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Alveolar Tap
The alveolar tap or flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents dental, alveolar, and postalveolar flaps is [ɾ]. The terms tap and flap may be used interchangeably
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Consonant
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are [p], pronounced with the lips; [t], pronounced with the front of the tongue; [k], pronounced with the back of the tongue; [h], pronounced in the throat; [f] and [s], pronounced by forcing air through a narrow channel (fricatives); and [m] and [n], which have air flowing through the nose (nasals)
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Arabic Alphabet
Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE Hieratic
Hieratic
32 c. BCEDemotic 7 c. BCEMeroitic 3 c. BCEProto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCEUgaritic 15 c. BCE Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCEGe’ez 5–6 c. BCEPhoenician 12 c. BCEPaleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCESamaritan 6 c. BCE Libyco-Berber
Libyco-Berber
3 c. BCETifinaghPaleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE Aramaic 8 c. BCE Kharoṣṭhī
Kharoṣṭhī
4 c. BCE Brāhmī 4 c. BCE Brahmic family
Brahmic family
(see)E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE Devanagari
Devanagari
13 c. CECanadian syllabics 1840Hebrew 3 c. BCE Pahlavi 3 c. BCEAvestan 4 c. CEPalmyrene 2 c. BCE Syriac 2 c. BCE Nabataean
Nabataean
2 c. BCE Arabic
Arabic
4 c. CEN'Ko 1949 CESogdian 2 c. BCEOrkhon (old Turkic) 6 c. CEOld Hungarian c
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Russian Language
Russian (Russian: ру́сский язы́к, tr. rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language
East Slavic language
and an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and many minor or unrecognised territories throughout Eurasia
Eurasia
(particularly in Eastern Europe, the Baltics, the Caucasus, and Central Asia). It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Latvia, Moldova, Ukraine
Ukraine
and to a lesser extent, the other post-Soviet states.[31][32] Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
and is one of the four living members of the East Slavic languages
Slavic languages
(which in turn is part of the larger Balto-Slavic branch)
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Russian Orthography
Russian orthography
Russian orthography
(Russian: правописа́ние, tr. pravopisaniye, IPA: [prəvəpʲɪˈsanʲɪjə]) is formally considered to encompass spelling (Russian: орфогра́фия, tr. orfografiya, IPA: [ɐrfɐˈɡrafʲɪjə]) and punctuation (Russian: пунктуа́ция, tr. punktuatsiya, IPA: [pʊnktʊˈat͡sɨjə]). Russian spelling, which is quite phonemic in practice, is a mix of the morphological and phonetic principles, with a few etymological or historic forms, and occasional grammatical differentiation. The punctuation, originally based on Byzantine Greek, was in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries reformulated on the French and German models. NOTE: The IPA transcription attempts to reflect vowel reduction when not under stress
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Russian Phonology
This article discusses the phonological system of standard Russian based on the Moscow
Moscow
dialect (unless otherwise noted). For an overview of dialects in the Russian language, see Russian dialects. Most descriptions of Russian describe it as having five vowel phonemes, though there is some dispute over whether a sixth vowel, /ɨ/, is separate from /i/. Russian has 34 consonants, which can be divided into two sets:hard (твёрдый  [ˈtvʲɵrdɨj] (help·info)) or plain soft (мягкий  [ˈmʲæxʲkʲɪj]) or palatalizedRussian also distinguishes hard consonants from soft (palatalized) consonants and from a soft consonant followed by /j/ or a hard consonant followed by /j/ (though the last is uncommon: /C Cʲ Cʲj Cj/), and preserves palatalized consonants that are followed by another consonant more often than other Slavic languages
Slavic languages
do
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Uzbek Language
Uzbek is a Turkic language that is the sole official language of Uzbekistan. The language of Uzbeks, it is spoken by some 28 million native speakers in Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
and elsewhere in Central Asia. Uzbek belongs to the Eastern Turkic, or Karluk, branch of the Turkic language family. External influences include Persian, Arabic
Arabic
and Russian. One of the most noticeable distinctions of Uzbek from other Turkic languages
Turkic languages
is the rounding of the vowel /a/ to /ɒ/, a feature that was influenced by Persian.Contents1 Name 2 History 3 Number of speakers 4 Loan words 5 Dialects 6 Writing systems 7 Phonology7.1 Vowels 7.2 Consonants8 See also 9 References 10 Sources 11 External linksName[edit] In the language itself, Uzbek is oʻzbek tili or oʻzbekcha
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Cyrillic Script
The Cyrillic script
Cyrillic script
/sɪˈrɪlɪk/ is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia
Eurasia
(particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia). It is based on the Early Cyrillic alphabet developed during the 9th century AD at the Preslav Literary School in the First Bulgarian Empire.[2][3][4] It is the basis of alphabets used in various languages, especially those of Orthodox Slavic origin, and non- Slavic languages
Slavic languages
influenced by Russian
