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Alhambra
The ALHAMBRA (/ælˈhæmbrə/ ; Spanish: ; Arabic : الْحَمْرَاء‎‎ , _Al-Ḥamrā_, lit. "The Red One"), the complete Arabic form of which was _Qalat Al-Hamra_, is a palace and fortress complex located in Granada
Granada
, Andalusia
Andalusia
, Spain
Spain
. It was originally constructed as a small fortress in AD 889 on the remains of Roman fortifications, and then largely ignored until its ruins were renovated and rebuilt in the mid-13th century by the Moorish emir Mohammed ben Al-Ahmar of the Emirate of Granada
Granada
, who built its current palace and walls. It was converted into a royal palace in 1333 by Yusuf I, Sultan of Granada
Granada
. After the conclusion of the Christian Reconquista
Reconquista
in 1492, the site became the Royal Court of Ferdinand and Isabella (where Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
received royal endorsement for his expedition), and the palaces were partially altered to Renaissance tastes. In 1526 Charles I its most characteristic feature, however, is the dense wood of English elms brought by the Duke of Wellington in 1812
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Alhambra (other)
ALHAMBRA may refer to: * The Alhambra
Alhambra
, a palace in Granada, Spain * The Alhambra
Alhambra
Decree , a royal decree issued in 1492 ordering the expulsion or conversion of all the Jews in SpainCONTENTS * 1 Places * 2 Theatres (Europe) * 3 Theatres (North America) * 4 Theatres (Asia) * 5 Entertainment * 6 Other uses PLACES In the United States * Alhambra, Missouri , a ghost town * Alhambra, Phoenix , an urban village in Ph
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Generalife
The Palacio de GENERALIFE (Spanish pronunciation: ; Arabic : جَنَّة الْعَرِيف‎‎ Jannat al-‘Arīf, literally, "Architect's Garden") was the summer palace and country estate of the Nasrid
Nasrid
rulers of the Emirate of Granada
Granada
in Al-Andalus , now beside the city of Granada
Granada
in the autonomous community of Andalusia
Andalusia
, Spain
Spain
. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Design * 3 20th century * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORYThe palace and gardens were built during the reign of Muhammad III (1302–1309) and redecorated shortly after by Abu I-Walid Isma\'il (1313–1324). Much of the garden is a recent reconstruction of dubious authenticity. Théophile Gautier , a mid-19th century visitor, complained that: Of the Generalife
Generalife
nothing now remains but some arcades and some large panels of arabesques, unfortunately plastered over with layers of whitewash that have been applied again and again with all the obstinacy of a dispiriting cleanliness. Little by little the delicate sculptures and the marvellous guilloches of this fairy-like architecture have been obliterated, filled up, and engulfed
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Albayzín
El ALBAYZíN ( Arabic
Arabic
: ٱلْبَيّازِينْ‎‎) also ALBAICíN (Spanish pronunciation: ), is a district of Granada
Granada
, in the autonomous community of Andalusia
Andalusia
, Spain
Spain
. It retains the narrow winding streets of its Medieval
Medieval
Moorish past dating back to the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada
Granada
. It was declared a world heritage site in 1984, along with the famous Alhambra
Alhambra
. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Places of interest * 3 Gallery * 3.1 19th century paintings of Albayzín
Albayzín
* 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORYIt was populated in Iberian period and Roman dispersed settlement existed. There is no data before the arrival of the Zirid Berber Islamic settlement, so it is assumed that the city was abandoned since the end of the Roman Empire until the founding of the Zirid kingdom in 1013 when it was surrounded by big walls. According to some linguists it owes its present name to the inhabitants of the city of Baeza who banished her after the battle of Las Navas de Tolosa , settled in this area of Granada
Granada
outside the existing walls
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World Heritage Site
A WORLD HERITAGE SITE is a landmark or area which has been officially recognized by the United Nations
United Nations
, specifically by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO
UNESCO
). Sites are selected on the basis of having cultural, historical, scientific or some other form of significance, and they are legally protected by international treaties. UNESCO
UNESCO
regards these sites as being important to the collective interests of humanity. More specifically, a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
is an already classified landmark, which by way of being unique in some respect as a geographically and historically identifiable piece is of special cultural or physical significance (such as either due to hosting an ancient ruins or some historical structure, building, city, complex, desert, forest, island, lake, monument, or mountain) and symbolizes a remarkable footprint of extreme human endeavour often coupled with some act of indisputable accomplishment of humanity which then serves as a surviving evidence of its intellectual existence on the planet
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Table Of World Heritage Sites By Country
