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Amazon Parrot
AMAZON PARROT is the common name for a parrot of the genus Amazona. These are medium-sized parrots native to the New World ranging from South America
South America
to Mexico
Mexico
and the Caribbean
Caribbean
. Most amazon parrots are predominantly green, with accenting colors that depend on the species and can be quite vivid. They feed primarily on seeds, nuts , and fruits , supplemented by leafy matter. Many amazon parrots have a remarkable ability to mimic human speech and other sounds. Partly because of this, they are popular as pets or companion parrots , and a small industry has developed in breeding parrots in captivity for this market. This popularity has led to many parrots being taken from the wild to the extent that some species have become threatened. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora treaty has made the capture of wild parrots for the pet trade illegal in an attempt to help protect wild populations. CONTENTS* 1 Taxonomy and naming * 1.1 List of species * 1.2 Reclassification of the yellow-faced parrot * 1.3 Hypothetically extinct species * 2 Aviculture * 3 Gallery * 4 References * 5 External links TAXONOMY AND NAMINGThe genus Amazona (to which amazons belong) was established by René Lesson in 1830
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Amazona (song)
"AMAZONA" is the third track from Roxy Music 's November 1973 album Stranded . It features a very high pitched guitar solo from Phil Manzanera . Intro is played with Bo Diddley beat. The middle section is in 14/4 timing, 4 bars of 3/4 and one of 2/4. USED AS SAMPLEThe opening guitar has been used by Ice-T
Ice-T
for his song "That's How I'm Living"
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Orange-winged Amazon
The ORANGE-WINGED AMAZON (Amazona amazonica), also known locally as ORANGE-WINGED PARROT and LORO GUARO, is a large amazon parrot . It is a resident breeding bird in tropical South America
South America
, from Colombia
Colombia
, Trinidad
Trinidad
and Tobago south to Peru
Peru
, Bolivia
Bolivia
and central Brazil
Brazil
. Its habitat is forest and semi-open country. Although common, it is persecuted as an agricultural pest and by capture for the pet trade (over 66,000 captured from 1981 to 1985). It is also hunted as a food source. CONTENTS * 1 Taxonomy * 2 Description * 3 Behaviour * 3.1 Diet and feeding * 3.2 Breeding * 4 References * 4.1 Further reading * 5 External links TAXONOMYThere are two subspecies: * A. a. amazonica, found on the mainland of South America. * A. a. tobagensis, found only on Trinidad
Trinidad
and Tobago , is a subspecies which is larger than the nominate form, and has more orange in the wing.DESCRIPTIONThe orange-winged amazon is a mainly green parrot about 33 cm (13 in) long and weighing about 340 g. It has blue and yellow feathers on its head which varies in extent between individuals. The upper mandible is partly horn colored (gray) and partly dark-gray. It has orange feathers in the wings and tail, which can be seen when in flight
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις _(taxis )_, meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία _(-nomia)_, meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms. With the advent of such fields of study as phylogenetics , cladistics , and systematics , the Linnaean system has progressed to a system of modern biological classification based on the evolutionary relationships between organisms, both living and extinct
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Animal
ANIMALS are multicellular , eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom ANIMALIA (also called METAZOA). The animal kingdom emerged as a clade within Apoikozoa as the sister group to the choanoflagellates . Animals are motile , meaning they can move spontaneously and independently at some point in their lives. Their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop , although some undergo a process of metamorphosis later in their lives. All animals are heterotrophs : they must ingest other organisms or their products for sustenance . Most known animal phyla appeared in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion , about 542 million years ago. Animals can be divided broadly into vertebrates and invertebrates . Vertebrates have a backbone or spine (vertebral column ), and amount to less than five percent of all described animal species . They include fish , amphibians , reptiles , birds and mammals . The remaining animals are the invertebrates, which lack a backbone. These include molluscs (clams , oysters , octopuses , squid , snails ); arthropods (millipedes , centipedes , insects , spiders , scorpions , crabs , lobsters , shrimp ); annelids (earthworms , leeches ), nematodes (filarial worms , hookworms ), flatworms (tapeworms , liver flukes ), cnidarians (jellyfish , sea anemones , corals ), ctenophores (comb jellies), and sponges
