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Alkalinity
Alkalinity
Alkalinity
is the capacity of water to resist changes in pH that would make the water more acidic.[1] (It should not be confused with basicity which is an absolute measurement on the pH scale.) Alkalinity is the strength of a buffer solution composed of weak acids and their conjugate bases. It is measured by titrating the solution with a monoprotic acid such as HCl
HCl
until its pH changes abruptly, or it reaches a known endpoint where that happens. Alkalinity
Alkalinity
is expressed in units of meq/L (milliequivalents per liter), which corresponds to the amount of monoprotic acid added as a titrant in millimoles per liter. Although alkalinity is primarily a term used by oceanographers it is also used by hydrologists. For instance, measuring alkalinity is important in determining a stream's ability to neutralize acidic pollution from rainfall or wastewater
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Microsoft Excel
Microsoft
Microsoft
Excel is a spreadsheet developed by Microsoft
Microsoft
for Windows, macOS, Android and iOS. It features calculation, graphing tools, pivot tables, and a macro programming language called Visual Basic
Visual Basic
for Applications. It has been a very widely applied spreadsheet for these platforms, especially since version 5 in 1993, and it has replaced Lotus 1-2-3
Lotus 1-2-3
as the industry standard for spreadsheets
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Sulfate
The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula SO2− 4. Sulfate
Sulfate
is the spelling recommended by IUPAC, but sulphate is used in British English. Salts, acid derivatives, and peroxides of sulfate are widely used in industry. Sulfates occur widely in everyday life. Sulfates are salts of sulfuric acid and many are prepared from that acid.Contents1 Structure 2 Bonding 3 Preparation 4 Properties 5 Uses and occurrence5.1 Commercial applications 5.2 Occurrence in nature6 History 7 Environmental effects7.1 Main effects on climate8 Hydrogen sulfate (bisulfate) 9 Other sulfur oxyanions 10 Notes 11 See also 12 ReferencesStructure[edit] The sulfate anion consists of a central sulfur atom surrounded by four equivalent oxygen atoms in a tetrahedral arrangement. The symmetry is the same as that of methane
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Equivalence Point
The equivalence point, or stoichiometric point, of a chemical reaction is the point at which chemically equivalent quantities of bases and acids have been mixed. In other words, the moles of acid are equivalent to the moles of base, according to the equation (this does not necessarily imply a 1:1 molar ratio of acid:base, merely that the ratio is the same as in the equation). It can be found by means of an indicator, for example phenolphthalein or methyl orange. The endpoint (related to, but not the same as the equivalence point) refers to the point at which the indicator changes colour in a colourimetric titration.Contents1 Methods to determine the equivalence point 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksMethods to determine the equivalence point[edit] Different methods to determine the equivalence point include:pH indicator A pH indicator is a substance that changes color in response to a chemical change
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Stoichiometric
Stoichiometry
Stoichiometry
/ˌstɔɪkiˈɒmɪtri/ is the calculation of reactants and products in chemical reactions. Stoichiometry
Stoichiometry
is founded on the law of conservation of mass where the total mass of the reactants equals the total mass of the products, leading to the insight that the relations among quantities of reactants and products typically form a ratio of positive integers. This means that if the amounts of the separate reactants are known, then the amount of the product can be calculated
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Carbonate
In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid (H2CO3),[2] characterized by the presence of the carbonate ion, a polyatomic ion with the formula of CO2− 3. The name may also mean an ester of carbonic acid,[2] an organic compound containing the carbonate group C(=O)(O–)2. The term is also used as a verb, to describe carbonation: the process of raising the concentrations of carbonate and bicarbonate ions in water to produce carbonated water and other carbonated beverages – either by the addition of carbon dioxide gas under pressure, or by dissolving carbonate or bicarbonate salts into the water. In geology and mineralogy, the term "carbonate" can refer both to carbonate minerals and carbonate rock (which is made of chiefly carbonate minerals), and both are dominated by the carbonate ion, CO2− 3. Carbonate minerals
Carbonate minerals
are extremely varied and ubiquitous in chemically precipitated sedimentary rock
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Borate
Borates are the name for a large number of boron-containing oxyanions. The term "borates" may also refer to tetrahedral boron anions, or more loosely to chemical compounds which contain borate anions of either description. Larger borates are composed of trigonal planar BO3 or tetrahedral BO4 structural units, joined together via shared oxygen atoms[1] and may be cyclic or linear in structure. Boron
Boron
most often occurs in nature as borates, such as borate minerals and borosilicates.Contents1 Structures 2 Boric acid 3 Polymeric ions 4 Borosilicates 5 Minerals and uses 6 Borate
Borate
esters 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksStructures[edit]Idealized structure of a compound with trigonal planar molecular geometry.The simplest borate anion, the orthoborate(3-) ion, [BO3]3-, is known in the solid state, for example in Ca3(BO3)2.[2] In this it adopts a near trigonal planar structure