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Afrikaans Language
Afrikaans
Afrikaans
(/ˌæfrɪˈkɑːns, ˌɑːfri-, -ˈkɑːnz/)[5][6] is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia
Namibia
and, to a lesser extent, Botswana
Botswana
and Zimbabwe. It evolved from the Dutch vernacular[7][8] of South Holland
South Holland
(Hollandic dialect)[9][10] spoken by the mainly Dutch settlers of what is now South Africa, where it gradually began to develop distinguishing characteristics in the course of the 18th century.[11] Hence, it is a daughter language of Dutch, and was previously referred to as "Cape Dutch" (a term also used to refer collectively to the early Cape settlers) or "kitchen Dutch" (a derogatory term used to refer to Afrikaans
Afrikaans
in its earlier days)
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Afrikaans Phonology
Afrikaans has a similar phonology to other West Germanic languages, especially Dutch.Contents1 Vowels1.1 Monophthongs1.1.1 The phonetic quality of the close vowels 1.1.2 The phonetic quality of the mid vowels 1.1.3 The phonetic quality of the open vowels 1.1.4 Other notes 1.1.5 Nasalized vowels1.2 Diphthongs1.2.1 /ɪø, ɪə, ʊə/ 1.2.2 Other diphthongs 1.2.3 Long diphthongs 1.2.4 'False' diphthongs2 Consonants2.1 Obstruents 2.2 Sonorants3 See also 4 References 5 Bibliography 6 Further readingVowels[edit]Monophthongs of Afrikaans on a vowel chart, from Wissing (2012:711)Afrikaans has an extensive vowel inventory consisting of 17 vowel phonemes, among which there are 10 monophthongs and 7 diphthongs. There are also 7 marginal monophthongs. Monophthongs[edit]Monophthong phonemes[1]Front Central Backunrounded rounded unrounded roundedshort long short short long short long short
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Arabic Language
Arabic
Arabic
(Arabic: العَرَبِيَّة‎) al-ʻarabiyyah [ʔalʕaraˈbijːah] ( listen) or (Arabic: عَرَبِيّ‎) ʻarabī [ˈʕarabiː] ( listen) or [ʕaraˈbij]) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world.[4] It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east to the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic
Arabic
is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form (Modern Standard Arabic) [5]. The modern written language (Modern Standard Arabic) is derived from Classical Arabic
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Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
Arabic
alphabet Latin
Latin
alphabetLanguage codesISO 639-3 arzGlottolog egyp1253[2]This article contains IPA
IPA
phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters. For an introductory guide on IPA
IPA
symbols, see Help:IPA.This article contains Arabic
Arabic
text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols.Egyptian Arabic, locally known as the Egyptian colloquial language or Masri, also spelled Masry, meaning simply "Egyptian", is spoken by most contemporary Egyptians. Egyptian is a North African
North African
dialect of the Arabic language
Arabic language
which is a Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family
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Emphatic Consonant
In Semitic linguistics, an emphatic consonant is an obstruent consonant which originally contrasted with series of both voiced and voiceless obstruents. In specific Semitic languages, the members of this series may be realized as uvularized or pharyngealized, velarized, ejective, or plain voiced or voiceless consonants. It is also used, to a lesser extent, to describe cognate series in other Afro-Asiatic languages, where they are typically realized as either ejective or implosive consonants. In Semitic studies, they are commonly transcribed using the convention of placing a dot under the closest plain obstruent consonant in the Latin alphabet. With respect to particular Semitic and Afro-Asiatic languages, this term describes the particular phonetic feature which distinguishes these consonants from other consonants
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Language
Language
Language
is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system. The scientific study of language is called linguistics. Questions concerning the philosophy of language, such as whether words can represent experience, have been debated at least since Gorgias
Gorgias
and Plato
Plato
in ancient Greece. Thinkers such as Rousseau
Rousseau
have argued that language originated from emotions while others like Kant have held that it originated from rational and logical thought. 20th-century philosophers such as Wittgenstein argued that philosophy is really the study of language. Major figures in linguistics include Ferdinand de Saussure and Noam Chomsky. Estimates of the number of human languages in the world vary between 5,000 and 7,000
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Egyptian Arabic Phonology
This article is about the phonology of Egyptian Arabic, also known as Cairene Arabic or Masri.[1] It deals with the phonology and phonetics of Egyptian Arabic as well as the phonological development of child native speakers of the dialect
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Lebanese Arabic
Lebanese Arabic
Arabic
or Lebanese is a variety of Levantine Arabic, indigenous to and spoken primarily in Lebanon, with significant linguistic influences borrowed from other Middle Eastern and European languages, and is in some ways unique from other varieties of Arabic. Due to multilingualism among Lebanese people
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