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Aliphatic Compound
In organic chemistry, hydrocarbons (compounds composed of carbon and hydrogen) are divided into two classes: aromatic compounds and aliphatic compounds (/ˌælɪˈfætɪk/; G. aleiphar, fat, oil) also known as non-aromatic compounds. Aliphatics can be cyclic, but only aromatic compounds contain an especially stable ring of atoms, such as benzene.[1] Aliphatic compounds can be saturated, like hexane, or unsaturated, like hexene and hexyne. Open-chain compounds (whether straight or branched) contain no rings of any type, and are thus aliphatic.Contents1 Structure 2 Properties 3 Examples of aliphatic compounds / non-aromatic 4 ReferencesStructure[edit] Aliphatic compounds can be saturated, joined by single bonds (alkanes), or unsaturated, with double bonds (alkenes) or triple bonds (alkynes)
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Butane
Butane
Butane
(/ˈbjuːteɪn/) is an organic compound with the formula C4H10 that is an alkane with four carbon atoms. Butane
Butane
is a gas at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The term may refer to either of two structural isomers, n-butane or isobutane (also called "methylpropane"), or to a mixture of these isomers. In the IUPAC nomenclature, however, "butane" refers only to the n-butane isomer (which is the isomer with the unbranched structure). Butanes are highly flammable, colorless, easily liquefied gases that quickly vaporize at room temperature. The name butane comes from the roots but- (from butyric acid, named after the Greek word for butter) and -ane
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N-Pentane
Pentane
Pentane
is an organic compound with the formula C5H12—that is, an alkane with five carbon atoms. The term may refer to any of three structural isomers, or to a mixture of them: in the IUPAC nomenclature, however, pentane means exclusively the n-pentane isomer; the other two are called isopentane (methylbutane) and neopentane (dimethylpropane). Cyclopentane
Cyclopentane
is not an isomer of pentane because it has only 10 hydrogen atoms where pentane has 12. Pentanes are components of some fuels and are employed as specialty solvents in the laboratory. Their properties are very similar to those of butanes and hexanes.Contents1 Industrial uses 2 Laboratory
Laboratory
use 3 Physical properties 4 Reactions 5 References 6 External linksIndustrial uses[edit] Pentanes are some of the primary blowing agents used in the production of polystyrene foam and other foams
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Acetylene
Acetylene
Acetylene
(systematic name: ethyne) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H2. It is a hydrocarbon and the simplest alkyne.[5] This colorless gas is widely used as a fuel and a chemical building block. It is unstable in its pure form and thus is usually handled as a solution.[6] Pure acetylene is odorless, but commercial grades usually have a marked odor due to impurities.[7] As an alkyne, acetylene is unsaturated because its two carbon atoms are bonded together in a triple bond
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Welding
Welding
Welding
is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing fusion, which is distinct from lower temperature metal-joining techniques such as brazing and soldering, which do not melt the base metal. In addition to melting the base metal, a filler material is typically added to the joint to form a pool of molten material (the weld pool) that cools to form a joint that is usually stronger than the base material. Pressure
Pressure
may also be used in conjunction with heat, or by itself, to produce a weld
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Ethylene
Ethylene
Ethylene
( IUPAC
IUPAC
name: ethene) is a hydrocarbon which has the formula C 2H 4 or H2C=CH2. It is a colorless flammable gas with a faint "sweet and musky" odour when pure.[4] It is the simplest alkene (a hydrocarbon with carbon-carbon double bonds). Ethylene
Ethylene
is widely used in the chemical industry, and its worldwide production (over 150 million tonnes in 2016[5]) exceeds that of any other organic compound.[6][7] Much of this production goes toward polyethylene, a widely used plastic containing polymer chains of ethylene units in various chain lengths
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ETHANE
ETHANE is a mnemonic indicating a protocol used by emergency services to report situations which they may be faced with, especially as it relates to major incidents, where it may be used as part of their emergency action principles. An alternative mnemonic M ETHANE adds an additional prompt "Major Incident Declared?" to ensure consideration is given to if the response may challenge the available resources and so necessitate initiating contingency plan measures. ETHANE dictates the form in which the receiving control station should get information from the first person or officer on scene. In the UK, the Joint Emergency Services Interoperability Principles (JESIP) set out the way the emergency services respond together to major incidents.[1][not in citation given] Definition and process[edit]This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources
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Propyne
Propyne
Propyne
(methylacetylene) is an alkyne with the chemical formula CH3C≡CH. It was a component of MAPP gas—along with its isomer propadiene (allene), which was commonly used in gas welding. Unlike acetylene, propyne can be safely condensed.[3]Contents1 Production and equilibrium with propadiene1.1 Laboratory Methods2 Use as a rocket fuel 3 Organic chemistry 4 References 5 External linksProduction and equilibrium with propadiene[edit] Propyne
Propyne
