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Alexandria, Alexandria Governorate, Egypt
Alexandria
Alexandria
(/ˌælɪɡˈzændriə/ or /-ˈzɑːnd-/;[3] Arabic: الإسكندرية al-ʾIskandariyya; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية Eskendria; Coptic: Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ, Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ Alexandria, Rakotə) is the second-largest city in Egypt
Egypt
and a major economic centre, extending about 32 km (20 mi) along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
in the north central part of the country. Its low elevation on the Nile delta
Nile delta
makes it highly vulnerable to rising sea levels. Alexandria
Alexandria
is an important industrial center because of its natural gas and oil pipelines from Suez. Alexandria
Alexandria
is also a popular tourist destination. Alexandria
Alexandria
was founded around a small, ancient Egyptian town c. 332 BC by Alexander the Great
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Alexandria (other)
Alexandria
Alexandria
is a city in Egypt founded by Alexander the Great. Alexandria
Alexandria
may also refer to:Contents1 Places1.1 Founded or renamed by Alexander the Great1.1.1 With sim
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Rome
Rome
Rome
(/roʊm/ ROHM; Italian: Roma i[ˈroːma]; Latin: Roma [ˈroːma]) is the capital of Italy
Italy
and a special comune (named Comune
Comune
di Roma Capitale). Rome
Rome
also serves as the capital of the Lazio
Lazio
region. With 2,874,558 residents in 1,285 km2 (496.1 sq mi),[1] it is also the country's most populated comune. It is the fourth-most populous city in the European Union
European Union
by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4.3 million residents.[2] Rome
Rome
is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio (Latium), along the shores of the Tiber
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Hellenistic Civilization
The Hellenistic
Hellenistic
period covers the period of Mediterranean
Mediterranean
history between the death of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
as signified by the Battle of Actium
Battle of Actium
in 31 BC[1] and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt
Egypt
the following year.[2] The Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
word Hellas (Ἑλλάς, Ellás) is the original word for Greece, from which the word "Hellenistic" was derived.[3] At this time, Greek cultural influence and power was at its peak in Europe, North Africa
North Africa
and Western Asia, experiencing prosperity and progress in the arts, exploration, literature, theatre, architecture, music, mathematics, philosophy, and science
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Ptolemaic Kingdom
The Ptolemaic Kingdom
Ptolemaic Kingdom
(/ˌtɒləˈmeɪ.ɪk/; Ancient Greek: Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ basileía)[3] was a Hellenistic
Hellenistic
kingdom based in Egypt. It was ruled by the Ptolemaic dynasty, which started with Ptolemy I
Ptolemy I
Soter's accession after the death of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
in 323 BC and which ended with the death of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VII and the Roman conquest in 30 BC. The Ptolemaic Kingdom
Ptolemaic Kingdom
was founded in 305 BC by Ptolemy I
Ptolemy I
Soter, who declared himself Pharaoh
Pharaoh
of Egypt
Egypt
and created a powerful Hellenistic dynasty that ruled an area stretching from southern Syria
Syria
to Cyrene and south to Nubia
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Egypt (Roman Province)
The Roman province
Roman province
of Egypt
Egypt
(Latin: Aegyptus, pronounced [ae̯ˈɡʏptʊs]; Greek: Αἴγυπτος Aigyptos [ɛ́ːɡyptos]) was established in 30 BC after Octavian (the future emperor Augustus) defeated his rival Mark Antony, deposed Queen Cleopatra VII, and annexed the Ptolemaic Kingdom
Ptolemaic Kingdom
of Egypt
Egypt
to the Roman Empire. The province encompassed most of modern-day Egypt
Egypt
except for the Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
(which would later be conquered by Trajan). Aegyptus was bordered by the provinces of Creta et Cyrenaica to the West and Iudaea (later Arabia Petraea) to the East. The province came to serve as a major producer of grain for the empire and had a highly developed urban economy
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Muslim Conquest Of Egypt
Emperor Heraclius Theodorus Aretion Constans II Cyrus of AlexandriaCaliph Umar Amr ibn al-Aas Zubair ibn al-Awam Miqdad bin Al-Aswad Ubaida bin As-Samit Kharija bin Huzafav t eArab–Byzantine warsEarly conflictsMu'tah Dathin Firaz Muslim
Muslim
conquest of the Levantal-Qaryatayn Bosra Ajnadayn Marj Rahit Fahl Damascus Maraj-al-Debaj Emesa Yarmouk Jerusalem Hazir Aleppo Iron Bridge Germanicia
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Fustat
Fustat
Fustat
(Arabic: الفسطاط‎ al-Fusţāţ, Coptic: ⲫⲩⲥⲧⲁⲧⲱⲛ), also Fostat, Al Fustat, Misr al- Fustat
Fustat
and Fustat-Misr, was the first capital of Egypt
Egypt
under Muslim
Muslim
rule. It was built by the Muslim
Muslim
general 'Amr ibn al-'As
'Amr ibn al-'As
immediately after the Muslim
Muslim
conquest of Egypt
Egypt
in AD 641, and featured the Mosque
Mosque
of Amr, the first mosque built in Egypt
Egypt
and in all of Africa. The city reached its peak in the 12th century, with a population of approximately 200,000.[1] It was the centre of administrative power in Egypt, until it was ordered burnt in 1168 by its own vizier, Shawar, to keep its wealth out of the hands of the invading Crusaders
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Cairo
Cairo
Cairo
(/ˈkaɪroʊ/ KYE-roh; Arabic: القاهرة‎ Al-Qāhirah,  pronunciation (help·info)) is the capital city of Egypt. The city's metropolitan area is the largest in the Middle East
Middle East
and the Arab world, and the 15th-largest in the world, and is associated with ancient Egypt, as the famous Giza pyramid complex
Giza pyramid complex
