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Amateur Wrestling
Amateur wrestling
Amateur wrestling
is the most widespread form of sport wrestling.[citation needed] There are two international wrestling styles performed in the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
under the supervision of United World Wrestling
Wrestling
(UWW; formerly known as FILA, from the French acronym for International Federation of Associated Wrestling
Wrestling
Styles): Greco-Roman and freestyle. Freestyle is possibly derived from the English Lancashire style.[citation needed] A similar style, commonly called collegiate (also known as scholastic or folkstyle), is practiced in colleges and universities, secondary schools, middle schools, and among younger age groups in the United States. Where the style is not specified, this article refers to the international styles of competition on a mat
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Cross-linked Polyethylene
Cross-linked polyethylene, commonly abbreviated PEX, XPE or XLPE, is a form of polyethylene with cross-links. It is used predominantly in building services pipework systems, hydronic radiant heating and cooling systems, domestic water piping, and insulation for high tension (high voltage) electrical cables. It is also used for natural gas and offshore oil applications, chemical transportation, and transportation of sewage and slurries
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Armlock
An armlock in grappling is a single or double joint lock that hyperextends, hyperflexes or hyperrotates the elbow joint or shoulder joint. An armlock that hyperflexes or hyperrotates the shoulder joint is referred to as a shoulder lock, and an armlock that hyperextends the elbow joint is called an armbar. Depending on the joint flexibility of a person, armlocks that hyperrotate the shoulder joint can also hyperrotate the elbow joint, and vice versa. Obtaining an armlock requires effective use of full-body leverage in order to initiate and secure a lock on the targeted arm, while preventing the opponent from escaping the lock. Therefore, performing an armlock is less problematic on the ground, from positions such as the mount, side control, or guard. Armlocks are more difficult to perform when both combatants are standing up, though the stand-up variants are a focus in certain systems such as Chin Na
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Strike (attack)
A strike is a directed physical attack with either a part of the human body or with an inanimate object (such as a weapon) intended to cause blunt trauma or penetrating trauma upon an opponent. There are many different varieties of strikes
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Slapping (strike)
Slapping or smacking refers to striking a person with the open palm of the hand.[1][2]Contents1 Etymology and definitions 2 Usage and meaning 3 Cultural aspects 4 See also 5 ReferencesEtymology and definitions[edit] The word was first recorded in 1632, probably as a form of Onomatopoeia.[3] It shares its beginning consonants with several other English words related to violence, such as "slash", "slay", and "slam".[4] The word is found in several English colloquialisms, such as, "slap fight", "slap-happy", "slapshot", "slapstick", "slap on the wrist" (as a mild punishment), "slap in the face" (as an insult or, alternatively, as a reproof against a lewd or insulting comment), and "slap on the back" (an expression of friendship or congratulations). In jazz and other styles of music, the term refers to the action of pulling an instrument's strings back and allowing them to smack the instrument: see Slapping (music). "Bitch slap" is
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Punch (strike)
A punch is a striking blow with the fist.[1] It is used in some martial arts and combat sports, most notably Boxing
Boxing
where it is the only type of offensive technique allowed. In sports, hand wraps or other padding such as gloves may be used to protect athletes and practitioners from injuring themselves.[2][3] The use of punches varies between different martial arts and combat sports. Styles such as Boxing
Boxing
or Russian fist fighting
Russian fist fighting
use punches alone, while others such as Kickboxing, Muay Thai, or Karate
Karate
may use both punches and kicks. Others such as wrestling and judo (punches and other striking techniques, atemi, are present in judo kata, but are forbidden in competitions) do not use punches at all
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Elbow (strike)
An elbow strike (commonly referred to as simply an "elbow") is a strike with the point of the elbow, the part of the forearm nearest to the elbow, or the part of the upper arm nearest to the elbow. Elbows can be thrown sideways similarly to a hook, upwards similarly to an uppercut, downwards with the point of the elbow, diagonally or in direct movement and in several other ways like during a jump etc. Elbowing is a disallowed practice in most combat sports. However, Muay Thai, Pradal serey
Pradal serey
and several mixed martial arts (MMA) organizations do allow elbowing, or allow elbowing in a specific manner. The mixed martial arts organizations disallowing it usually do so because elbowing the head increases the risk of lacerations in a fight.[1] While elbows are mostly disallowed in most modern combat sports, they are common in traditional martial arts
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Kick
A kick is a physical strike using the leg, foot, heel, tibia, thigh or knee (the latter is also known as a knee strike). This type of attack is used frequently by hooved animals as well as humans in the context of stand-up fighting. Kicks play a significant role in many forms of martial arts, such as savate, taekwondo, MMA, sikaran, karate, Pankration, Kung fu, Vovinam, kickboxing, Muay Thai, capoeira, silat, and kalaripayattu. Kicking is also prominent from its use in many sports, especially those called football