exists in equilibrium with propadiene, the mixture of propyne and propadiene being called MAPD:H3CC≡CH ⇌ H2C=C=CH2The coefficient of equilibrium Keq is 0.22 at 270 °C or 0.1 at 5 °C
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Propene
Propene, also known as propylene or methyl ethylene, is an unsaturated organic compound having the chemical formula C 3 H 6 displaystyle ce C3H6 . It has one double bond, and is the second simplest member of the alkene class of hydrocarbons.Contents1 Properties 2 Occurrence in nature 3 Production 4 Uses 5 Reactions5.1 Combustion6 Environmental safety 7 Storage and handling 8 Pharmacology 9 See also 10 ReferencesProperties[edit] At room temperature and atmospheric pressure, propene is a gas, and as with many other alkenes, it is colorless and has a faint petroleum-like odor.[2] Propene
Propene
has a higher density and boiling point than ethylene due to its greater mass. It has a slightly lower boiling point than propane and is thus more volatile
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Propane
mg L−1 (at 0 °C)log P 2.236Vapor pressure 853.16 kPa (at 21.1 °C (70.0 °F))Henry's law constant (kH)15 nmol Pa−1 kg−1 Magnetic susceptibility (χ)-40.5·10−6 cm3/molThermochemistrySpecific heat capacity (C)73.60 J K−1 mol−1Std enthalpy of formation (ΔfHo298)−105.2–−104.2 kJ mol−1Std enthalpy of combustion (ΔcHo298)−2.2197–−2.2187 MJ mol−1HazardsSafety data sheet See: data pageGHS pictogramsGHS signal word DANGERGHS hazard statementsH220GHS precautionary statementsP210NFPA 7044 2 0 SAFlash point −104 °C (−155 °F; 169 K)Autoignition temperature
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1-butyne
1-Butyne, also known as ethylacetylene, but-1-yne, ethylethyne, and UN 2452, is an extremely flammable and reactive alkyne with chemical formula C4H6 and CAS number 107-00-6 that is used in the synthesis of organic compounds. It occurs as a colorless gas.[1] See also[edit]2-Butyne Butadiene CyclobuteneReferences[edit]^ a b c d e Lide, David R. (2008). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 89th Edition. CRC Press
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1-Butene
1- Butene
Butene
is an organic chemical compound, linear alpha-olefin (alkene),[2] and one of the isomers of butene. The formula is CH3CH2CH=CH2. It is a highly flammable, easily condensed gas.Contents1 Reactions 2 Manufacturing 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksReactions[edit] 1- Butene
Butene
is stable in itself but polymerizes readily to polybutene. Its main application is as a comonomer in the production of certain kinds of polyethylene, such as linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE). It has also been used as a precursor to polypropylene resins, butylene oxide, and butanone.[3] Manufacturing[edit] 1- Butene
Butene
is produced by separation from crude C4 refinery streams and by ethylene dimerization. The former affords a mixture of 1-and 2-butenes, while the latter affords only the terminal alkene.[4] It is distilled to give a very high-purity product
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Cyclohexene
11.9 kPa (25 °C)Henry's law constant (kH)0.022 mol·kg−1·bar−1 Magnetic susceptibility (χ)-57.5·10−6 cm3/mol Refractive index
Refractive index
(nD)1.4465HazardsSafety data sheet External MSDSR-phrases (outdated) R11, R19, R21/22S-phrases (outdated) S16, S23, S24, S25, S33NFPA 7043 1 0Flash poin
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Cycloheptane
Cycloheptane
Cycloheptane
is a cycloalkane with the molecular formula C7H14. Cycloheptane
Cycloheptane
is used as a nonpolar solvent for the chemical industry and as an intermediate in the manufacture of chemicals and pharmaceutical drugs. It may be derived by Clemmensen reduction
Clemmensen reduction
from cycloheptanone. Cycloheptane
Cycloheptane
vapour is irritating to the eyes and may cause respiratory depression if inhaled in large quantity.[1] Conformation[edit]Twist-chair (left) and twist-boat (right) conformations, both with C2 symmetry. Twist-chair form is the most stable conformer.References[edit]^ Mackay, Donald (2006). Handbook of Physical-chemical Properties and Environmental Fate for Organic Chemicals
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Bunsen Burner
A Bunsen burner, named after Robert Bunsen, is a common piece of laboratory equipment that produces a single open gas flame, which is used for heating, sterilization, and combustion.[1][2][3][4][5] The gas can be natural gas (which is mainly methane) or a liquefied petroleum gas, such as propane, butane, or a mixture of both.Contents1 History 2 Operation 3 Variants 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory In 1852 the University of Heidelberg hired Bunsen and promised him a new laboratory building. The city of Heidelberg had begun to install coal-gas street lighting, and so the university laid gas lines to the new laboratory. The designers of the building intended to use the gas not just for illumination, but also in burners for laboratory operations. For any burner lamp, it was desirable to maximize the temperature and minimize luminosity
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Methylcyclohexane
49.3 hPa at 20.0 °C 110.9 hPa at 37.7 °C[2] Magnetic susceptibility (χ)-78.91·10−6 cm3/molHazardsMain hazards severe fire hazardSafety data sheet [2]GHS pictogramsGHS signal word DangerGHS hazard statementsH225, H304, H315, H336, H410[2]GHS precautionary statementsP210, P235, P301+310, P331, P370+378, P403[2]NFPA 7043 1 0Flash point −4 °C (25 °F; 269 K)[2] Closed cupAutoignition temperature283 °C (541 °F; 556 K)[2]Explosive limits 1.2%-6.7%[1][2]Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):LD50 (median dose)2250 mg/kg (mouse, oral)[3]LC50 (median concentration)10172 ppm (mouse, 2 hr) 10,000-12,500 ppm (mo
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