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Alluvium
ALLUVIUM (from the Latin _alluvius_, from _alluere_, "to wash against") is loose, unconsolidated (not cemented together into a solid rock ) soil or sediments , which has been eroded , reshaped by water in some form, and redeposited in a non-marine setting. Alluvium is typically made up of a variety of materials, including fine particles of silt and clay and larger particles of sand and gravel . When this loose alluvial material is deposited or cemented into a lithological unit, or lithified , it is called an ALLUVIAL DEPOSIT. CONTENTS * 1 Definitions * 2 Age * 3 Ores * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links DEFINITIONSThe term "alluvium" is not typically used in situations where the formation of the sediment can clearly be attributed to another geologic process that is well described. This includes (but is not limited to): lake sediments (lacustrine ), river sediments (fluvial ), or glacially-derived sediments (glacial till )
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Alluvial (horse)
ALLUVIAL (foaled 1969 in Kentucky
Kentucky
) was an American Thoroughbred broodmare . BACKGROUNDAlluvial was sired by U.S. Racing Hall of Fame inductee Buckpasser , who in turn was sired by the 1953 United States
United States
Horse of the Year , Tom Fool , out of the Hill Prince mare Bayou. Alluvial was a half-sister, through Bayou, to the graded stakes race winning filly Batteur, who won the Santa Monica Handicap , Santa Margarita Handicap , Santa Maria Handicap , and Santa Barbara Handicap , as well as the New York Handicap . BREEDING RECORDAlluvial was unraced and is best known not for her racing success as a graded stakes race winner but for her success as a broodmare. She is the dam of Belmont Stakes winner Coastal , by Majestic Prince , and champion Slew o\' Gold , by Seattle Slew
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Alluvial Diagram
ALLUVIAL DIAGRAMS are a type of flow diagram originally developed to represent changes in network structure over time. In allusion to both their visual appearance and their emphasis on flow, alluvial diagrams are named after alluvial fans that are naturally formed by the soil deposited from streaming water. CONTENTS * 1 Interpretation * 2 Application * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links INTERPRETATIONIn an alluvial diagram, blocks represent clusters of nodes, and stream fields between the blocks represent changes in the composition of these clusters over time. The height of a block represents the size of the cluster and the height of a stream field represents the size of the components contained in both blocks connected by the stream field. APPLICATIONAlluvial diagrams were originally developed to visualize structural change in large complex networks
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Alaska
Coordinates : 64°N 150°W / 64°N 150°W / 64; -150 STATE OF ALASKA Flag Seal Nickname(s) : The Last Frontier Motto(s) : North to the Future State song(s) : "Alaska\'s Flag " OFFICIAL LANGUAGE English , Inupiat , Central Siberian Yupik , Central Alaskan Yup\'ik , Alutiiq , Aleut , Dena\'ina , Deg Xinag , Holikachuk , Koyukon , Upper Kuskokwim , Gwich\'in , Lower Tanana , Upper Tanana , Tanacross , Hän , Ahtna , Eyak , Tlingit , Haida , Coast Tsimshian SPOKEN LANGUAGES English 86.3% Alaska Native languages 5.2% Tagalog 3.4% Spanish 2.9% Others 2.2% DEMONYM Alaskan CAPITAL
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Gamtoos River
GAMTOOS RIVER or GAMPTOOS RIVER is a river in the Eastern Cape Province , South Africa
South Africa
. It is formed by the confluence of the Kouga River and the Groot River and is approximately 645-kilometre (401 mi) long with a catchment area of 34,635 square kilometres (13,373 sq mi). CONTENTS * 1 Course * 2 History * 3 Dams in the basin * 4 Ecology * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links COURSEThe Gamtoos river system is formed by the Groot, the Kouga and the Baviaanskloof Rivers . The latter is a tributary of the Kouga. Although the rainfall in the catchment area is low, it supports a commercial irrigated agriculture in the lower catchment in which oranges , tobacco , citrus fruit and vegetables are grown. There is an estuary where the Gamtoos river enters the Indian Ocean
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South Africa
11 languages * Afrikaans * Northern Sotho * English * Southern Ndebele * Southern Sotho * Swazi * Tsonga * Tswana * Venda * Xhosa * Zulu ETHNIC GROUPS (2014 ) * 80.2% Black * 8.8% Coloured * 8.4% White * 2.5% Asian RELIGION See _ Religion in South Africa _ DEMONYM South African GOVERNMENT Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic • PRESIDENT
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Alluvial Plain
An ALLUVIAL PLAIN is a largely flat landform created by the deposition of sediment over a long period of time by one or more rivers coming from highland regions, from which alluvial soil forms. A floodplain is part of the process, being the smaller area over which the rivers flood at a particular period of time, whereas the alluvial plain is the larger area representing the region over which the floodplains have shifted over geological time. As the highlands erode due to weathering and water flow, the sediment from the hills is transported to the lower plain . Various creeks will carry the water further to a river, lake , bay , or ocean . As the sediments are deposited during flood conditions in the floodplain of a creek, the elevation of the floodplain will be raised. As this reduces the channel floodwater capacity, the creek will, over time, seek new, lower paths, forming a meander (a curving sinuous path)
