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Aluminium Oxide
Aluminium
Aluminium
oxide (British English) or aluminum oxide (American English) is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula Al2O3. It is the most commonly occurring of several aluminium oxides, and specifically identified as aluminium(III) oxide. It is commonly called alumina (regardless of whether the element is spelled aluminum or aluminium), and may also be called aloxide, aloxite, or alundum depending on particular forms or applications. It occurs naturally in its crystalline polymorphic phase α-Al2O3 as the mineral corundum, varieties of which form the precious gemstones ruby and sapphire
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Dielectric Constant
The relative permittivity of a material is its (absolute) permittivity expressed as a ratio relative to the permittivity of vacuum. Permittivity
Permittivity
is a material property that affects the Coulomb force between two point charges in the material. Relative permittivity
Relative permittivity
is the factor by which the electric field between the charges is decreased relative to vacuum. Likewise, relative permittivity is the ratio of the capacitance of a capacitor using that material as a dielectric, compared with a similar capacitor that has vacuum as its dielectric
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ATC Code D10
In communications and informationtter, word, sound, image, or gesture—into another form or representation, sometimes [[data compress or secret, for communication through a communication channel or storage in a storage medium. An early example is the invention of language which enabled a perso, through speech, to communicate what he or she saw, heard, felt, or thought to others. But speech limits the range of communication to the distance a voice can carry, and limits the audience to those present when the speech is uttered. The invention of writing, which converted spoken language into visual symbols, extended the range of communication across space and time. The process of encoding converts information from a source into symbols for communication or storage
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CAS Registry Number
A CAS Registry Number,[1] also referred to as CASRN or CAS Number, is a unique numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) to every chemical substance described in the open scientific literature (currently including all substances described from 1957 through the present, plus some substances from the early or mid 1900s), including organic and inorganic compounds, minerals, isotopes, alloys and nonstructurable materials (UVCBs, of unknown, variable composition, or biological origin).[2] The Registry maintained by CAS is an authoritative collection of disclosed chemical substance information. It currently identifies more than 129 million organic and inorganic substances and 67 million protein and DNA sequences,[3] plus additional information about each substance
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Pearson Symbol
The Pearson symbol, or Pearson notation, is used in crystallography as a means of describing a crystal structure, and was originated by W.B. Pearson.[1] The symbol is made up of two letters followed by a number. For example:Diamond structure, cF8 Rutile structure, tP6The two (italicised) letters specify the Bravais lattice. The lower case letter specifies the crystal family, and the upper case letter the centring type. The number at the end of the Pearson symbol gives the number of the atoms in the unit cell. IUPAC (2005) [2]Crystal familya triclinic = anorthicm monoclinico orthorhombict tetragonalh hexagonalc cubicCentring type + number of translation equivalent pointsP Primitive 1S,A,B,C One side/face centred 2I Body centred (from innenzentriert (in German))[3] 2R Rhombohedral centring (see below) 3F All faces centred 4The letters A, B and C were formerly used instead of S
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Space Group
In mathematics, physics and chemistry, a space group is the symmetry group of a configuration in space, usually in three dimensions.[1] In three dimensions, there are 219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct. Space groups are also studied in dimensions other than 3 where they are sometimes called Bieberbach groups, and are discrete cocompact groups of isometries of an oriented Euclidean space. In crystallography, space groups are also called the crystallographic or Fedorov groups, and represent a description of the symmetry of the crystal
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Lattice Constant
The lattice constant, or lattice parameter, refers to the physical dimension of unit cells in a crystal lattice. Lattices in three dimensions generally have three lattice constants, referred to as a, b, and c. However, in the special case of cubic crystal structures, all of the constants are equal and we only refer to a. Similarly, in hexagonal crystal structures, the a and b constants are equal, and we only refer to the a and c constants. A group of lattice constants could be referred to as lattice parameters. However, the full set of lattice parameters consist of the three lattice constants and the three angles between them. For example, the lattice constant for diamond is a = 3.57 Å at 300 K. The structure is equilateral although its actual shape cannot be determined from only the lattice constant
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Coordination Geometry
The term coordination geometry is used in a number of related fields of chemistry and solid state chemistry/physics.Contents1 Molecules 2 Inorganic coordination complexes 3 Crystallography usage 4 Table of coordination geometries 5 Naming of inorganic compounds 6 See also 7 ReferencesMolecules[edit] Main article: Molecular geometry The coordination geometry of an atom is the geometrical pattern formed by atoms around the central atom. Inorganic coordination complexes[edit] In the field of inorganic coordination complexes it is the geometrical pattern formed by the atoms in the ligands that are bonded to the central atom in a molecule or a coordination complex. The geometrical arrangement will vary according to the number and type of ligands bonded to the metal centre, and to the coordination preference of the central atom, typically a metal in a coordination complex. The number of atoms bonded, (i.e
