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Alhambra
The ALHAMBRA (/ælˈhæmbrə/ ; Spanish: ; Arabic : الْحَمْرَاء‎‎ , _Al-Ḥamrā_, lit. "The Red One"), the complete Arabic form of which was _Qalat Al-Hamra_, is a palace and fortress complex located in Granada
Granada
, Andalusia
Andalusia
, Spain
Spain
. It was originally constructed as a small fortress in AD 889 on the remains of Roman fortifications, and then largely ignored until its ruins were renovated and rebuilt in the mid-13th century by the Moorish emir Mohammed ben Al-Ahmar of the Emirate of Granada
Granada
, who built its current palace and walls. It was converted into a royal palace in 1333 by Yusuf I, Sultan of Granada
Granada

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Alhambra (other)
ALHAMBRA may refer to: * The Alhambra , a palace in Granada, Spain * The Alhambra Decree , a royal decree issued in 1492 ordering the expulsion or conversion of all the Jews in SpainCONTENTS * 1 Places * 2 Theatres (Europe) * 3 Theatres (North America) * 4 Theatres (Asia) * 5 Entertainment * 6 Other uses PLACES In the United States * Alhambra, Missouri , a ghost town * Alhambra, Phoenix , an urban village in Phoenix, Arizona * Alhambra, California , a city * Alhambra, Illinois , a village * Alhambra, Louisiana , an unincorporated community Elsewhere * Alhambra, Alberta , in CanadaTHEATRES (EUROPE) * Alhambra-Maurice Chevalier , a music hall in Paris (1866-1967) * Alhambra (Paris) , music hall in Paris, opened 2008 * Alhambra Theatre , London * Alhambra, Blackpool * Alhambra, Copenhagen (1855-1870) * Alhambra Theatre Glasgow * Alhambra Theatre, Manchester * Bradford Alhambra , We
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Generalife
The Palacio de GENERALIFE (Spanish pronunciation: ; Arabic : جَنَّة الْعَرِيف‎‎ Jannat al-‘Arīf, literally, "Architect's Garden") was the summer palace and country estate of the Nasrid
Nasrid
rulers of the Emirate of Granada
Granada
in Al-Andalus , now beside the city of Granada
Granada
in the autonomous community of Andalusia
Andalusia
, Spain
Spain
. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Design * 3 20th century * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORYThe palace and gardens were built during the reign of Muhammad III (1302–1309) and redecorated shortly after by Abu I-Walid Isma\'il (1313–1324). Much of the garden is a recent reconstruction of dubious authenticity
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Albayzín
El ALBAYZíN ( Arabic
Arabic
: ٱلْبَيّازِينْ‎‎) also ALBAICíN (Spanish pronunciation: ), is a district of Granada
Granada
, in the autonomous community of Andalusia
Andalusia
, Spain
Spain
. It retains the narrow winding streets of its Medieval
Medieval
Moorish past dating back to the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada
Granada
. It was declared a world heritage site in 1984, along with the famous Alhambra
Alhambra
. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Places of interest * 3 Gallery * 3.1 19th century paintings of Albayzín
Albayzín
* 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORYIt was populated in Iberian period and Roman dispersed settlement existed
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World Heritage Site
A WORLD HERITAGE SITE is a landmark or area which has been officially recognized by the United Nations
United Nations
, specifically by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO
UNESCO
). Sites are selected on the basis of having cultural, historical, scientific or some other form of significance, and they are legally protected by international treaties. UNESCO
UNESCO
regards these sites as being important to the collective interests of humanity
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Table Of World Heritage Sites By Country
HERITAGE may refer to: * History , "heritage" refers to events or processes that have a special meaning in group memory * National heritage site , a site having a value that has been registered by a governmental agency as being of national importance to the history of that nation * Historic site an official location where pieces of political, military, cultural, or social history have been preserved due to their historical importance*
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Granada
GRANADA (/ɡrəˈnɑːdə/ , Spanish: , locally ) is the capital city of the province of Granada , in the autonomous community of Andalusia , Spain . Granada is located at the foot of the Sierra Nevada mountains, at the confluence of four rivers, the Beiro , the Darro , the Genil and the Monachil . It sits at an average elevation of 738 m (2,421 ft) above sea level , yet is only one hour by car from the Mediterranean coast, the Costa Tropical . Nearby is the Sierra Nevada Ski Station , where the FIS Alpine World Ski Championships 1996 were held. In the 2005 national census , the population of the city of Granada proper was 236,982, and the population of the entire urban area was estimated to be 472,638, ranking as the 13th-largest urban area of Spain
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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World Heritage Committee