HERITAGE may refer to: * History , "heritage" refers to events or processes that have a special meaning in group memory * National heritage site , a site having a value that has been registered by a governmental agency as being of national importance to the history of that nation * Historic site an official location where pieces of political, military, cultural, or social history have been preserved due to their historical importance* Cultural heritage , the legacy of physical artifacts and intangible attributes of a group or society: man-made heritage * World Heritage Site , As a certified by UNESCO * List of des
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Granada
GRANADA (/ɡrəˈnɑːdə/ , Spanish: , locally ) is the capital city of the province of Granada , in the autonomous community of Andalusia , Spain . Granada is located at the foot of the Sierra Nevada mountains, at the confluence of four rivers, the Beiro , the Darro , the Genil and the Monachil . It sits at an average elevation of 738 m (2,421 ft) above sea level , yet is only one hour by car from the Mediterranean coast, the Costa Tropical . Nearby is the Sierra Nevada Ski Station , where the FIS Alpine World Ski Championships 1996 were held. In the 2005 national census , the population of the city of Granada proper was 236,982, and the population of the entire urban area was estimated to be 472,638, ranking as the 13th-largest urban area of Spain. About 3.3% of the population did not hold Spanish citizenship, the largest number of these people (31%; or 1% of the total population) coming from South America . Its nearest airport is Federico García Lorca Granada-Jaén Airport . The Alhambra , a Moorish citadel and palace, is in Granada. It is the most renowned building of the Andalusian Islamic historical legacy with its many cultural attractions that make Granada a popular destination among the touristic cities of Spain
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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World Heritage Committee
The WORLD HERITAGE COMMITTEE establishes the sites to be listed as UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites . It decides about inscriptions on the World Heritage List and the List of World Heritage in Danger, monitors the state of conservation of the World Heritage properties, defines the use of the World Heritage Fund and allocates financial assistance upon requests from States Parties. It is composed of 21 state parties that are elected by the GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF STATES PARTIES for a four-year term. According to the World Heritage Convention, a committee member's term of office is for six years, however many states parties choose voluntarily to be Members of the Committee for only four years, in order to give other states' parties an opportunity to be on the committee. All members elected at the 15th General Assembly (2005) voluntarily decided to reduce their period of term of office from six to four years. CONTENTS * 1 Sessions * 2 Members * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links SESSIONSThe World Heritage Committee
World Heritage Committee
meets once a year to discuss the management of existing World Heritage Sites, and accept the nominations from countries
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Arabic Language
THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS ARABIC TEXT . Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols .ARABIC ( Arabic
Arabic
: العَرَبِيَّة‎‎, _al-ʻarabiyyah_ (_ listen ) or Arabic
Arabic
: عَرَبِيّ‎‎ ʻarabī_ (_ listen ) or ) is a Central Semitic language complex that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca _ of the Arab world . It is named after the Arabs
Arabs
, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east to the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. The modern written language ( Modern Standard Arabic ) is derived from Classical Arabic . It is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic
Arabic
(_fuṣḥā_), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam
Islam
. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary
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Qalat (fortress)
The word QALAT (KALATA) is Persian and QAL\'AT (qal‘a) is Arabic for 'fortified place'. It frequently occurs in place names. Qalats can range from castles like Rumkale
Rumkale
to the mud-brick compound common throughout southwest Asia. The term is used throughout the Muslim world to indicate a defensive fortress. It is even preserved in place names in places such as Sicily which was occupied by the Aghlabid dynasty and then the Fatimids from the ninth to the twelfth centuries. QALA COMPOUNDSIn many areas of Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan, particularly in tribal areas with pre-modern building practices, the qalat compound is the standard housing unit for multi-generational families. Qalats can be quickly constructed over the course of a single season, and they can be extremely large, sometimes covering several acres. Towers may be placed at the corners or points along the walls to create a more defensible position, but most qala compounds consist only of the walls. While the foundation of a qala compound may be stone or fired brick, the walls are typically dried mud. Walls are created by laying down a row of adobe bricks with mud mortar along the entire length of the wall. By the time that the mason returns to the point of origin, the mortar is dry and the next row can be added on top of the old. Using this technique walls dozens of feet high can be built very rapidly