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Octahedral
In geometry, an octahedron (plural: octahedra) is a polyhedron with eight faces, twelve edges, and six vertices. The term is most commonly used to refer to the regular octahedron, a Platonic solid
Platonic solid
composed of eight equilateral triangles, four of which meet at each vertex. A regular octahedron is the dual polyhedron of a cube. It is a rectified tetrahedron. It is a square bipyramid in any of three orthogonal orientations
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Standard Molar Entropy
In chemistry, the standard molar entropy is the entropy content of one mole of substance under a standard state (not STP). The standard molar entropy is usually given the symbol S°, and has units of joules per mole kelvin (J mol−1 K−1). Unlike standard enthalpies of formation, the value of S° is absolute. That is, an element in its standard state has a definite, nonzero value of S at room temperature. The entropy of a pure crystalline structure can be 0 J mol−1 K−1 only at 0 K, according to the third law of thermodynamics. However, this presupposes that the material forms a 'perfect crystal' without any frozen in entropy (defects, dislocations), which is never completely true because crystals always grow at a finite temperature
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Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System
The Anatomical Therapeutic
Therapeutic
Chemical (ATC) Classification System
System
is used for the classification of active ingredients of drugs according to the organ or system on which they act and their therapeutic, pharmacological and chemical properties. It is controlled by the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Drug
Drug
Statistics Methodology (WHOCC), and was first published in 1976.[1] This pharmaceutical coding system divides drugs into different groups according to the organ or system on which they act or their therapeutic and chemical characteristics. Each bottom-level ATC code stands for a pharmaceutically used substance, or a combination of substances, in a single indication (or use)
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Safety Data Sheet
A safety data sheet (SDS),[1] material safety data sheet (MSDS), or product safety data sheet (PSDS) is an important component of product stewardship, occupational safety and health, and spill-handling procedures. SDS formats can vary from source to source within a country depending on national requirements. SDSs are a widely used system for cataloging information on chemicals, chemical compounds, and chemical mixtures. SDS information may include instructions for the safe use and potential hazards associated with a particular material or product. The SDS should be available for reference in the area where the chemicals are being stored or in use. There is also a duty to properly label substances on the basis of physico-chemical, health or environmental risk
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Birefringence
Birefringence
Birefringence
is the optical property of a material having a refractive index that depends on the polarization and propagation direction of light.[1] These optically anisotropic materials are said to be birefringent (or birefractive). The birefringence is often quantified as the maximum difference between refractive indices exhibited by the material. Crystals
Crystals
with non-cubic crystal structures are often birefringent, as are plastics under mechanical stress. Birefringence
Birefringence
is responsible for the phenomenon of double refraction whereby a ray of light, when incident upon a birefringent material, is split by polarization into two rays taking slightly different paths. This effect was first described by the Danish scientist Rasmus Bartholin in 1669, who observed it[2] in calcite, a crystal having one of the strongest birefringences
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Dangerous Substances Directive (67/548/EEC)
The Dangerous Substances Directive[1] (as amended) was one of the main European Union
European Union
laws concerning chemical safety, until its full replacement by the new regulation CLP regulation (2008), starting in 2016. It was made under Article 100 (Art. 94 in a consolidated version)[2] of the Treaty of Rome
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NFPA 704
"NFPA 704: Standard System for the Identification of the Hazards of Materials for Emergency Response" is a standard maintained by the U.S.-based National Fire Protection Association. First "tentatively adopted as a guide" in 1960,[1] and revised several times since then, it defines the colloquial "fire diamond" or "safety square" used by emergency personnel to quickly and easily identify the risks posed by hazardous materials. This helps determine what, if any, special equipment should be used, procedures followed, or precautions taken during the initial stages of an emergency response.Contents1 Codes 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksCodes[edit]The four divisions are typically color-coded with red indicating flammability, blue indicating level of health hazard, yellow for chemical reactivity, and white containing codes for special hazards. Each of health, flammability and reactivity is rated on a scale from 0 (no hazard) to 4 (severe risk)
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Flash Point
The flash point of a volatile material is the lowest temperature at which vapours of the material will ignite, when given an ignition source. The flash point may sometimes be confused with the autoignition temperature, which is the temperature at which the vapor ignites spontaneously without an ignition source. The fire point is the lowest temperature at which vapors of the material will keep burning after being ignited and the ignition source removed
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