The WORLD HERITAGE COMMITTEE establishes the sites to be listed as UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites . It decides about inscriptions on the World Heritage List and the List of World Heritage in Danger, monitors the state of conservation of the World Heritage properties, defines the use of the World Heritage Fund and allocates financial assistance upon requests from States Parties. It is composed of 21 state parties that are elected by the GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF STATES PARTIES for a four-year term. According to the World Heritage Convention, a committee member's term of office is for six years, however many states parties choose voluntarily to be Members of the Committee for only four years, in order to give other states' parties an opportunity to be on the committee. All members elected at the 15th General Assembly (2005) voluntarily decided to reduce their period of term of office from six to four years
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Arabic Language
THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS ARABIC TEXT . Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols .ARABIC ( Arabic
Arabic
: العَرَبِيَّة‎‎, _al-ʻarabiyyah_ (_ listen ) or Arabic
Arabic
: عَرَبِيّ‎‎ ʻarabī_ (_ listen ) or ) is a Central Semitic language complex that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca _ of the Arab world . It is named after the Arabs
Arabs
, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east to the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. The modern written language ( Modern Standard Arabic ) is derived from Classical Arabic . It is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media
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Qalat (fortress)
The word QALAT (KALATA) is Persian and QAL\'AT (qal‘a) is Arabic for 'fortified place'. It frequently occurs in place names. Qalats can range from castles like Rumkale
Rumkale
to the mud-brick compound common throughout southwest Asia. The term is used throughout the Muslim world to indicate a defensive fortress. It is even preserved in place names in places such as Sicily which was occupied by the Aghlabid dynasty and then the Fatimids from the ninth to the twelfth centuries. QALA COMPOUNDSIn many areas of Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan, particularly in tribal areas with pre-modern building practices, the qalat compound is the standard housing unit for multi-generational families. Qalats can be quickly constructed over the course of a single season, and they can be extremely large, sometimes covering several acres
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Andalusia
ANDALUSIA (/ˌændəˈluːsiəˌ -ziəˌ -ʒə/ ; Spanish : _Andalucía_ ) is an autonomous community in southern Spain . It is the most populated and the second largest in area of the autonomous communities in the country. The Andalusian autonomous community is officially recognised as "historical nationality" . The territory is divided into eight provinces : Almería , Cádiz , Córdoba , Granada , Huelva , Jaén , Málaga and Seville . Its capital is the city of Seville (Spanish: _Sevilla_)
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Spain
Coordinates : 40°N 4°W / 40°N 4°W / 40; -4 Kingdom of Spain _Reino de España_ (Spanish ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "Plus Ultra " (Latin ) "Further Beyond" ANTHEM: " Marcha Real
Marcha Real
" (Spanish ) "Royal March" Location of Spain (dark green) – in Europe
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Moors
The MOORS were the Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb , the Iberian Peninsula , Sicily , and Malta during the Middle Ages , who initially were Berber and Arab peoples from North Africa . Moors are not a distinct or self-defined people, and mainstream scholars observed in 1911 that "The term 'Moors' has no real ethnological value." Medieval and early modern Europeans variously applied the name to Arabs, North African Berbers, and Muslim Europeans. The term has also been used in Europe in a broader, somewhat derogatory sense to refer to Muslims in general, especially those of Arab or Berber descent, whether living in Spain or North Africa. During the colonial era, the Portuguese introduced the names "Ceylon Moors" and "Indian Moors" in Sri Lanka , and the Bengali Muslims were also called Moors
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Emir
An EMIR (/əˈmɪər, eɪˈmɪər, ˈeɪmɪər/ ; Arabic : أمير‎‎ _ʾAmīr_ ), sometimes transliterated AMIR, AMIER, or AMEER, is an aristocratic or noble title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries and Afghanistan . It means "commander", "general", or "prince". The feminine form is EMIRA (أميرة _ʾAmīrah_). When translated as "prince", the word "emirate " is analogous to a sovereign principality . CONTENTS * 1 Origins * 2 Princely, ministerial and noble titles * 3 Military ranks and titles * 4 Other uses * 5 Emirs in fiction * 6 See also * 7 Notes ORIGINS Emir Dost Mohammad Khan , the first Emir of Afghanistan , whose reign started in 1826, with his youngest son Emir Sher Ali Khan
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Mohammed I Ibn Nasr
MUHAMMAD IBN YUSUF IBN NASR (1195–1273), also known as IBN AL-AḥMAR (Arabic : ابن الأحمر‎‎), was the first ruler of the Emirate of Granada
Granada
, the last independent Muslim state on the Iberian Peninsula , and the founder of its ruling Nasrid dynasty . He lived during a time when Iberia's Christian kingdoms—especially Portugal
Portugal
, Castile and Aragon —were expanding at the expense of the Islamic territory in Iberia called Al-Andalus . Ibn al-Ahmar took power in his native Arjona in 1232 when he rebelled against the leader of Al-Andalus, Ibn Hud . During this rebellion, Ibn al-Ahmar was only able to take control of Córdoba and Seville briefly, before he lost both cities to Ibn Hud. Forced to acknowledge Ibn Hud's suzerainty, Ibn al-Ahmar was able to retain Arjona and Jaén
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