HOME TheInfoList.com
Providing Lists of Related Topics to Help You Find Great Stuff

picture info

Alphabet
An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that is used to write one or more languages based upon the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language. This is in contrast to other types of writing systems, such as syllabaries (in which each character represents a syllable) and logographies (in which each character represents a word, morpheme, or semantic unit). The Proto-Canaanite script, later known as the Phoenician alphabet, is the first fully phonemic script. Thus the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
is considered to be the first alphabet. The Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
is the ancestor of most modern alphabets, including Arabic, Greek, Latin, Cyrillic, Hebrew, and possibly Brahmic.[1][2] Under a terminological distinction promoted by Peter T
[...More...]

Spoken Language
A spoken language is a language produced by articulate sounds, as opposed to a written language. Many languages have no written form and so are only spoken. An oral language or vocal language is a language produced with the vocal tract, as opposed to a sign language, which is produced with the hands and face. The term "spoken language" is sometimes used to mean only vocal languages, especially by linguists, making all three terms synonyms by excluding sign languages. Others refer to sign language as "spoken", especially in contrast to written transcriptions of signs.[1][2][3] In spoken language, much of the meaning is determined by the context. That contrasts with written language in which more of the meaning is provided directly by the text. In spoken language, the truth of a proposition is determined by common-sense reference to experience, but in written language, a greater emphasis is placed on logical and coherent argument
[...More...]

picture info

Edward Bernard
Edward Bernard
Edward Bernard
(1638 – 12 January 1697) was an English scholar and Savilian professor of astronomy
Savilian professor of astronomy
at the University of Oxford, from 1673 to 1691.[1]Contents1 Life 2 Works 3 References 4 NotesLife[edit] He was born at Paulerspury, Northamptonshire.[2] He was educated at Merchant Taylors' School and St John's College, Oxford, where he was a scholar in 1655; he became a Fellow in 1658, and graduated M.A. in 1662.[3][4] He began to teach astronomy as deputy to Christopher Wren, then Savilian professor. This was from 1669, the year in which Wren became Surveyor-General of the King's Works. Eventually Wren was too busy, and resigned the chair.[5] In 1673 he became Savilian professor, Fellow of the Royal Society, and chaplain to Peter Mews
[...More...]

Peter T. Daniels
Peter T. Daniels (born December 11, 1951, currently living in New Jersey) is a scholar of writing systems, specializing in typology. He was co-editor (with William Bright) of the book The World's Writing Systems (1996), and he introduced the terms abjad (an "alphabet" with no vowel letters) and abugida (a system partly alphabetic, partly syllabic) as modern linguistic terms for categories of scripts. (These terms had been used previously in a more restricted sense by specialists in the fields of the Arabic alphabet
Arabic alphabet
and Ge'ez script, from which languages they were borrowed respectively.)Contents1 Education 2 Teaching 3 Bibliography 4 External linksEducation[edit]Cornell University: linguistics University of ChicagoTeaching[edit]University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee Chicago State UniversityBibliography[edit]2008. Grammatology. In Cambridge Handbook of Literacy David R. Olson and Nancy Torrance, (eds.), 25-45
[...More...]

picture info

Symbols
A symbol is a mark, sign, or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, object, or relationship. Symbols allow people to go beyond what is known or seen by creating linkages between otherwise very different concepts and experiences. All communication (and data processing) is achieved through the use of symbols. Symbols take the form of words, sounds, gestures, ideas or visual images and are used to convey other ideas and beliefs. For example, a red octagon may be a symbol for "STOP". On a map, a blue line might represent a river. Numerals are symbols for numbers. Alphabetic letters may be symbols for sounds. Personal names are symbols representing individuals. A red rose may symbolize love and compassion
[...More...]

