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Alternative Rock
ALTERNATIVE ROCK (also called ALTERNATIVE MUSIC, ALT-ROCK or simply ALTERNATIVE) is a style of rock music that emerged from the independent music underground of the 1980s and became widely popular in the 1990s. In this instance, the word "alternative" refers to the genre's distinction from mainstream rock music. The term's original meaning was broader, referring to a generation of musicians unified by their collective debt to either the musical style or simply the independent, DIY ethos of punk rock , which in the late 1970s laid the groundwork for alternative music. At times, "alternative" has been used as a catch-all description for music from underground rock artists that receives mainstream recognition, or for any music, whether rock or not, that is seen to be descended from punk rock (including some examples of punk itself, as well as new wave , and post-punk ). Alternative rock is a broad umbrella term consisting of music that differs greatly in terms of its sound, its social context, and its regional roots. By the end of the 1980s magazines and zines , college radio airplay, and word of mouth had increased the prominence and highlighted the diversity of alternative rock, helping to define a number of distinct styles (and music scenes) such as noise pop , indie rock , grunge , and alternative hip hop
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Modern Rock
MODERN ROCK is rock music made from the 1980s to present day. Some radio stations use the term to distinguish themselves from classic rock , which is based in 1960s–1980s rock music. CONTENTS * 1 Radio format * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links RADIO FORMATMODERN ROCK is a rock format commonly found on commercial radio ; the format consists primarily of the alternative rock genre. Generally beginning with late 1970s punk but referring especially to alternative rock music since the 1980s, the phrase "modern rock" is used in the USA to differentiate the music from classic rock , which focuses on music recorded in the 1960s through to the early 1980s. A few modern rock radio stations existed during the 1980s, such as KROQ-FM in Los Angeles
Los Angeles
, 91X ( XETRA-FM
XETRA-FM
) in San Diego
San Diego
, WHTG FM 106.3 (now, WKMK
WKMK
) on the Jersey Shore
Jersey Shore
, WLIR on Long Island
Long Island
and WFNX in Boston
Boston
. Modern rock was solidified as a radio format in 1988 with Billboard 's creation of the Modern Rock Tracks chart. The chart was based on weighted reports from college radio stations and commercial stations such as those listed above
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Punk Rock
PUNK ROCK (or simply "PUNK") is a rock music genre that developed in the early to mid-1970s in the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia. Rooted in 1960s garage rock and other forms of what is now known as "proto-punk " music, punk rock bands rejected perceived excesses of mainstream 1970s rock. Punk
Punk
bands typically produced short or fast-paced songs, with hard-edged melodies and singing styles, stripped-down instrumentation, and often political, anti-establishment lyrics. Punk
Punk
embraces a DIY ethic ; many bands self-produce recordings and distribute them through informal channels. The term "punk" was first used in relation to rock music by some American critics in the early 1970s, to describe garage bands and their devotees. By late 1976, bands such as the New York Dolls , Television , and the Ramones
Ramones
in New York City
New York City
, and the Sex Pistols
Sex Pistols
, the Clash , and the Damned in London
London
were recognized as the vanguard of a new musical movement. The following year saw punk rock spreading around the world, and it became a major cultural phenomenon in the United Kingdom. For the most part, punk took root in local scenes that tended to reject association with the mainstream
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Post-punk
POST-PUNK (originally called NEW MUSICK ) is a broad type of rock music that emerged from the punk movement of the 1970s, in which artists departed from the simplicity and traditionalism of punk rock to adopt a variety of avant-garde sensibilities. Inspired by punk's energy and DIY ethic but determined to break from rock cliches , artists experimented diversely with sources such as electronic music and free jazz ; black dance styles like funk , disco , and dub ; novel recording and production techniques ; and ideas from art and politics, including critical theory , modernist art and literature . Communities that produced independent record labels , visual art, multimedia performances and fanzines developed around these musical scenes. The early post-punk vanguard was represented by groups such as Siouxsie and the Banshees , Wire , Magazine , Gang of Four , Public Image Ltd , the Pop Group , Joy Division , Throbbing Gristle , the Slits , Cabaret Voltaire , the Cure , the Fall , Au Pairs , Talking Heads and Pere Ubu . The movement was closely related to the development of ancillary genres such as gothic rock , neo-psychedelia , no wave and industrial music . By the mid 1980s, post-punk had dissipated while providing the impetus for the New Pop movement as well much subsequent alternative and independent music
