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Amazon Basin
The Amazon basin
Amazon basin
is the part of South America
South America
drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries. The Amazon drainage basin covers an area of about 7,500,000 km2 (2,900,000 sq mi), or roughly 40 percent of the South American continent. It is located in the countries of Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, Suriname
Suriname
and Venezuela.[1] Most of the basin is covered by the Amazon Rainforest, also known as Amazonia
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Guianan Cock-of-the-rock
The Guianan cock-of-the-rock
Guianan cock-of-the-rock
(Rupicola rupicola) is a species of cotinga, a passerine bird from South America. It is about 30 centimetres (12 in) in length and weighs about 200 to 220 grams (7.1 to 7.8 oz). It is found in tropical rainforests, near its preferred habitat of rocky outcrops. The male's plumage is bright orange and the males have a prominent half-moon crest. The females are brownish in colour, and are generally much duller coloured than the males. It is one of two species of the genus Rupicola, the other being the Andean cock-of-the-rock. The Guianan cock-of-the-rock
Guianan cock-of-the-rock
lives across the forested region of northeastern South America. Its diet consists mostly of fruit, but sometimes includes small snakes and lizards. The Guianan cock-of-the-rock
Guianan cock-of-the-rock
breeds in the early months of the year and, on average, lays its eggs around March
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Mammal
Mammals
Mammals
(from Latin mamma "breast") are vertebrate animals constituting the class Mammalia (/məˈmeɪliə/), and characterized by the presence of mammary glands which in females produce milk for feeding (nursing) their young, a neocortex (a region of the brain), fur or hair, and three middle ear bones. These characteristics distinguish them from reptiles and birds, from which they diverged in the late Triassic, 201–227 million years ago. There are around 5,450 species of mammals. The largest orders are the rodents, bats and Soricomorpha
Soricomorpha
(shrews and others). The next three are the Primates (humans, apes, monkeys, and others), the Cetartiodactyla
Cetartiodactyla
(whales and even-toed ungulates), and the Carnivora
Carnivora
(cats, dogs, seals, and others). In cladistics, which reflect evolution, mammals are classified as endothermic amniotes
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Evergreen Forest
Tropical
Tropical
evergreen forests (or tropical rain forests) are usually found in areas receiving more than 234 cm of rainfall and having a monthly mean temperature of 18 °C or higher in the coldest months. They occupy about seven percent of the Earth's surface and harbour more than half of the planet's terrestrial plants and animals. Tropical
Tropical
evergreen forests are dense, multi-layered, and harbour many types of plants and animals. These forest are found in the areas receiving heavy rainfall (more than 200 cm annual rainfall). They are very dense. Even the sunlight does not reach the ground. Numerous species of trees are found in these forests. Different types of trees shed there leaves at different times of the year. Therefore, these forests always appear green and are known as evergreen forests
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Amazonas, Venezuela
Amazonas State (Spanish: Estado Amazonas, IPA: [esˈtaðo amaˈsonas]) is one of the 23 states (estados) into which Venezuela
Venezuela
is divided. It covers nearly a fifth of the area of Venezuela, but has less than 1% of Venezuela's total population. The state capital is Puerto Ayacucho. The capital until the early 1900s was San Fernando de Atabapo. Although named after the Amazon River, most of the state is drained by the Orinoco
Orinoco
River. Amazonas State covers a total surface area of 176,899 km² and, in 2007, had a population of 142,200
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Orchid
The Orchidaceae
Orchidaceae
are a diverse and widespread family of flowering plants, with blooms that are often colourful and fragrant, commonly known as the orchid family. Along with the Asteraceae, they are one of the two largest families of flowering plants. The Orchidaceae
Orchidaceae
have about 28,000 currently accepted species, distributed in about 763 genera.[2][3] The determination of which family is larger is still under debate, because verified data on the members of such enormous families are continually in flux. Regardless, the number of orchid species nearly equals the number of bony fishes and is more than twice the number of bird species, and about four times the number of mammal species
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Bromeliad
The Bromeliaceae
Bromeliaceae
(the bromeliads) are a family of monocot flowering plants of 51 genera and around 3475 known species[2] native mainly to the tropical Americas, with a few species found in the American subtropics and one in tropical west Africa, Pitcairnia
Pitcairnia
feliciana.[3] They are among the basal families within the Poales
Poales
and are the only family within the order that has septal nectaries and inferior ovaries.[4] These inferior ovaries characterize the Bromelioideae, a subfamily of the Bromeliaceae.[5] The family includes both epiphytes, such as Spanish moss
Spanish moss
( Tillandsia
Tillandsia
usneoides), and terrestrial species, such as the pineapple ( Ananas
Ananas
comosus). Many bromeliads are able to store water in a structure formed by their tightly-overlapping leaf bases
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Guianas
The Guianas, sometimes called by the Spanish loan-word Guayanas (Las Guayanas), are a region in north-eastern South America