picture info

Logophonetic
A logophonetic writing system is one that uses chiefly logographic symbols, but includes symbols or elements representing sounds.[1]Writing systemsHistory Grapheme List of writing systemsTypesAlphabet Abjad Impure Abjad Abugida Syllabary Semi-syllabary Logography Logophonetic
Logophonetic
(Logosyllabary, Logoconsonantal) Shorthand FeaturalRelated topicsPictogram Ideogramv t eSee also[edit]List of writing systemsNotes[edit]^ A Concise Introduction to Linguistics, By Bruce M. Rowe, Diane P. Levine, p.284This writing system-related article is a stub
[...More...]

picture info

Shorthand
Shorthand
Shorthand
is an abbreviated symbolic writing method that increases speed and brevity of writing as compared to longhand, a more common method of writing a language. The process of writing in shorthand is called stenography, from the Greek stenos (narrow) and graphein (to write). It has also been called brachygraphy, from Greek brachys (short) and tachygraphy, from Greek tachys (swift, speedy), depending on whether compression or speed of writing is the goal. Many forms of shorthand exist. A typical shorthand system provides symbols or abbreviations for words and common phrases, which can allow someone well-trained in the system to write as quickly as people speak. Abbreviation
Abbreviation
methods are alphabet-based and use different abbreviating approaches. Several autocomplete programs, standalone or integrated in text editors, based on word lists, also include a shorthand function for frequently used phrases
[...More...]

Morpheme
A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language. In other words, it is the smallest meaningful unit of a language. The linguistics field of study dedicated to morphemes is called morphology. A morpheme is not identical to a word, and the principal difference between the two is that a morpheme may or may not stand alone, whereas a word, by definition, is freestanding. When a morpheme stands by itself, it is considered as a root because it has a meaning of its own (e.g. the morpheme cat) and when it depends on another morpheme to express an idea, it is an affix because it has a grammatical function (e.g. the –s in cats to indicate that it is plural).[1] Every word comprises one or more morphemes.Contents1 Classification of morphemes1.1 Free and bound morphemes1.1.1 Classification of bound morphemes1.1.1.1 Derivational morphemes 1.1.1.2 Inflectional morphemes1.2 Allomorphs 1.3 Zero morphemes/null morphemes 1.4 Content vs
[...More...]

picture info

Braille
This audio file was created from a revision of the article "Braille" dated 2006-09-06, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. (Audio help) More spoken articles Braille
Braille
(/breɪl/; French: [bʁaj]) is a tactile writing system used by people who are visually impaired. It is traditionally written with embossed paper. Braille
Braille
users can read computer screens and other electronic supports thanks to refreshable braille displays. They can write braille with the original slate and stylus or type it on a braille writer, such as a portable braille notetaker or computer that prints with a braille embosser. Braille
Braille
is named after its creator, Louis Braille, a Frenchman who lost his sight as a result of a childhood accident. In 1824, at the age of fifteen, he developed a code for the French alphabet
French alphabet
as an improvement on night writing
[...More...]

picture info

Ideogram
An ideogram or ideograph (from Greek ἰδέα idéa "idea" and γράφω gráphō "to write") is a graphic symbol that represents an idea or concept, independent of any particular language, and specific words or phrases. Some ideograms are comprehensible only by familiarity with prior convention; others convey their meaning through pictorial resemblance to a physical object, and thus may also be referred to as pictograms.Contents1 Terminology 2 Mathematics 3 Proposed universal languages 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksTerminology[edit] Further information: Character (symbol) and Logogram"No dogs allowed" sign in Spain. The dog illustration is a pictogram. The red circle and bar is an ideogram representing the idea of "no" or "not allowed".Ideograms in the Church of the Visitation, JerusalemIn proto-writing, used for inventories and the like, physical objects are represented by stylized or conventionalized pictures, or pictograms
[...More...]

picture info

Pictogram
A pictogram, also called a pictogramme, pictograph, or simply picto,[1] and in computer usage an icon, is an ideogram that conveys its meaning through its pictorial resemblance to a physical object. Pictographs are often used in writing and graphic systems in which the characters are to a considerable extent pictorial in appearance. A pictogram may also be used in subjects such as leisure, tourism, and geography. Pictography is a form of writing which uses representational, pictorial drawings, similarly to cuneiform and, to some extent, hieroglyphic writing, which also uses drawings as phonetic letters or determinative rhymes. Some pictograms, such as Hazards pictograms, are elements of formal languages. Pictograph has a rather different meaning in the field of prehistoric art, including recent art by traditional societies and then means art painted on rock surfaces, as opposed to petroglyphs; the latter are carved or incised
[...More...]