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New Wave Music
NEW WAVE is a genre of rock music popular from the late 1970s to the mid-1980s with ties to 1970s punk rock . New wave moved away from smooth blues and rock and roll sounds to create pop music that incorporated electronic and experimental music , mod and disco . Initially new wave was similar to punk rock, before becoming a distinct genre . It subsequently engendered subgenres and fusions, including synth-pop . New wave differs from other movements with ties to first-wave punk as it displays characteristics common to pop music, rather than the more "artsy" post-punk , though it incorporates much of the original punk rock sound and ethos, while exhibiting greater complexity in both music and lyrics. Common characteristics of new wave music include the use of synthesizers and electronic productions, the importance of styling and the arts, as well as diversity. New wave has been called one of the definitive genres of the 1980s, after it grew partially fixated on MTV
MTV
(the Buggles ' "Video Killed the Radio Star " music video was broadcast as the first music video to promote the channel's launch), and the popularity of several new wave artists, attributed to their exposure on the channel. In the mid-1980s, differences between new wave and other music genres began to blur
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Hardcore Punk
HARDCORE PUNK (often abbreviated to HARDCORE) is a punk rock music genre and subculture that originated in the late 1970s. It is generally faster, harder, and more aggressive than other forms of punk rock. Its roots can be traced to earlier punk scenes in San Francisco and Southern California which arose as a reaction against the still predominant hippie cultural climate of the time and was also inspired by New York punk rock and early proto-punk . New York punk had a harder-edged sound than its San Francisco counterpart, featuring anti-art expressions of masculine anger, energy and subversive humor. Hardcore punk generally disavows commercialism, the established music industry and "anything similar to the characteristics of mainstream rock " and often addresses social and political topics with "confrontational, politically-charged lyrics". Hardcore sprouted underground scenes across the United States in the early 1980s, particularly in Washington, D.C. , New York , New Jersey , and Boston —as well as in Australia , Canada and the United Kingdom . Hardcore has spawned the straight edge movement and its associated submovements, hardline and youth crew . Hardcore was heavily involved with the rise of the independent record labels in the 1980s, and with the DIY ethics in underground music scenes
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United Kingdom
The UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND, commonly known as the UNITED KINGDOM (UK) or BRITAIN, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland , the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
includes the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland
Ireland
and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
is the only part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
that shares a land border with another sovereign state‍—‌the Republic of Ireland
Ireland
. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
, with the North Sea to its east, the English Channel to its south and the Celtic Sea to its south-south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world . The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres (93,600 sq mi), the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe
Europe
. It is also the 21st-most populous country , with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants
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United States
Coordinates : 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of America _ Flag Great Seal MOTTO: " In God We Trust " Other traditional mottos _ * " E pluribus unum " ( Latin
Latin
) (de facto) "Out of many, one" * " Annuit c
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Singing