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Chordate
And see text A CHORDATE is an animal belonging to the phylum CHORDATA; they possess a notochord , a hollow dorsal nerve cord , pharyngeal slits , an endostyle , and a post-anal tail , for at least some period of their life cycle. Chordates are deuterostomes , as during the embryo development stage the anus forms before the mouth. They are also bilaterally symmetric coelomates . In the case of vertebrate chordates, the notochord is usually replaced by a vertebral column during development, and they may have body plans organized by segmentation . Taxonomically, the phylum includes the subphyla Vertebrata , which includes fish , amphibians , reptiles , birds , and mammals ; Tunicata , which includes salps and sea squirts ; and Cephalochordata , comprising the lancelets . There are also additional extinct taxa. The Vertebrata are sometimes considered as a subgroup of the clade Craniata , consisting of chordates with a skull ; the Craniata and Tunicata compose the clade Olfactores. Of the more than 65,000 living species of chordates, about half are bony fish of the superclass Osteichthyes . The world's largest and fastest animals, the blue whale and peregrine falcon respectively, are chordates, as are humans . Fossil chordates are known from at least as early as the Cambrian explosion
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Bird
BIRDS (AVES) are a group of endothermic vertebrates , characterised by feathers , toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart , and a strong yet lightweight skeleton . Birds live worldwide and range in size from the 5 cm (2 in) bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m (9 ft) ostrich . They rank as the class of tetrapods with the most living species, at approximately ten thousand, with more than half of these being passerines , sometimes known as perching birds. Birds are the closest living relatives of crocodilians . Birds are descendants of extinct dinosaurs with feathers , making them the only surviving dinosaurs according to cladistics . The fossil record indicates that birds evolved from feathered ancestors within the theropod group, which are traditionally placed within the saurischian dinosaurs , though a 2017 paper has put them in a proposed clade Ornithoscelida , along with the Ornithischia . True birds first appeared during the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
period, around 120 million years ago. DNA-based evidence finds that birds diversified dramatically around the time of the Cretaceous–Palaeogene extinction event 66 million years ago, which reduced the Pterosaurs , and killed off all the non-avian dinosaur lineages
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Parrot
Cacatuoidea (cockatoos) Psittacoidea (true parrots) Strigopoidea ( New Zealand parrots) Range of parrots, all species (red)PARROTS, also known as PSITTACINES /ˈsɪtəsaɪnz/ , are birds of the roughly 393 species in 92 genera that make up the order PSITTACIFORMES, found in most tropical and subtropical regions. The order is subdivided into three superfamilies: the Psittacoidea ("true" parrots), the Cacatuoidea (cockatoos), and the Strigopoidea (New Zealand parrots). Parrots have a generally pantropical distribution with several species inhabiting temperate regions in the Southern Hemisphere , as well. The greatest diversity of parrots is in South America and Australasia . Characteristic features of parrots include a strong, curved bill , an upright stance, strong legs, and clawed zygodactyl feet. Many parrots are vividly coloured, and some are multi-coloured. Most parrots exhibit little or no sexual dimorphism in the visual spectrum. They form the most variably sized bird order in terms of length. The most important components of most parrots' diets are seeds, nuts, fruit, buds, and other plant material. A few species sometimes eat animals and carrion , while the lories and lorikeets are specialised for feeding on floral nectar and soft fruits
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True Parrot
Psittacidae Psittrichasiidae Psittaculidae
Psittaculidae
The TRUE PARROTS are about 350 species of colorful flighted (with a few notable exceptions ) hook-billed, mostly herbivorous birds forming the superfamily PSITTACOIDEA, one of the three superfamilies in the biological order Psittaciformes (parrots). True parrots are widespread, with species in Mexico
Mexico
, Central and South America , sub-Saharan Africa , India
