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Alkaline Phosphatase
Alkaline phosphatase
Alkaline phosphatase
(ALP, ALKP, ALPase, Alk Phos) (EC 3.1.3.1) or basic phosphatase[2] is a homodimeric protein enzyme of 86 kilodaltons. Each monomer contains five cysteine residues, two zinc atoms, and one magnesium atom crucial to its catalytic function, and it is optimally active at alkaline pH environments.[3][4] As its name indicates, ALP functions best under alkaline pH environments and has the physiological role of dephosphorylating compounds. The enzyme is found across a multitude of organisms, prokaryotes and eukaryotes alike, with the same general function but in different structural forms suitable to the environment they function in. In humans for example, it is found in many forms depending on its origin within the body – it plays an integral role in metabolism within the liver and development within the skeleton
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N-terminus
The N-terminus
N-terminus
(also known as the amino-terminus, NH2-terminus, N-terminal end or amine-terminus) is the start of a protein or polypeptide referring to the free amine group (-NH2) located at the end of a polypeptide. Normally the amine group is bonded to another carboxylic group in a protein to make it a chain, but since the end of a protein has only 1 out of 2 areas chained, the free amine group is referred to the N-terminus
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Cloning Vector
A cloning vector is a small piece of DNA, taken from a virus, a plasmid, or the cell of a higher organism, that can be stably maintained in an organism, and into which a foreign DNA
DNA
fragment can be inserted for cloning purposes.[1] The vector therefore contains features that allow for the convenient insertion or removal of a DNA fragment to or from vector, for example by treating the vector and the foreign DNA
DNA
with a restriction enzyme that cuts the DNA. DNA
DNA
fragments thus generated contain either blunt ends or overhangs known as sticky ends, and vector DNA
DNA
and foreign DNA
DNA
with compatible ends can then be joined together by molecular ligation
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Cell Membrane
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).[1][2] It consists of a lipid bilayer with embedded proteins. The basic function of the cell membrane is to protect the cell from its surroundings. The cell membrane controls the movement of substances in and out of cells and organelles. In this way, it is selectively permeable to ions and organic molecules.[3] In addition, cell membranes are involved in a variety of cellular processes such as cell adhesion, ion conductivity and cell signalling and serve as the attachment surface for several extracellular structures, including the cell wall, the carbohydrate layer called the glycocalyx, and the intracellular network of protein fibers called the cytoskeleton
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Denaturation (biochemistry)
Note 1: Modified from the definition given in ref.[1] Note 2: Denaturation can occur when proteins and nucleic acids are subjected to elevated temperature or to extremes of pH, or to nonphysiological concentrations of salt, organic solvents, urea, or other chemical agents. Note 3: An enzyme loses its catalytic activity when it is denaturized.[2]Denaturation is a process in which proteins or nucleic acids lose the quaternary structure, tertiary structure and secondary structure which is present in their native state, by application of some external stress or compound such as a strong acid or base, a concentrated inorganic salt, an organic solvent (e.g., alcohol or chloroform), radiation or heat.[3] If proteins in a living cell are denatured, this results in disruption of cell activity and possibly cell death. Protein
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Chemical Decomposition
Chemical decomposition, analysis or breakdown is the separation of a single chemical compound into its two or more elemental parts or to simpler compounds.[1] Chemical decomposition is usually regarded and defined as the exact opposite of chemical synthesis. The details of a decomposition process are not always well defined but some of the process is understood; much energy is needed to break bonds. Since all decomposition reactions break apart the bonds holding it together in order to produce into its simpler basic parts, the reactions would require some form of this energy in varying degrees. Because of this fundamental rule, it is known that most of these reactions are endothermic although exceptions do exist. The stability of a chemical compound is eventually limited when exposed to extreme environmental conditions such as heat, radiation, humidity, or the acidity of a solvent. Because of this chemical decomposition is often an undesired chemical reaction
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Regulation
Regulation is an abstract concept of management of complex systems according to a set of rules and trends. In systems theory, these types of rules exist in various fields of biology and society, but the term has slightly different meanings according to context
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Metabolism
Metabolism
Metabolism
(from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms. The three main purposes of metabolism are the conversion of food/fuel to energy to run cellular processes, the conversion of food/fuel to building blocks for proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and some carbohydrates, and the elimination of nitrogenous wastes. These enzyme-catalyzed reactions allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and respond to their environments
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Laboratory
A laboratory (British English: /ləˈbɒrətəri/ or /ləˈbɒrətri/, American English: /ˈlæbərətɔːri/ or /ˈlæbrətɔːri/; informally, lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed.Contents1 Overview 2 History2.1 The early laboratories3 Techniques 4 Equipment and supplies 5 Specialized types 6 Safety 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksOverview[edit] Laboratories used for scientific research take many forms because of the differing requirements of specialists in the various fields of science and engineering. A physics laboratory might contain a particle accelerator or vacuum chamber, while a metallurgy laboratory could have apparatus for casting or refining metals or for testing their strength