South America
which includes the following three territories:French Guiana, an overseas department of France Guyana, formerly known as British Guiana
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Aerial Roots
Aerial roots are roots above the ground. They are almost always adventitious. They are found in diverse plant species, including epiphytes such as orchids, tropical coastal swamp trees such as mangroves, the resourceful banyan trees, the warm-temperate rainforest rātā (Metrosideros robusta) and pōhutukawa (M. excelsa) trees of New Zealand
New Zealand
and vines such as Common Ivy (Hedera helix) and poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans).Contents1 Types of aerial roots1.1 "Stranglers" 1.2 Pneumatophores 1.3 Haustorial roots 1.4 Propagative roots2 Aerial root
Aerial root
pumping and physiology 3 See also 4 ReferencesTypes of aerial roots[edit] This plant organ that is found in so many diverse plant families has different specializations that suit the plant habitat
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Yerupajá
Yerupajá
Yerupajá
is a mountain of the Huayhuash mountain range in west central Peru, part of the Andes. At 6,635 metres (21,768 ft) (other sources: 6,617 m (21,709 ft))[citation needed] it is the second-highest in Peru
Peru
and the highest in the Huayhuash mountain range. The summit is the highest point in the Amazon River watershed, and was first reached in 1950 by Jim Maxwell and Dave Harrah, and its northern peak ( Yerupajá
Yerupajá
Norte) in 1968 by the Wellingtonian Roger Bates and Graeme Dingle. Many visitors consider Yerupajá
Yerupajá
to be the most spectacular peak in South America. There have been only a few successful ascents of the peak because it is one of the hardest Andean high peaks to climb. The most popular route is the southwest face
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Drainage Divide
A drainage divide, water divide, divide, ridgeline,[1] watershed, or water parting is the line that separates neighbouring drainage basins. On rugged land, the divide lies along topographical ridges, and may be in the form of a single range of hills or mountains, known as a dividing range
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Epiphyte
An epiphyte is an organism that grows on the surface of a plant and derives its moisture and nutrients from the air, rain, water (in marine environments) or from debris accumulating around it. Epiphytes take part in nutrient cycles and add to both the diversity and biomass of the ecosystem in which they occur like any other organism. They are an important source of food for many species. Typical, the older parts of a plant will have more epiphytes growing on them. Epiphytes differ from parasites in that epiphytes grow on other plants for physical support and do not necessarily negatively affect the host
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Brazil Nut
The Brazil
Brazil
nut (Bertholletia excelsa) is a South American tree in the family Lecythidaceae, and also the name of the tree's commercially harvested edible seeds.Contents1 Order 2 Brazil
Brazil
nut tree2.1 Hazards3 Reproduction 4 Nomenclature 5 Nut production5.1 Effects of harvesting6 Uses6.1 Nutrition 6.2 Brazil
Brazil
nut oil 6.3 Other uses 6.4 Wood7 See also 8 References 9 External linksOrder[edit] The Brazil
Brazil
nut family is in the order Ericales, as are other well-known plants such as blueberries, cranberries, sapote, gutta-percha, tea, phlox and persimmons. Brazil
Brazil
nut tree[edit]Tree branchThe Brazil
Brazil
nut tree is the only species in the monotypic genus Bertholletia. It is native to the Guianas, Venezuela, Brazil, eastern Colombia, eastern Peru, and eastern Bolivia
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Atlantic Ocean
The Atlantic Ocean
Ocean
is the second largest of the world's oceans, with an area of about 106,460,000 square kilometers (41,100,000 square miles).[2][3] It covers approximately 20 percent of the Earth's surface
Earth's surface
and about 29 percent of its water surface area. It separates the "Old World" from the "New World". The Atlantic Ocean
Ocean
occupies an elongated, S-shaped basin extending longitudinally between Europe
Europe
and Africa
Africa
to the east, and the Americas to the west
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Rubber Tree
Hevea
Hevea
brasiliensis, the Pará rubber tree, sharinga tree, seringueira, or, most commonly, the rubber tree or rubber plant, is a tree belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae. It is the most economically important member of the genus Hevea
Hevea
because the milky latex extracted from the tree is the primary source of natural rubber.Contents1 Description 2 Rubber tree plantation2.1 Latex
Latex
tapping 2.2 Wood harvesting3 History 4 Environmental concerns 5 Synonyms 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External linksDescription[edit] H. brasiliensis is a tall deciduous tree growing to a height of up to 43 m (141 ft) in the wild, but cultivated trees are usually much smaller because drawing off the latex restricts the growth of the tree. The trunk is cylindrical and may have a swollen, bottle-shaped base. The bark is some shade of brown, and the inner bark oozes latex when damaged
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Assai Palm
The açaí palm (Portuguese: [asaˈi] ( listen), from Tupi-Guarani
Tupi-Guarani
asaí[2]), Euterpe
Euterpe
oleracea, is a species of palm tree in the genus Euterpe
Euterpe
cultivated for its fruit (açaí berries) and hearts of palm (a vegetable). The common name comes from the Portuguese adaptation of the Tupian word ïwaca'i, meaning "[fruit that] cries or expels water"
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