SINGING is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice and augments regular speech by the use of sustained tonality , rhythm , and a variety of vocal techniques. A person who sings is called a SINGER or VOCALIST. Singers perform music (arias , recitatives , songs , etc.) that can be sung with or without accompaniment by musical instruments . Singing is often done in an ensemble of musicians, such as a choir of singers or a band of instrumentalists. Singers may perform as soloists, or accompanied by anything from a single instrument (as in art song or some jazz styles) up to a symphony orchestra or big band . Different singing styles include art music such as opera and Chinese opera , Hindustani music , and religious music styles such as gospel , traditional music styles, world music , jazz , blues , gazal and popular music styles such as pop , rock , electronic dance music , and filmi . American jazz singer and songwriter Billie Holiday in New York City in 1947 Singing can be formal or informal, arranged or improvised. It may be done as a form of religious devotion, as a hobby, as a source of pleasure, comfort, or ritual, as part of music education , or as a profession. Excellence in singing requires time, dedication, instruction, and regular practice . If practice is done on a regular basis then the sounds can become more clear and strong
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Electric Guitar
An ELECTRIC GUITAR is a fretted stringed instrument with a neck and body that uses a pickup to convert the vibration of its strings into electrical signals. The vibration occurs when a guitarist strums , plucks or fingerpicks the strings. It is sensed by a pickup , most commonly by a magnetic pickup that uses the principle of direct electromagnetic induction . The signal generated by an electric guitar is too weak to drive a loudspeaker , so it is plugged into a guitar amplifier before being sent to a loudspeaker, which makes a sound loud enough to hear. The output of an electric guitar is an electric signal, and the signal can easily be altered by electronic circuits to add "color" to the sound or change the sound. Often the signal is modified using effects such as reverb and distortion and "overdrive" , with the growling sound of the latter being a key element of the sound of the electric guitar as it is used in blues and rock music . Invented in 1931, the amplified electric guitar was adopted by jazz guitarists , who sought to be able to do single-note guitar solos in large big band ensembles. Early proponents of the electric guitar on record included Les Paul , Lonnie Johnson , Sister Rosetta Tharpe , T-Bone Walker , and Charlie Christian
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Bass Guitar
The BASS GUITAR (also called ELECTRIC BASS, or simply BASS) is a stringed instrument played primarily with the fingers or thumb, by plucking, slapping , popping, strumming, tapping, thumping, or picking with a plectrum , often known as a pick. The bass guitar is similar in appearance and construction to an electric guitar , but with a longer neck and scale length , and four to six strings or courses . The four-string bass, by far the most common, is usually tuned the same as the double bass , which corresponds to pitches one octave lower than the four lowest pitched strings of a guitar (E, A, D, and G). The bass guitar is a transposing instrument , as it is notated in bass clef an octave higher than it sounds (as is the double bass) to avoid excessive ledger lines . Like the electric guitar, the bass guitar has pickups and needs to be connected to an amplifier and speaker , which makes a sound loud enough to hear. Since the 1960s, the bass guitar has largely replaced the double bass in popular music as the bass instrument in the rhythm section . While types of basslines vary widely from one style of music to another, the bassist usually plays a similar role: anchoring the harmonic framework and establishing the beat. Many styles of music include the bass guitar, including rock , heavy metal , pop , punk rock , country , reggae , gospel , blues , symphonic rock, and jazz
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Drum Kit
A DRUM KIT — also called a DRUM SET, TRAP SET, or simply DRUMS — is a collection of drums and other percussion instruments , typically cymbals , which are set up on stands to be played by a single player, with drumsticks held in both hands, and the feet operating pedals that control the hi-hat cymbal and the beater for the bass drum . A drum kit consists of a mix of drums (categorized classically as membranophones , Hornbostel-Sachs high-level classification 2) and idiophones - most significantly cymbals , but can also include the woodblock and cowbell (classified as Hornbostel-Sachs high-level classification 1). In the 2000s, some kits also include electronic instruments ( Hornbostel-Sachs classification 53). Also, both hybrid (mixing acoustic instruments and electronic drums ) and entirely electronic kits are used
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Alternative Country
ALTERNATIVE COUNTRY (sometimes ALT-COUNTRY, INSURGENT COUNTRY, or AMERICANA ) is a loosely defined subgenre of country music , which includes acts that differ significantly in style from mainstream or pop country music. It has been used to describe country music bands and artists that have incorporated influences ranging from roots rock , bluegrass , rockabilly , honky-tonk , alternative rock , folk rock , outlaw country , and punk rock . CONTENTS * 1 Definitions and characteristics * 2 History * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links DEFINITIONS AND CHARACTERISTICS Son Volt performing in 2005 In the 1990s the term _alternative country_, paralleling alternative rock, began to be used to describe a diverse group of musicians and singers operating outside the traditions and industry of mainstream country music. Many eschewed the increasingly polished production values and pop sensibilities of the Nashville