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Knee (strike)
A knee strike (commonly referred to simply as a knee) is a strike with the knee, either with the kneecap or the surrounding area. Kneeing is a disallowed practice in many combat sports, especially to the head of a downed opponent. Styles such as Muay Thai
Muay Thai
and several mixed martial arts organizations allow kneeing depending on the positioning of the fighters.Contents1 Straight 2 Curved 3 Flying3.1 Use in combat sports4 See also 5 ReferencesStraight[edit] The straight knee (also known as a front knee) is a typical knee strike, and involves thrusting the front of the knee into the head or body of an opponent. The straight knee can be applied from a stand-up position both when the combatants are separated, or when they are clinching. A particularly effective clinching position for throwing front knee is the double collar tie, where the head of the opponent is controlled
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Headbutt
A headbutt (French coup de tête) is a targeted strike with the head, typically (when intentional) involving the use of robust parts of the headbutter's cranium as the area of impact. The most effective headbutts strike the most sensitive areas of an opponent, such as the nose, using the stronger bones in the forehead (frontal bone) or the back of the skull (occipital or parietal bone). It can be considered a quick, very effective but risky maneuver, as a misplaced strike can cause greater injury to the person delivering the headbutt than to the person receiving it. A headbutt does not have to be against another person's head, although this is usually the nearest and easiest target. In the United Kingdom, a headbutt is sometimes referred to as a Glasgow
Glasgow
kiss
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Joint Lock
A joint lock is a grappling technique involving manipulation of an opponent's joints in such a way that the joints reach their maximal degree of motion. In judō these are referred to as, 関節技 kansetsu-waza, "joint locking technique"[1]) and in Chinese martial arts
Chinese martial arts
as chin na which literally means "catching and locking"
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Leglock
A leglock is a joint lock that is directed at joints of the leg such as the ankle, knee or hip joint. A leglock, which is directed at joints in the foot, is sometimes referred to as a foot lock and a lock at the hip as a hip lock. Leglocks are featured, with various levels of restrictions, in combat sports and martial arts such as Sambo, Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, catch wrestling, mixed martial arts, Shootwrestling and submission wrestling, but are banned in some sports featuring joint locks such as judo.[1][2] As with other jointlocks, leglocks are more effective with full body leverage. Some attack the large joints of the knee or hip and involve utilizing leverage to counteract the larger muscle groups, while others directly attack ligaments in the knee or the smaller joint of the ankle
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Fish-hooking
Fish-hooking
Fish-hooking
is the act of inserting a finger or fingers of one or both hands into the mouth, nostrils or other orifices of a person, and pulling away from the centerline of the body; in most cases with the intention of pulling, tearing, or lacerating the surrounding tissue. Forceful fish-hooking involves a high risk of permanent facial or orifice damage.[1] Sometimes, the term fish hooking refers to a type of eye gouging.[2] Fish-hooking
Fish-hooking
techniques are disallowed in modern combat sports, mixed martial arts and martial arts competitions due to the risk of permanent injury. This technique however, is occasionally taught as part of self-defense curricula in some martial arts such as Krav Maga and Gōjū-ryū. See also[edit]Pain compliance Self-defense CombativesReferences[edit]^ "MMA Glossary". Archived from the original on June 4, 2011. Retrieved March 4, 2011
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Spinal Lock
A spinal lock is a multiple joint lock applied to the spinal column, which is performed by forcing the spine beyond its normal ranges of motion. This is typically done by bending or twisting the head or upper body into abnormal positions
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Wristlock
A wristlock is a joint lock primarily affecting the wrist-joint and possibly the radioulnar joints through rotation of the hand. A wristlock is typically applied by grabbing the opponent's hand, and bending and/or twisting it. Wristlocks are very common in martial arts such as aikido, hapkido and jujutsu where they are featured as self-defense techniques. They are also used as submission holds in combat sports such as Brazilian jiu-jitsu
Brazilian jiu-jitsu
(where the most common name is mão de vaca, "the cow's hand") and catch wrestling. While being an illegal technique in modern sambo[1] and judo[2] competitions, it is still practiced in judo forms of self-defense kata kōdōkan goshinjutsu.[3] Wristlocks are also widely used as pain compliance holds, often in police and military. The wristlock is a technique that can be applied from a stand-up position, simply by grabbing the opponent's hand and twisting and/or bending it in a non-natural direction
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Small Joint Manipulation
Small joint manipulation, in grappling, refers to twisting, pulling or bending fingers or toes to cause joint locks in the various joints in those appendages. Joint
Joint
locks on fingers and toes are respectively referred to as finger locks and toe locks. Technique[edit] The leverage needed for such joint manipulation is comparatively small, since grabbing a finger or two with one or both hands creates a distinct advantage. Joint manipulation can allow a weaker person with the right training to control a stronger one
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