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Red Rock Canyon State Park (California)
RED ROCK CANYON STATE PARK features scenic desert cliffs, buttes and spectacular rock formations. The park is located where the southernmost tip of the Sierra Nevada converges with the El Paso Mountains . Each tributary canyon is unique, with vivid colors. After wet winters, the park's floral displays are notable. Wildlife includes roadrunners , hawks , lizards , mice and squirrels . Red Rock Canyon is an approximately 27,000 acres (110 km2) unit within the Mojave Sector of the Tehachapi District of the California State Park System , located along State Highway 14 in Kern County , about 80 miles (129 km) east of Bakersfield and 25 miles (40 km) north of Mojave . Red Rock Canyon provides magnificent views of the pristine desert landscape, includes two natural preserves, and offers, among other recreation activities, camping, sightseeing, equestrian activities, hiking, and opportunities for reflection and solitude
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Amazon Basin
The AMAZON BASIN is the part of South America
South America
drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries. The Amazon drainage basin covers an area of about 7,500,000 km2 (2,900,000 sq mi), or roughly 40 percent of the South American continent. It is located in the countries of Bolivia
Bolivia
, Brazil
Brazil
, Colombia
Colombia
, Ecuador
Ecuador
, Guyana
Guyana
, Peru
Peru
, Suriname
Suriname
and Venezuela
Venezuela
. Most of the basin is covered by the Amazon Rainforest
Amazon Rainforest
, also known as Amazonia. With a 5,500,000 km2 (2,100,000 sq mi) area of dense tropical forest , this is the largest rainforest in the world
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Brazil
Coordinates : 10°S 52°W / 10°S 52°W / -10; -52 Federative Republic of Brazil _República Federativa do Brasil_ (Portuguese ) _ Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: * Ordem e Progresso_ (Portuguese) * (English: "Order and Progress") ANTHEM: * _Hino Nacional Brasileiro _ * (English: "Brazilian National Anthem")* ------------------------- * FLAG ANTHEM: * _Hino à Bandeira Nacional_ * (English: "National Flag Anthem")* NATIONAL SEAL * _Selo Nacional do Brasil _ * National Seal of Brazil * CAPITAL Brasília 15°47′S 47°52′W / 15.783°S 47.867°W / -15.783; -47.867
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Subsistence Farming
SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE is self-sufficiency farming in which the farmers focus on growing enough food to feed themselves and their families. The output is mostly for local requirements with little or no surplus trade. The typical subsistence farm has a range of crops and animals needed by the family to feed and clothe themselves during the year. Planting decisions are made principally with an eye toward what the family will need during the coming year, and secondarily toward market prices. Tony Waters writes: "Subsistence peasants are people who grow what they eat, build their own houses, and live without regularly making purchases in the marketplace." However, despite the primacy of self-sufficiency in subsistence farming, today most subsistence farmers also participate in trade to some degree, though usually it is for goods that are not necessary for survival, and may include sugar, iron roofing sheets, bicycles, used clothing, and so forth
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Latin
LATIN (Latin: _lingua latīna_, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages . The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet . Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium , in the Italian Peninsula . Through the power of the Roman Republic , it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages , such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian . Latin
Latin
and French have contributed many words to the English language . Latin
Latin
and Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
roots are used in theology , biology , and medicine
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Rock (geology)
ROCK or STONE is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids . For example, granite , a common rock, is a combination of the minerals quartz , feldspar and biotite . The Earth's outer solid layer, the lithosphere , is made of rock. Rock has been used by mankind throughout history. The minerals and metals found in rocks have been essential to human civilization. Three major groups of rocks are defined: igneous , sedimentary , and metamorphic . The scientific study of rocks is called petrology , which is an essential component of geology
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Soil
SOIL is a mixture of minerals , organic matter , gases, liquids, and countless organisms that together support life on Earth. Soil is a natural body called the pedosphere which has four important functions: it is a medium for plant growth; it is a means of water storage , supply and purification; it is a modifier of Earth\'s atmosphere ; it is a habitat for organisms; all of which, in turn, modify the soil. Soil has been called the _Skin of the Earth_ as it interfaces with the lithosphere , the hydrosphere , the atmosphere , and the biosphere . The term _pedolith_, used commonly to refer to the soil, literally translates _ground stone_. Soil consists of a solid phase of minerals and organic matter (the soil matrix), as well as a porous phase that holds gases (the soil atmosphere) and water (the soil solution). Accordingly, soils are often treated as a three-state system of solids, liquids, and gases
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