and the ancient city of Memphis are located in its geographical area. Located near the Nile Delta,[3][4] modern Cairo
Cairo
was founded in 969 CE by the Fatimid dynasty, but the land composing the present-day city was the site of ancient national capitals whose remnants remain visible in parts of Old Cairo. Cairo
Cairo
has long been a center of the region's political and cultural life, and is titled "the city of a thousand minarets" for its preponderance of Islamic architecture
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Seven Wonders Of The Ancient World
The Seven Wonders of the World
Wonders of the World
or the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World is a list of remarkable constructions of classical antiquity given by various authors in guidebooks or poems popular among ancient Hellenic tourists. Although the list, in its current form, did not stabilise until the Renaissance, the first such lists of seven wonders date from the 1st-2nd century BC. The original list inspired innumerable versions through the ages, often listing seven entries. Of the original Seven Wonders, only one—the Great Pyramid of Giza
Great Pyramid of Giza
(also called the Pyramid of Khufu, after the pharaoh who built it), the oldest of the ancient wonders—remains relatively intact. The Colossus of Rhodes, the Lighthouse of Alexandria, the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, the Temple of Artemis
Temple of Artemis
and the Statue of Zeus were all destroyed
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Great Library
The Royal Library of Alexandria
Alexandria
or Ancient Library of Alexandria
Alexandria
in Alexandria, Egypt, was one of the largest and most significant libraries of the ancient world. It was dedicated to the Muses, the nine goddesses of the arts.[1] It flourished under the patronage of the Ptolemaic dynasty
Ptolemaic dynasty
and functioned as a major center of scholarship from its construction in the 3rd century BC until the Roman conquest of Egypt
Egypt
in 30 BC, with collections of works, lecture halls, meeting rooms, and gardens
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Catacombs Of Kom El Shoqafa
The catacombs of Kom El Shoqafa (meaning "Mound of Shards") is a historical archaeological site located in Alexandria, Egypt
Egypt
and is considered one of the Seven Wonders of the Middle Ages. The necropolis consists of a series of Alexandrian tombs, statues and archaeological objects of the Pharaonic funeral cult with Hellenistic and early Imperial Roman
Imperial Roman
influences. Due to the time period, many of the features of the catacombs of Kom El Shoqafa merge Roman, Greek and Egyptian cultural points; some statues are Egyptian in style, yet bear Roman clothes and hair style whilst other features share a similar style
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Wonders Of The Middle Ages
Various lists of the Wonders of the World
Wonders of the World
have been compiled from antiquity to the present day, to catalogue the world's most spectacular natural wonders and manmade structures. The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World
Seven Wonders of the Ancient World
is the first known list of the most remarkable creations of classical antiquity; it was based on guidebooks popular among Hellenic sightseers and only includes works located around the Mediterranean rim and in Mesopotamia
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Maritime Archaeology
Maritime archaeology
Maritime archaeology
(also known as marine archaeology) is a discipline within archaeology as a whole that specifically studies human interaction with the sea,[1] lakes and rivers through the study of associated physical remains, be they vessels, shore side facilities, port-related structures, cargoes, human remains and submerged landscapes.[2] A specialty within maritime archaeology is nautical archaeology, which studies vessel construction and use.[3] As with archaeology as a whole, maritime archaeology can be practised within the historical, industrial, or prehistoric periods.[4] An associated discipline, and again one that lies within archaeology itself, is underwater archaeology, which studies the past through any submerged remains be they of maritime interest or not. An example from the prehistoric era would be the remains of submerged settlements or deposits now lying under water despite having been dry land when sea levels were lower
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Suez
Suez
Suez
(Arabic: السويس‎ as-Suways ; Egyptian Arabic: es-Sewēs, el-Sewēs pronounced [esseˈweːs]) is a seaport city (population ca. 497,000) in north-eastern Egypt, located on the north coast of the Gulf of Suez
Gulf of Suez
(a branch of the Red Sea), near the southern terminus of the Suez
Suez
Canal, having the same boundaries as Suez governorate. It has three harbors, Adabya, Ain Sukhna
Ain Sukhna
and Port Tawfiq, and extensive port facilities. Together they form a metropolitan area. Railway lines and highways connect the city with Cairo, Port Said, and Ismailia
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Rhacotis
Rhacotis (Egyptian: 𓂋𓏤𓂝𓀨𓏏𓊖 = Râ-Kedet, Greek Ῥακῶτις; also romanized as Rhakotis) was the name for a city on the northern coast of Egypt
Egypt
at the site of Alexandria. Classical sources from the Greco-Roman era, in Greek and in hieroglyphics, give Rhacotis as an older name for Alexandria
Alexandria
before the arrival of Alexander the Great. Rhacotis was located west of the now-silted Canopic branch of the Nile. Unlike ports within the Nile
Nile
Delta, it was reliably accessible to large ships, and enough water for a city could be supplied by a canal. It is also described as the home of sentinels who protected the Egyptian kingdom from outsiders.Contents1 Etymology 2 Classical descriptions 3 Archaeology 4 Significance 5 References5.1 Bibliography6 External linksEtymology[edit] The root of the name, qd, means "construct"
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