Nashville
-dominated industry for a more lo-fi sound, frequently infused with a strong punk and rock and roll aesthetic. Lyrics may be bleak or socially aware, but also more heartfelt and less likely to use the clichés sometimes used by mainstream country musicians
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Alternative Hip Hop
ALTERNATIVE HIP HOP (also known as ALTERNATIVE RAP) is a subgenre of hip hop music that encompasses the wide range of styles of hip hop that have not become identified as mainstream. AllMusic defines it as follows: "Alternative rap refers to hip hop groups that tend not to conform to any of the traditional forms of rap, such as gangsta , bass , hardcore , pop , and party rap . Instead, they blur genres drawing equally from funk and pop/rock , as well as jazz , soul , reggae , and even folk " Alternative hip hop developed in the late 1980s. Its commercial momentum was impeded by the then also newly emerging, significantly harder-edged West Coast gangsta rap . A resurgence came about in the late 1990s and early 2000s with the rejuvenated interest in indie music by the general public. In the 2000s alternative hip hop reattained its place within the mainstream, due in part to the declining commercial viability of gangsta rap as well as the crossover success of artists such as OutKast and Kanye West . The alternative hip hop movement expanded beyond the US to include the Somali -Canadian poet K\'naan , Japanese rapper Shing02 , and British artist MIA . Alternative hip hop acts have attained much critical acclaim, but receive relatively little exposure through radio and other media outlets
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Big Beat
BIG BEAT is an electronic music genre that usually uses heavy breakbeats and synthesizer-generated loops and patterns - common to acid house . The term has been used since the mid-1990s by the British music press to describe music by artists such as The Prodigy , The Chemical Brothers , Fatboy Slim , The Crystal Method , Propellerheads , Cut La Roc , Basement Jaxx
Basement Jaxx
and Groove Armada . CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Origins (Late 1980s and early 1990s) * 1.2 Mainstream success (1990s) * 2 Style * 3 List of big beat artists * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYORIGINS (LATE 1980S AND EARLY 1990S)In 1989, Iain Williams from the English electronic duo Big Bang coined the musical term _big beat_ to describe the band's musical style. Williams explained the concept during an interview with the journalist Alex Gerry in an article published in the London magazine _Metropolitan_ (issue 132, page 9, 6 June 1989) under the heading, _Big Bang in Clubland - Could Big Beat be the 1989 answer to Acid House?_ The band was promoting their first record, an Arabic-inspired dance version of ABBA 's "Voulez-Vous " and their instrumental track "Cold Nights in Cairo" that had just been released on Swanyard Records. The single was produced by Big Bang and Steev Toth. Big Bang are Laurence Malice ( Trade nightclub founder) and Iain Williams (writer)
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Trip Hop
TRIP HOP (sometimes called "downtempo " ) is a musical genre that originated in the early 1990s in the United Kingdom , especially Bristol . It has been described as "a fusion of hip hop and electronica until neither genre is recognizable," and may incorporate a variety of styles, including funk , dub , soul , psychedelia , R Andy Pemberton, a music journalist writing for _ Mixmag _, used it to describe Mo Wax Records Artist (U.K.) RPM and (American) DJ Shadow 's "In/Flux" single. In Bristol, once one of the most important ports in the Atlantic slave-trade and as of 2012 among Britain's most racially diverse cities, hip hop began to seep into the consciousness of a subculture already well-schooled in Jamaican forms of music. DJs, MCs , b-boys and graffiti artists grouped together into informal soundsystems . Like the pioneering Bronx crews of DJs Kool Herc, Afrika Bambataa and Grandmaster Flash, the soundsystems provided party music for public spaces, often in the economically deprived council estates from which some of their members originated. Bristol's soundsystem DJs, drawing heavily on Jamaican dub music, typically used a laid-back, slow and heavy drum beat ("down tempo"). Bristol's Wild Bunch crew became one of the soundsystems to put a local spin on the international phenomenon, helping to birth Bristol's signature sound of trip hop, often termed "the Bristol Sound"
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