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Alfaia
The alfaia is a Brazilian membranophone. It is a wooden drum made of animal skin tensioned or loosened through ropes placed alongside the body of the instrument. Alfaias are usually between 40 centimetres (16 in) and 55 centimetres (22 in) in diameter. Their construction is similar to 19th-century American and European military or field drums, and Latin American wooden bass drums. Their drumheads are clamped to the body through large wooden hoops, and they are played with distinctly-shaped thick wooden drum sticks. Sometimes the stick used in the dominant hand is marginally larger than the one used in the weak hand. Traditionally strapped over the shoulder, alfaias are played with a distinctive technique in which players hold the weak-hand drum stick inverted to get the proper attack on the head. Alfaias are also known as "Rope-surdos" or "Maracatu-drums", and the largest ones are called "Alfaias-marcantes". The medium-sized drums are called "Alfaia-meião"
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Percussion Instrument
A percussion instrument is a musical instrument that is sounded by being struck or scraped by a beater (including attached or enclosed beaters or rattles); struck, scraped or rubbed by hand; or struck against another similar instrument. The percussion family is believed to include the oldest musical instruments, following the human voice.[1] The percussion section of an orchestra most commonly contains instruments such as timpani, snare drum, bass drum, cymbals, triangle and tambourine. However, the section can also contain non-percussive instruments, such as whistles and sirens, or a blown conch shell. Percussive techniques can also be applied to the human body, as in body percussion
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Davul
The davul or atabal or tabl is a large double-headed drum that is played with mallets. It has many names depending on the country and region. These drums are commonly used in the folk music of Iran
Iran
and Turkey, as well as Albania, Romania, Bulgaria and portions of Greece, Serbia
Serbia
and Macedonia as well as Iraq
Iraq
and Armenia
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Vibraphone
The vibraphone (also known as the vibraharp or simply the vibes) is a musical instrument in the struck idiophone subfamily of the percussion family. It consists of tuned metal bars, and is usually played by holding two or four soft mallets and striking the bars. A person who plays the vibraphone is called a vibraphonist or vibraharpist. The vibraphone resembles the xylophone, marimba, and glockenspiel, one of the main differences between it and these instruments being that each bar is paired with a resonator tube that has a motor-driven butterfly valve at its upper end. The valves are mounted on a common shaft, which produces a tremolo or vibrato effect while spinning. The vibraphone also has a sustain pedal similar to that on a piano
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Xylophone
The xylophone (from the Greek words ξύλον—xylon, "wood"[1] + φωνή—phōnē, "sound, voice",[2] meaning "wooden sound") is a musical instrument in the percussion family that consists of wooden bars struck by mallets. Each bar is an idiophone tuned to a pitch of a musical scale, whether pentatonic or heptatonic in the case of many African and Asian instruments, diatonic in many western children's instruments, or chromatic for orchestral use. The term xylophone may be used generally, to include all such instruments such as the marimba, balafon and even the semantron. However, in the orchestra, the term xylophone refers specifically to a chromatic instrument of somewhat higher pitch range and drier timbre than the marimba, and these two instruments should not be confused. The term is also popularly used to refer to similar instruments of the lithophone and metallophone types
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Unpitched Percussion
An unpitched percussion instrument is a percussion instrument played in such a way as to produce sounds of indeterminate pitch, or an instrument normally played in this fashion. Unpitched percussion is typically used to maintain a rhythm or to provide accents, and its sounds are unrelated to the melody and harmony of the music. Within the orchestra unpitched percussion is termed auxiliary percussion, and this subsection of the percussion section includes all unpitched instruments of the orchestra however they are played, for example the pea whistle and siren. A common and typical example of an unpitched instrument is the snare drum, which is perceived as unpitched for three reasons:The snares produce sounds similar to white noise, masking definite frequencies. The drum heads produce inharmonic sounds. The strongest frequencies that are present are unrelated to pitched sounds produced by other instruments in the ensemble
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Bass Drum
A bass drum, or kick drum, is a large drum that produces a note of low definite or indefinite pitch. Bass drums are percussion instruments and vary in size and are used in several musical genres. Three major types of bass drums can be distinguished.The type usually seen or heard in orchestral, ensemble or concert band music is the orchestral, or concert bass drum (in Italian: gran cassa, gran tamburo). It is the largest drum of the orchestra. The kick drum, a term for a bass drum associated with a drum kit
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Bodhrán
The bodhrán (/ˈbɔːrɑːn/[1] or /ˈbaʊrɑːn/, Irish pronunciation: [ˈbˠəʊɾˠaːnˠ]; plural bodhráin or bodhráns) is an Irish frame drum ranging from 25 to 65 cm (10–26 in) in diameter, with most drums measuring 35–45 cm (14–18 in). The sides of the drum are 9–20 cm (3 1⁄2–8 in) deep. A goatskin head is tacked to one side (synthetic heads or other animal skins are sometimes used). The other side is open-ended for one hand to be placed against the inside of the drum head to control the pitch and timbre. One or two crossbars, sometimes removable, may be inside the frame, but this is increasingly rare on modern instruments. Some professional modern bodhráns integrate mechanical tuning systems similar to those used on drums found in drum kits
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Bongo Drum
Bongos (Spanish: bongó) are an Afro-Cuban
Afro-Cuban