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Mutant
In biology and especially genetics, a mutant is an organism or a new genetic character arising or resulting from an instance of mutation, which is an alteration of the DNA
DNA
sequence of a gene or chromosome of an organism. The natural occurrence of genetic mutations is integral to the process of evolution. The study of mutants is an integral part of biology; by understanding the effect that a mutation in a gene has, it is possible to establish the normal function of that gene.[2]Contents1 Etymology 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksEtymology[edit] Although not all mutations have a noticeable phenotypic effect, the common usage of the word "mutant" is generally a pejorative term only used for genetically or phenotypically noticeable mutations.[3] Previously, people used the word "sport" (related to spurt) to refer to abnormal specimens
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Cattle
Cattle—colloquially cows[note 1]—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates. They are a prominent modern member of the subfamily Bovinae, are the most widespread species of the genus Bos, and are most commonly classified collectively as Bos
Bos
taurus. Cattle
Cattle
are commonly raised as livestock for meat (beef and veal), as dairy animals for milk and other dairy products, and as draft animals (oxen or bullocks that pull carts, plows and other implements). Other products include leather and dung for manure or fuel
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Shrimp
The term shrimp is used to refer to some decapod crustaceans, although the exact animals covered can vary. Used broadly, it may cover any of the groups with elongated bodies and a primarily swimming mode of locomotion – most commonly Caridea
Caridea
and Dendrobranchiata. In some fields, however, the term is used more narrowly, and may be restricted to Caridea, to smaller species of either group, or to only the marine species. Under the broader definition, shrimp may be synonymous with prawn, covering stalk-eyed swimming crustaceans with long narrow muscular tails (abdomens), long whiskers (antennae), and slender legs.[1] Any small crustacean which resembles a shrimp tends to be called one.[2] They swim forward by paddling with swimmerets on the underside of their abdomens, although their escape response is typically repeated flicks with the tail driving them backwards very quickly
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C-terminus
The C-terminus
C-terminus
(also known as the carboxyl-terminus, carboxy-terminus, C-terminal tail, C-terminal end, or COOH-terminus) is the end of an amino acid chain (protein or polypeptide), terminated by a free carboxyl group (-COOH). When the protein is translated from messenger RNA, it is created from N-terminus
N-terminus
to C-terminus. The convention for writing peptide sequences is to put the C-terminal end on the right and write the sequence from N- to C-terminus.Contents1 Chemistry 2 Function2.1 C-terminal retention signals 2.2 C-terminal modifications2.2.1 Prenylation 2.2.2 GPI anchors2.3 C-terminal domain3 See also 4 ReferencesChemistry[edit] Each amino acid has a carboxyl group and an amine group. Amino acids link to one another to form a chain by a dehydration reaction which joins the amine group of one amino acid to the carboxyl group of the next
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Isozyme
Isozymes (also known as isoenzymes or more generally as multiple forms of enzymes) are enzymes that differ in amino acid sequence but catalyze the same chemical reaction. These enzymes usually display different kinetic parameters (e.g. different KM values), or different regulatory properties. The existence of isozymes permits the fine-tuning of metabolism to meet the particular needs of a given tissue or developmental stage (for example lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)). In biochemistry, isozymes (or isoenzymes) are isoforms (closely related variants) of enzymes. In many cases, they are coded for by homologous genes that have diverged over time
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Molecular Biology
Molecular biology
Molecular biology
/məˈlɛkjʊlər/ is a branch of biochemistry which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, and proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.[1] Writing in Nature in 1961, William Astbury described molecular biology as:"...not so much a technique as an approach, an approach from the viewpoint of the so-called basic sciences with the leading idea of searching below the large-scale manifestations of classical biology for the corresponding molecular plan. It is concerned particularly with the forms of biological molecules and [...] is predominantly three-dimensional and structural—which does not mean, however, that it is merely a refinement of morphology
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DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid (/diˈɒksiˌraɪboʊnjʊˈkliːɪk, -ˈkleɪ.ɪk/ ( listen);[1] DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses. DNA
DNA
and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids; alongside proteins, lipids and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides), they are one of the four major types of macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life. Most DNA
DNA
molecules consist of two biopolymer strands coiled around each other to form a double helix. The two DNA
DNA
strands are called polynucleotides since they are composed of simpler monomer units called nucleotides.[2][3] Each nucleotide is composed of one of four nitrogen-containing nucleobases (cytosine [C], guanine [G], adenine [A] or thymine [T]), a sugar called deoxyribose, and a phosphate group
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