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Andalusia
ANDALUSIA (/ˌændəˈluːsiəˌ -ziəˌ -ʒə/ ; Spanish : _Andalucía_ ) is an autonomous community in southern Spain . It is the most populated and the second largest in area of the autonomous communities in the country. The Andalusian autonomous community is officially recognised as "historical nationality" . The territory is divided into eight provinces : Almería , Cádiz , Córdoba , Granada , Huelva , Jaén , Málaga and Seville . Its capital is the city of Seville (Spanish: _Sevilla_). Andalusia is in the south of the Iberian peninsula , in south-western Europe, immediately south of the autonomous communities of Extremadura and Castilla-La Mancha ; west of the autonomous community of Murcia and the Mediterranean Sea ; east of Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean ; and north of the Mediterranean Sea and the Strait of Gibraltar . Andalusia is the only European region with both Mediterranean and Atlantic coastlines. The small British overseas territory of Gibraltar shares a three-quarter-mile land border with the Andalusian province of Cádiz at the eastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar
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Spain
Coordinates : 40°N 4°W / 40°N 4°W / 40; -4 Kingdom of Spain _Reino de España_ (Spanish ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "Plus Ultra " (Latin ) "Further Beyond" ANTHEM: " Marcha Real
Marcha Real
" (Spanish ) "Royal March" Location of Spain (dark green) – in Europe
Europe
(green "> (green) Capital and largest city
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Moors
The MOORS were the Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb , the Iberian Peninsula , Sicily , and Malta during the Middle Ages , who initially were Berber and Arab peoples from North Africa . Moors are not a distinct or self-defined people, and mainstream scholars observed in 1911 that "The term 'Moors' has no real ethnological value." Medieval and early modern Europeans variously applied the name to Arabs, North African Berbers, and Muslim Europeans. The term has also been used in Europe in a broader, somewhat derogatory sense to refer to Muslims in general, especially those of Arab or Berber descent, whether living in Spain or North Africa. During the colonial era, the Portuguese introduced the names "Ceylon Moors" and "Indian Moors" in Sri Lanka , and the Bengali Muslims were also called Moors. In 711, troops mostly formed by Moors from North Africa led the Umayyad conquest of Hispania . The Iberian peninsula then came to be known in classical Arabic as Al-Andalus , which at its peak included most of Septimania and modern-day Spain and Portugal . In 827, the Moors occupied Mazara on Sicily , developing it as a port
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Emir
An EMIR (/əˈmɪər, eɪˈmɪər, ˈeɪmɪər/ ; Arabic : أمير‎‎ _ʾAmīr_ ), sometimes transliterated AMIR, AMIER, or AMEER, is an aristocratic or noble title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries and Afghanistan . It means "commander", "general", or "prince". The feminine form is EMIRA (أميرة _ʾAmīrah_). When translated as "prince", the word "emirate " is analogous to a sovereign principality . CONTENTS * 1 Origins * 2 Princely, ministerial and noble titles * 3 Military ranks and titles * 4 Other uses * 5 Emirs in fiction * 6 See also * 7 Notes ORIGINS Emir Dost Mohammad Khan , the first Emir of Afghanistan , whose reign started in 1826, with his youngest son Emir Sher Ali Khan . HRH Crown Prince Farouk , Amir of the Kingdom of Egypt and the Sudan , on ascension to the throne 1936 as HM King Farouk I. _Amir_, meaning "Lord" or "commander-in-chief", is derived from the Arabic root _a-m-r_, "command". Originally simply meaning commander-in-chief or leader, usually in reference to a group of people, it came to be used as a title for governors or rulers, usually in smaller states, and in modern Arabic is analogous to the English word "prince". The word entered English in 1593, from the French _émir_
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Mohammed I Ibn Nasr
MUHAMMAD IBN YUSUF IBN NASR (1195–1273), also known as IBN AL-AḥMAR (Arabic : ابن الأحمر‎‎), was the first ruler of the Emirate of Granada
Granada
, the last independent Muslim state on the Iberian Peninsula , and the founder of its ruling Nasrid dynasty . He lived during a time when Iberia's Christian kingdoms—especially Portugal
Portugal
, Castile and Aragon —were expanding at the expense of the Islamic territory in Iberia called Al-Andalus . Ibn al-Ahmar took power in his native Arjona in 1232 when he rebelled against the leader of Al-Andalus, Ibn Hud . During this rebellion, Ibn al-Ahmar was only able to take control of Córdoba and Seville briefly, before he lost both cities to Ibn Hud. Forced to acknowledge Ibn Hud's suzerainty, Ibn al-Ahmar was able to retain Arjona and Jaén . In 1236, he betrayed Ibn Hud by helping Ferdinand III of Castile take Córdoba. In the years that followed, Ibn al-Ahmar was able to gain control over the southern cities, including Granada
Granada
(1237), Almería (1238) and Malaga
Malaga
(1239). The emirate that Ibn al-Ahmar established during the period was to be Spain's last Muslim state. In 1244, he lost Arjona to Castile. Two years later, in 1246, he agreed to surrender Jaén and accept Ferdinand's overlordship in exchange for a twenty-year peace
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