percussion instrument consisting of a pair of small open bottomed drums of different sizes. In Spanish the larger drum is called the hembra (female) and the smaller the macho (male). Together with the conga or tumbadora, and to a lesser extent the batá drum, bongos are the most widespread Cuban hand drums, being commonly played in genres such as son cubano, salsa and Afro-Cuban
Afro-Cuban
jazz.[1] A bongo drummer is known as a bongosero.[2]Contents1 History1.1 Origins 1.2 Evolution and popularization 1.3 In the United States2 Technique 3 Notes 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] Origins[edit] The origin of the bongo is largely unclear
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Cabasa
The cabasa, similar to the shekere, is a percussion instrument that is constructed with loops of steel ball chain wrapped around a wide cylinder. The cylinder is fixed to a long, narrow wooden or plastic handle. The cabasa of gourd was originally of African origin. The African original version of the Cabasa
Cabasa
is called, agbe, and is constructed from dried oval- or pear-shaped gourds with beads strung on the outer surface.[1] There are many versions of this instrument, particularly in Latin music. Cabaça (pictured), is used in Latin American Dance. The Cabaça is a natural or synthetic round or pear-shaped gourd covered with a network of beads and finishing in a single handle. This is compared to the metal version used in Latin Jazz music.[2] The metal cabasa was created by Martin Cohen, founder of Latin Percussion. This company have built a more durable cabasa that they call an afuche-cabasa (pictured)
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Castanets
Castanets
Castanets
are a percussion instrument (idiophone), used in Kalo, Moorish,[1] Ottoman, ancient Roman, Italian, Spanish, Sephardic, Swiss, and Portuguese music. The instrument consists of a pair of concave shells joined on one edge by a string. They are held in the hand and used to produce clicks for rhythmic accents or a ripping or rattling sound consisting of a rapid series of clicks. They are traditionally made of hardwood (chestnut; Spanish: castaño),[1] although fibreglass is becoming increasingly popular. In practice a player usually uses two pairs of castanets. One pair is held in each hand, with the string hooked over the thumb and the castanets resting on the palm with the fingers bent over to support the other side. Each pair will make a sound of a slightly different pitch. The origins of the instrument are not known
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Cowbell (instrument)
The cowbell is an idiophone hand percussion instrument used in various styles of music including salsa and infrequently in popular music. It is named after the similar bell historically used by herdsmen to keep track of the whereabouts of cows.Contents1 Origins 2 Tuned cowbells 3 Clapperless cowbells 4 Cowbells in popular music 5 Sports use 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksOrigins[edit] Main article: cowbellA set of tuned cowbells.While the cowbell is commonly found in musical contexts, its origin can be traced to freely roaming animals. In order to help identify the herd to which these animals belonged, herdsmen placed these bells around the animal's neck
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Cymbal
A cymbal is a common percussion instrument. Often used in pairs, cymbals consist of thin, normally round plates of various alloys. The majority of cymbals are of indefinite pitch, although small disc-shaped cymbals based on ancient designs sound a definite note (see: crotales). Cymbals are used in many ensembles ranging from the orchestra, percussion ensembles, jazz bands, heavy metal bands, and marching groups. Drum
Drum
kits usually incorporate at least a crash, ride or crash/ride, and a pair of hi-hat cymbals
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Djembe
A djembe or jembe (/ˈdʒɛmbeɪ/ JEM-bay; from Malinke jembe [dʲẽbe][1]) is a rope-tuned skin-covered goblet drum played with bare hands, originally from West Africa. According to the Bambara people in Mali, the name of the djembe comes from the saying "Anke djé, anke bé" which translates to "everyone gather together in peace" and defines the drum's purpose. In the Bambara language, "djé" is the verb for "gather" and "bé" translates as "peace."[2] The djembe has a body (or shell) carved of hardwood and a drumhead made of untreated (not limed) rawhide, most commonly made from goatskin. Excluding rings, djembes have an exterior diameter of 30–38 cm (12–15 in) and a height of 58–63 cm (23–25 in). The majority have a diameter in the 13 to 14 inch range. The weight of a djembe ranges from 5 kg to 13 kg (11–29 lb) and depends on size and shell material
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Steelpan
Steelpans (also known as steel drums or pans, and sometimes, collectively with other musicians, as a steel band or orchestra) is a musical instrument originating from Trinidad and Tobago. Steel pan musicians are called pannists. The modern pan is a chromatically pitched percussion instrument made from 55 gallon industrial drums that formerly contained chemicals. Drum refers to the steel drum containers from which the pans are made; the steel drum is more correctly called a steel pan or pan as it falls into the idiophone family of instruments, and so is not a drum (which is a membranophone). Steel pans are the only instruments made to play in the Pythagorian musical cycle of fourths and fifths.[citation needed] The pan is struck using a pair of straight sticks tipped with rubber; the size and type of rubber tip varies according to the class of pan being played
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Jam Block
A jam block is a percussion instrument which is a modern, hard plastic version of the wood block. It is sometimes referred to as a "clave block", "gok block", or "tempo block". Jam blocks are popularly used for their sturdiness and durability compared to the traditional wood block, as well as in cowbell-like roles. Jam blocks are usually attached to timbales and drum kits, but can also be used as standalone orchestral instruments. These blocks are often used in salsa and other Latin American styles, although some modern drummers have made use of them in rock songs. Jam blocks are often used in the marching percussion idiom as well. There are several manufacturers of jam blocks, including LP, Pearl, Meinl, and Toca. Manufacturers typically color-code their jam blocks by size/pitch
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