Proto-Canaanite
Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE Hieratic
Hieratic
32 c. BCEDemotic 7 c. BCEMeroitic 3 c. BCEProto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCEUgaritic 15 c. BCE Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCEGe’ez 5–6 c. BCEPhoenician 12 c. BCEPaleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCESamaritan 6 c. BCE Libyco-Berber
Libyco-Berber
3 c. BCETifinaghPaleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE Aramaic 8 c. BCE Kharoṣṭhī
Kharoṣṭhī
4 c. BCE Brāhmī 4 c. BCE Brahmic family
Brahmic family
(see)E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE Devanagari
Devanagari
13 c. CECanadian syllabics 1840Hebrew 3 c. BCE Pahlavi 3 c. BCEAvestan 4 c. CEPalmyrene 2 c. BCE Syriac 2 c. BCENabataean 2 c. BCEArabic 4 c. CEN'Ko 1949 CESogdian 2 c. BCEOrkhon (old Turkic) 6 c. CEOld Hungarian c. 650 CEOld UyghurMongolian 1204 CEMandaic 2 c. CEGreek 8 c. BCEEtruscan 8 c. BCELatin 7 c
[...More...]

picture info

Semi-syllabary
A semi-syllabary is a writing system that behaves partly as an alphabet and partly as a syllabary. The term has traditionally been extended to abugidas, but for the purposes of this article it will be restricted to scripts where some characters are alphabetic and others are syllabic.Contents1 Iberian semi-syllabaries 2 Other semi-syllabaries 3 Further reading 4 External linksIberian semi-syllabaries[edit] The Paleohispanic semi-syllabaries are a family of scripts developed in the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
at least from the 5th century BCE – possibly from the 7th century. Some researchers conclude that their origin lies solely with the Phoenician alphabet, while others believe the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
also had a role
[...More...]

picture info

Syllabary
A syllabary is a set of written symbols that represent the syllables or (more frequently) moras which make up words
[...More...]

picture info

Featural Writing System
In a featural writing system, the shapes of the symbols (such as letters) are not arbitrary but encode phonological features of the phonemes that they represent. The term featural was introduced by Geoffrey Sampson to describe Hangul[1]:120 and Pitman shorthand.[1]:40 Joe Martin introduced the term featural notation to describe writing systems that include symbols to represent individual features rather than phonemes. He asserts that "alphabets have no symbols for anything smaller than a phoneme".[2]:5 A featural script represents finer detail than an alphabet. Here symbols do not represent whole phonemes, but rather the elements (features) that make up the phonemes, such as voicing or its place of articulation. Theoretically, each feature could be written with a separate letter; and abjads or abugidas, or indeed syllabaries, could be featural, but the only prominent system of this sort is Korean Hangul
[...More...]

picture info

Abjad
An abjad (pronounced /ˈæbdʒɑːd/[1] or /ˈæbdʒæd/)[2] is a type of writing system where each symbol or glyph stands for a consonant, leaving the reader to supply the appropriate vowel. The name abjad is based on the old Arabic
Arabic
alphabet's first four letters – a, b, j, d – to replace the common terms "consonantary", "consonantal alphabet" or "syllabary" to refer to the family of scripts called West Semitic.Contents1 Etymology 2 Terminology 3 Origins 4 Impure abjads4.1 Addition of vowels5 Abjads and the structure of Semitic languages 6 Comparative chart of Abjads, extinct and extant 7 See also 8 References 9 SourcesEtymology[edit] The name "abjad" (abjad أبجد) is derived from pronouncing the first letters of the Arabic
Arabic
alphabet in order
[...More...]

.