India
, Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
, Australia
Australia
, and eastwards across the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
as far as Polynesia
Polynesia
. The true parrots include many of the familiar parrots including macaws , conures , lorikeets , eclectus , Amazon parrots , African gray parrot , and budgerigar . CONTENTS* 1 Overview * 1.1 Distribution and habitat * 2 Conservation status * 3 Taxonomy * 4 Species lists * 5 Further reading * 6 References * 7 Notes * 8 External links OVERVIEW This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Arini (tribe)
Cyanoliseus Enicognathus Rhynchopsitta Pyrrhura Anodorhynchus Leptosittaca Ognorhynchus Diopsittaca Guaruba Conuropsis Cyanopsitta Orthopsittaca Ara Primolius Aratinga Eupsittula Psittacara Thectocercus The ARINI tribe of the neotropical parrots is a monophyletic clade of macaws and parakeets (commonly called conures in aviculture) characterized by colorful plumage and long, tapering tails. They occur throughout Mexico
Mexico
, Central America
Central America
, and South America
South America
, and formerly the Caribbean and North America
North America
. One genus and several species are extinct; another genus is extinct in the wild. Two species are known only through subfossil remains. About a dozen hypothetical extinct species (see Extinct Caribbean macaws ) have been described, native to the Caribbean area. Among the Arini are some of the rarest birds in the world, such as Spix\'s macaw which is extinct in the wild - fewer than 100 specimens survive in captivity. It also contains the largest flighted parrot in the world, the hyacinth macaw . Molecular studies have dated the divergence of the Arini tribe from the ancestral neotropical parrots to late in the Paleogene period about 30-35 million years ago
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René Primevère Lesson
RENé PRIMEVèRE LESSON (20 March 1794 – 28 April 1849) was a French surgeon , naturalist , ornithologist , and herpetologist . CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Amphibian and reptile species described by Lesson * 3 Amphibian and reptile species described in Lesson’s honour * 4 Bibliography * 4.1 By Lesson * 4.2 About Lesson * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links BIOGRAPHYHe was born at Rochefort , and entered the Naval Medical School in Rochefort at the age of sixteen. He served in the French Navy during the Napoleonic Wars ; in 1811 he was third surgeon on the frigate Saale, and in 1813 was second surgeon on the Regulus. In 1816 Lesson changed his classification to pharmacist . He served on Duperrey 's round-the-world voyage of La Coquille (1822–25), of which he collected natural history specimens with his fellow surgeon Prosper Garnot and officer Dumont d\'Urville . During his visits to the Moluccas and New Guinea
New Guinea
, Lesson became the first naturalist to see birds of paradise in the wild. On returning to Paris
Paris
, he spent seven years preparing the section on vertebrates for the official account of the expedition: "Voyage autour du monde entrepris par ordre du Gouvernement sur la corvette La Coquille" (published from 1826 to 1839)
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Biodiversity
BIODIVERSITY, a portmanteau of "biological diversity," generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth
Earth
. According to the United Nations Environment Programme , biodiversity typically measures variation at the genetic , the species , and the ecosystem level. Terrestrial biodiversity tends to be greater near the equator , which seems to be the result of the warm climate and high primary productivity . Biodiversity
Biodiversity
is not distributed evenly on Earth
Earth
, and is richest in the tropics. These tropical forest ecosystems cover less than 10 per cent of earth's surface, and contain about 90 percent of the world's species. Marine biodiversity tends to be highest along coasts in the Western Pacific , where sea surface temperature is highest and in the mid-latitudinal band in all oceans. There are latitudinal gradients in species diversity . Biodiversity
Biodiversity
generally tends to cluster in hotspots, and has been increasing through time, but will be likely to slow in the future. Rapid environmental changes typically cause mass extinctions
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List Of Amazon Parrots
The AMAZON PARROTS are about 30 species of parrots that comprise the genus Amazona. They are native to the New World, ranging from South America to Mexico and the Caribbean. Amazon parrots range in size from medium to large, and have relatively short, rather square tails. They are predominantly green, with accenting colours that are quite vivid in some species. The taxonomy of the yellow-crowned amazon ( Amazona
