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Algonquian Languages
The Algonquian languages (/ælˈɡɒŋkiən/ or /ælˈɡɒŋkwiən/;[2] also Algonkian) are a subfamily of American indigenous languages that include most languages in the Algic language family. The name of the Algonquian language family is distinguished from the orthographically similar Algonquin dialect of the indigenous Ojibwe language (Chippewa), which is a senior member of the Algonquian language family. The term Algonquin has been suggested to derive from the Maliseet word elakómkwik (pronounced [ɛlæˈɡomoɡwik]), "they are our relatives/allies".[3][4] A number of Algonquian languages, like many other Native American languages, are now extinct. Speakers of Algonquian languages stretch from the east coast of North America to the Rocky Mountains
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Potawatomi Language
Potawatomi (/ˌpɒtəˈwɒtəmi/, also spelled Pottawatomie; in Potawatomi Bodéwadmimwen, or Bodéwadmi Zheshmowen, or Neshnabémwen) is a Central Algonquian language. It was historically spoken by the Pottawatomi people who lived around the Great Lakes in what are now Michigan and Wisconsin in the United States, and in southern Ontario in Canada. Federally recognized tribes in Michigan and Oklahoma are working to revive the language. Cecilia Miksekwe Jackson, one of the last surviving native speakers of Potawatomi, died in May 2011, at the age of 88
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Shawnee Language
The Shawnee language is a Central Algonquian language spoken in parts of central and northeastern Oklahoma by the Shawnee people. It was originally spoken in Ohio, West Virginia, Kentucky, and Pennsylvania. It is closely related to other Algonquian languages, such as Mesquakie-Sauk (Sac and Fox) and Kickapoo. It has 260 speakers, according to a 2015 census[1], although the number is decreasing. It is a polysynthetic language with rather free word ordering.[3] Shawnee is severely threatened, with speakers shifting to English
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Miꞌkmaq Language
The Miꞌkmaq language (spelled and pronounced Micmac historically, also Migmaw or Mikmaw in English, and Míkmaq, Míkmaw or Mìgmao in Miꞌkmaq) is an Eastern Algonquian language spoken by nearly 11,000 Miꞌkmaq in Canada and the United States; the total ethnic Miꞌkmaq population is roughly 20,000.[4][5] The native name of the language is Lnuismk, Miꞌkmawiꞌsimk[6] or Miꞌkmwei[7] (in some dialects). The word Miꞌkmaq is a plural word meaning 'my friends' (singular miꞌkm[7]); the adjectival form is Miꞌkmaw.[8] The phonemic inventory of Miꞌkmaq is shown below.

Vowels

Miꞌkmaq distinguishes between both long and short vowels and consonants, symbolized by doubling the consonant. Beyond expanding in length, long consonants add a schwa when they precede other consonants
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Malecite-Passamaquoddy Language
Malecite–Passamaquoddy (also known as Maliseet–Passamaquoddy) is an endangered Algonquian language spoken by the Maliseet and Passamaquoddy peoples along both sides of the border between Maine in the United States and New Brunswick, Canada. The language consists of two major dialects: Malecite, which is mainly spoken in the Saint John River Valley in New Brunswick; and Passamaquoddy, spoken mostly in the St. Croix River Valley of eastern Maine. However, the two dialects differ only slightly, mainly in accent. Malecite-Passamaquoddy was widely spoken by the indigenous people in these areas until around the post-World War II era, when changes in the education system and increased marriage outside of the speech community caused a large decrease in the number of children who learned or regularly used the language.[3] As a result, in both Canada and the U.S
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Narragansett Language
Narragansett /ˌnærəˈɡænsɪt/[2] is an Algonquian language formerly spoken in most of what is today Rhode Island by the Narragansett people.[3] It was closely related to the other Algonquian languages of southern New England like Massachusett and Mohegan-Pequot. The earliest study of the language in English was by Roger Williams, founder of the Rhode Island colony, in his book A Key Into the Language of America (1643). Traditionally the tribe spoke the Narragansett language, a member of the Algonquian language family. The language became almost entirely extinct during the Narragansetts' centuries of living within the larger English-majority society, through forced assimilation. The tribe has begun language revival efforts, based on early-20th-century books and manuscripts, and new teaching programs
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Unami Language
Unami is an Algonquian language spoken by the Lenape people in the late 17th century and the early 18th century, in what then was (or later became) the southern two-thirds of New Jersey, southeastern Pennsylvania and the northern two-thirds of Delaware, but later in Ontario and Oklahoma. It is one of the two Delaware languages, the other being Munsee. The last fluent speaker in the United States, Edward Thompson, of the Delaware Tribe of Indians, died on August 31, 2002.[1] His sister Nora Thompson Dean (1907–1984) provided valuable information about the language to linguists and other scholars. "Lenni-Lenape," literally means "Men of Men", but is translated to mean "Original People." The Lenape names for the areas they inhabited were Scheyichbi (i.e
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Nanticoke Language
Nanticoke is an extinct
Algonquian language formerly spoken in Delaware and Maryland, United States.[3] The same language was spoken by several neighboring tribes, including the Nanticoke, which constituted the paramount chiefdom; the Choptank, the Assateague, and probably also the Piscataway and the Doeg. Nanticoke is sometimes considered a dialect of the Delaware language, but its vocabulary was quite distinct. This is shown in a few brief glossaries, which are all that survive of the language
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