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Phosphate
A phosphate (PO3− 4) is an inorganic chemical and a salt-forming anion of phosphoric acid. In organic chemistry, a phosphate, or organophosphate, is an ester of phosphoric acid
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Silicate
A silicate is a compound containing an anionic silicon compound. The great majority of the silicates are oxides, but hexafluorosilicate ([SiF6]2−) and other anions are also included. "Orthosilicate" is the anion SiO4− 4 or its compounds. Related to orthosilicate are families of anions (and their compounds) with the formula [SiO2+n]2n−. Important members are the cyclic and single chain silicates [SiO3]2− n and the sheet-forming silicates [SiO2.5]− n.[1] Silicates constitute the majority of Earth's crust, as well as the other terrestrial planets, rocky moons, and asteroids. Sand, Portland cement, and thousands of minerals are examples of silicates. Silicate compounds, including the minerals, consist of silicate anions whose charge is balanced by various cations. Myriad silicate anions can exist, and each can form compounds with many different cations. Hence this class of compounds is very large
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Ammonia
Trihydrogen nitride Nitrogen
Nitrogen
trihydrideIdentifiersCAS Number7664-41-7 Y3D model (JSmol)Interactive image3DMet B00004Beilstein Reference3587154ChEBICHEBI:16134 YChEMBLChEMBL1160819 YChemSpider217 YECHA InfoCard 100.028.760EC Number 231-635-3Gmelin Reference79KEGGD02916 YMeSH Ammonia PubChem CID222
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Organic Acids
An organic acid is an organic compound with acidic properties. The most common organic acids are the carboxylic acids, whose acidity is associated with their carboxyl group –COOH. Sulfonic acids, containing the group –SO2OH, are relatively stronger acids. Alcohols, with –OH, can act as acids but they are usually very weak. The relative stability of the conjugate base of the acid determines its acidity. Other groups can also confer acidity, usually weakly: the thiol group –SH, the enol group, and the phenol group. In biological systems, organic compounds containing these groups are generally referred to as organic acids.Contents1 Characteristics 2 Examples 3 Applications 4 Application in food 5 Application in nutrition and animal feeds 6 See also 7 References 8 Further readingCharacteristics[edit] In general, organic acids are weak acids and do not dissociate completely in water, whereas the strong mineral acids do
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Groundwater
Groundwater
Groundwater
is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations. A unit of rock or an unconsolidated deposit is called an aquifer when it can yield a usable quantity of water. The depth at which soil pore spaces or fractures and voids in rock become completely saturated with water is called the water table. Groundwater
Groundwater
is recharged from, and eventually flows to, the surface naturally; natural discharge often occurs at springs and seeps, and can form oases or wetlands. Groundwater
Groundwater
is also often withdrawn for agricultural, municipal, and industrial use by constructing and operating extraction wells
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Hydroxide
Hydroxide
Hydroxide
is a diatomic anion with chemical formula OH−. It consists of an oxygen and hydrogen atom held together by a covalent bond, and carries a negative electric charge. It is an important but usually minor constituent of water. It functions as a base, a ligand, a nucleophile and a catalyst. The hydroxide ion forms salts, some of which dissociate in aqueous solution, liberating solvated hydroxide ions. Sodium hydroxide
Sodium hydroxide
is a multi-million-ton per annum commodity chemical. A hydroxide attached to a strongly electropositive center may itself ionize,[citation needed] liberating a hydrogen cation (H+), making the parent compound an acid. The corresponding electrically neutral compound •HO is the hydroxyl radical. The corresponding covalently-bound group –OH of atoms is the hydroxyl group
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Seawater
Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean. On average, seawater in the world's oceans has a salinity of about 3.5% (35 g/L, 599 mM). This means that every kilogram (roughly one litre by volume) of seawater has approximately 35 grams (1.2 oz) of dissolved salts (predominantly sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl−) ions). Average density at the surface is 1.025 kg/L. Seawater
Seawater
is denser than both fresh water and pure water (density 1.0 kg/L at 4 °C (39 °F)) because the dissolved salts increase the mass by a larger proportion than the volume. The freezing point of seawater decreases as salt concentration increases
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Ion Pair
In chemistry, ion association is a chemical reaction whereby ions of opposite electrical charge come together in solution to form a distinct chemical entity. Ion
Ion
associates are classified, according to the number of ions that associate with each other, as ion pairs, ion triplets, etc. Ion
Ion
pairs are also classified according to the nature of the interaction as contact, solvent-shared or solvent-separated. The most important factor to determine the extent of ion association is the dielectric constant of the solvent
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Molar Mass
In chemistry, the molar mass M is a physical property defined as the mass of a given substance (chemical element or chemical compound) divided by the amount of substance.[1] The base SI unit
SI unit
for molar mass is kg/mol
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