Amazona
ochrocephala complex) is disputed, with some authorities listing only a single species (A. ochrocephala), and others splitting it into as many as three species (A. ochrocephala, A. auropalliata and A. oratrix). The yellow-faced parrot , Alipiopsitta xanthops, was traditionally placed within the amazon parrot genus, but recent research has shown that it is more closely related to the short-tailed parrot and species from the genus Pionus ; as a result, it has been transferred to the monotypic genus Alipiopsitta. Two extinct species have been postulated, based on limited evidence. They are the Martinique amazon ( Amazona
Amazona
martinica) and the Guadeloupe amazon ( Amazona
Amazona
violacea). Amazon parrots were described living on Guadeloupe by Jean-Baptiste Du Tertre in 1667 and by Jean-Baptiste Labat in 1742, and they were called Psittacus violaceus at that time
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John Gerrard Keulemans
JOHANNES GERARDUS KEULEMANS (J. G. KEULEMANS) (8 June 1842 – 29 March 1912) was a Dutch bird illustrator . For most of his life he lived and worked in England, illustrating a large number of the best-known ornithology books of the nineteenth century. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Work * 2.1 Onze vogels in huis en tuin (Our birds in home and garden) * 3 Interest in spiritualism * 4 List of major works to which Keulemans contributed * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Literature * 8 Further reading * 9 External links BIOGRAPHYKeulemans was born in Rotterdam. As a young man he collected animal specimens for museums such as the Natural History Museum in Leiden, whose director, Hermann Schlegel
Hermann Schlegel
, encouraged Keulemans and sent him on the 1864 expedition to West Africa. In 1869, he was persuaded by Richard Bowdler Sharpe
Richard Bowdler Sharpe
to illustrate his Monograph of the Alcedinidae , or Family of Kingfishers (1868-1871) and to move to England
England
, where he lived for the rest of his life. He was married twice, and had eight children by his first wife and seven children by his second wife. Only nine of his children reached adulthood. He also wrote topics on spirituality, and claimed he had a premonition at the moment of death of one of his sons
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Genus
A GENUS (/ˈdʒiːnəs/ , pl. GENERA) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms in biology . In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family . In binomial nomenclature , the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus. E.g. _ Felis catus _ and _ Felis silvestris _ are two species within the genus _ Felis _. _Felis_ is a genus within the family Felidae . The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist . The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera. There are some general practices used, however, including the idea that a newly defined genus should fulfill these three criteria to be descriptively useful: * monophyly – all descendants of an ancestral taxon are grouped together (i.e. phylogenetic analysis should clearly demonstrate both monophyly and validity as a separate lineage ). * reasonable compactness – a genus should not be expanded needlessly; and * distinctness – with respect to evolutionarily relevant criteria, i.e
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New World
The NEW WORLD is one of the names used for the majority of Earth 's Western Hemisphere , specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda ). The term originated in the early 16th century after Europeans made landfall in what would later be called the Americas in the age of discovery , expanding the geographical horizon of classical geographers , who had thought of the world as consisting of Africa , Europe , and Asia , collectively now referred to as the Old World (a.k.a. Afro-Eurasia ). The term was coined by Florentine explorer Amerigo Vespucci . The Americas were also referred to as the "fourth part of the world". CONTENTS * 1 Usage * 2 Origin of term * 2.1 Prior usage * 2.2 Acceptance * 2.3 Cartographic representation * 3 See also * 4 References USAGEThe terms "Old World " vs. "New World" are meaningful in historical context and for the purpose of distinguishing the world's major ecozones , and to classify plant and animal species that originated therein. One can speak of the "New World" in a historical context, e.g., when discussing the voyages of Christopher Columbus , the Spanish conquest of Yucatán and other events of the colonial period
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