltimore
(/ˈbɔːltɪmɔːr/, locally [ˈbɔɫmɔɻ]) is the largest city in the U.S. state
U.S. state
of Maryland, and the 30th-most populous city in the United States. Baltimore
Baltimore
was established by the Constitution of Maryland[9] and is an independent city that is not part of any county. With a population of 611,648 in 2017, Baltimore
Baltimore
is the largest independent city in the United States
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Open Shop
An open shop is a place of employment at which one is not required to join or financially support a union (closed shop) as a condition of hiring or continued employment. Open shop is also known as a merit shop.Contents1 Open shop vs closed shop1.1 Pros vs. cons of open shops 1.2 Union arguments2 The legal status of the open shop2.1 Canada3 Notes 4 See also Open shop vs closed shop[edit] See also: Closed shop The major difference between an open and closed shop is the requirement for union membership.[1] There are a variety of opinions regarding the benefits and negatives of open shops. Pros vs
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Injunction
An injunction is an equitable remedy in the form of a court order that compels a party to do or refrain from specific acts. A party that fails to comply with an injunction faces criminal or civil penalties, including possible monetary sanctions and even imprisonment. They can also be charged with contempt of court. Counterinjunctions are injunctions that stop or reverse the enforcement of another injunction.Contents1 Rationale 2 In United States law2.1 Form2.1.1 Temporary restraining orders 2.1.2 Preliminary injunctions 2.1.3 Permanent injunctions2.2 Use 2.3 Antitrust intervention and injunctions for patent infringement3 Australian apprehended violence orders 4 UK super-injunctions 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksRationale[edit] The injunction is an equitable remedy,[1] that is, a remedy that originated in the English courts of equity
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Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party, commonly referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party. The party is named after republicanism, the dominant value during the American Revolution. Founded by anti-slavery activists, economic modernizers, ex Whigs and ex Free Soilers in 1854, the Republicans dominated politics nationally and in the majority of northern states for most of the period between 1860 and 1932.[16] The Republican Party originally championed classical liberal ideas, including anti-slavery and economic reforms.[17][18] The party was usually dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System
Third Party System
and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
formed the Progressive ("Bull Moose") Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran as a candidate
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Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Cincinnati
(/ˌsɪnsɪˈnæti/ SIN-sih-NAT-ee) is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio
Ohio
and seat of Hamilton County.[7] Settled in 1788, the city was located at the north side of the confluence of the Licking River to the Ohio. The city drives the Cincinnati–Middletown–Wilmington combined statistical area, which had a population of 2,172,191 in the 2010 census.[8] With a population of 298,800, Cincinnati
Cincinnati
is the third-largest city proper in Ohio
Ohio
and the 65th-biggest in the United States. It is the fastest growing economic power in the Midwestern United States[9] and the 28th-biggest metropolitan statistical area in the United States
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Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party (GOP). Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest political party.[16] The Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive ("Bull Moose") Party, leading to a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party and Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D

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Socialists
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production[10] as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.[11] Social ownership may refer to forms of public, collective or cooperative ownership, or to citizen ownership of equity.[12] There are many varieties of socialism and there is no single definition encapsulating all of them,[13] though social ownership is the common element shared by its various forms.[5][14][15] Socialist economic systems can be divided into non-market and market forms.[16] Non-market socialism involves the substitution of factor markets and money, with engineering and technical criteria, based on calculation performed in-kind, thereby producing an economic mechanism that functions according to different economic laws from those of capitalism
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Nativism (politics)
Nativism is the political policy of promoting the interests of native inhabitants against those of immigrants.[1] However, this is currently more commonly described as an anti-immigrant position.[2] In scholarly studies nativism is a standard technical term. The term is typically not accepted by those who hold this political view, however. Dindar (2010) wrote "nativists..
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Emergency Quota Act
The Emergency Quota Act, also known as the Emergency Immigration Act of 1921, the Immigration Restriction Act of 1921, the Per Centum Law, and the Johnson Quota Act (ch. 8, 42 Stat. 5 of May 19, 1921) restricted immigration into the United States. Although intended as temporary legislation, the Act "proved in the long run the most important turning-point in American immigration policy"[2] because it added two new features to American immigration law: numerical limits on immigration and the use of a quota system for establishing those limits. These limits came to be known as the National Origins Formula. The Emergency Quota Act
Emergency Quota Act
restricted the number of immigrants admitted from any country annually to 3% of the number of residents from that same country living in the United States as of the U.S. Census of 1910.[3] This meant that people from northern European countries had a higher quota and were more likely to be admitted to the U.S
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Herbert Hoover
Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964) was an American engineer, businessman and politician who served as the 31st President of the United States
President of the United States
from 1929 to 1933 during the Great Depression. A Republican, as Secretary of Commerce
Secretary of Commerce
in the 1920s he introduced themes of efficiency in the business community and provided government support for standardization, efficiency and international trade. As president from 1929 to 1933, his domestic programs were overshadowed by the onset of the Great Depression. Hoover was defeated in a landslide election in 1932 by Democratic Franklin D. Roosevelt, who promised a New Deal
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