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Alexander Ginzburg
Alexander (Alik) Ilyich Ginzburg (Russian: Алекса́ндр Ильи́ч Ги́нзбург, IPA: [ɐlʲɪˈksandr ɪlʲˈjitɕ ˈɡʲinzbʊrk] ( listen); 21 November 1936, Moscow
Moscow
– 19 July 2002, Paris), was a Russian journalist, poet, human rights activist and dissident.Contents1 Biography 2 Dissident work 3 References 4 Further reading 5 BibliographyBiography[edit] During the Soviet period, Ginzburg cofounded and edited the samizdat poetry almanac Sintaksis.[1] At the end of 1959, he issued the first samizdat literary magazine Phoenix, with Yuri Galanskov.[1] Between 1961 and 1969 he was sentenced three times to labor camps
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Helsinki-86
The CTAG (Latvian: Cilvēktiesību aizstāvības grupa, Human Rights Defense Group) Helsinki-86 was founded in July, 1986 in the Latvian port town of Liepāja
Liepāja
by three workers: Linards Grantiņš, Raimonds Bitenieks, and Mārtiņš Bariss. Its name refers to the Helsinki Accords and the year of its founding. Helsinki-86 was the first openly anti-Communist organization, but also the first openly organized opposition to the Soviet regime, in the former Soviet Union, setting an example for other ethnic minorities' pro-independence movements.[1]Contents1 Role in the "Singing Revolution" 2 Since independence 3 See also 4 External links 5 ReferencesRole in the "Singing Revolution"[edit] Helsinki-86 was an important early actor during the "Singing Revolution" in Latvia, during which the country regained its independence from the USSR. By the beginning of 1988, there were nearly twenty members of Helsinki-86
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Dissident
A dissident, broadly defined, is a person who actively challenges an established doctrine, policy, or institution. In a religious context, the word has been used since 18th century, and in the political sense since 1940, coinciding with the rise of totalitarian systems, especially the Soviet Union.[1]Contents1 Religious dissenter 2 Eastern bloc
Eastern bloc
dissidents 3 Republican dissidents in Ireland 4 U.S. dissidents 5 Dissidents and new technologies 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksReligious dissenter[edit] Main article: English Dissenters Eastern bloc
Eastern bloc
dissidents[edit] See also: Soviet dissidents The term dissident was used in the Eastern bloc, particularly in the Soviet Union, in the period following Joseph Stalin's death until the fall of communism. It was attached to citizens who criticized the practices or the authority of the Communist Party
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Nonviolent Resistance
Nonviolent
Nonviolent
resistance (NVR or nonviolent action) is the practice of achieving goals such as social change through symbolic protests, civil disobedience, economic or political noncooperation, satyagraha, or other methods, while being nonviolent. This type of action highlights the desires of an individual or group that feels that something needs to change to improve the current condition of the resisting person or group. It is largely but wrongly taken as synonymous with civil resistance. Each of these terms—nonviolent resistance and civil resistance—has its distinct merits and also quite different connotations and commitments. Major nonviolent resistance advocates include Mahatma Gandhi, Henry David Thoreau, Te Whiti o Rongomai, Tohu Kākahi, Leo Tolstoy, Alice Paul, Martin Luther King, Jr, James Bevel, Václav Havel, Andrei Sakharov, Lech Wałęsa, Gene Sharp, and many others
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Helsinki Accords
The Helsinki
Helsinki
Accords, Helsinki
Helsinki
Final Act, or Helsinki
Helsinki
Declaration was the final act of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe held in Finlandia Hall
Finlandia Hall
of Helsinki, Finland, during July and August 1, 1975
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The Gulag Archipelago
The Gulag
Gulag
Archipelago
Archipelago
(Russian: Архипела́г ГУЛА́Г, Arkhipelág GULÁG) is a book by writer Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
about the Soviet forced labor camp system. The three-volume book is a narrative relying on eyewitness testimony and primary research material, as well as the author's own experiences as a prisoner in a gulag labor camp
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OCLC
OCLC, currently incorporated as OCLC
OCLC
Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated,[3] is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs".[4] It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC
OCLC
and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog (OPAC) in the world
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Anti-Soviet Agitation And Propaganda
Anti-Soviet Agitation and Propaganda (ASA) (Russian: Антисове́тская агита́ция и пропага́нда (АСА)) was a criminal offence in the Soviet Union. To begin with the term was interchangeably used with counter-revolutionary agitation. The latter term was in use immediately after the first Russian Revolution in February 1917. The offence was codified in criminal law in the 1920s, and revised in the 1950s in two articles of the RSFSR Criminal Code
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KGB
The KGB, an initialism for Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti (Russian: Комите́т госуда́рственной безопа́сности (КГБ), IPA: [kəmʲɪˈtʲet ɡəsʊˈdarstvʲɪnːəj bʲɪzɐˈpasnəsʲtʲɪ] ( listen)), translated in English as Committee for State Security, was the main security agency for the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
from 1954 until its break-up in 1991. As a direct successor of such preceding agencies as Cheka, NKGB, NKVD
NKVD
and MGB, a committee was attached to the Council of Ministers. It was the chief government agency of "union-republican jurisdiction", acting as internal security, intelligence and secret police
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Dymshits–Kuznetsov Hijacking Affair
The Dymshits–Kuznetsov aircraft hijacking affair, also known as The First Leningrad Trial or Operation Wedding (Russian: Ленинградское самолётное дело, or Дело группы Дымшица-Кузнецова) (Leningrad Process), was an attempt to steal a civilian aircraft on 15 June 1970 by a group of 16 Soviet refuseniks in order to escape to the West. Even though the attempt was unsuccessful, it was a notable event in the course of the Cold War because it drew international attention to human rights violations in the USSR and resulted in the temporary loosening of emigration restrictions.Contents1 Background 2 Incident 3 Aftermath 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External linksBackground[edit] In the wake of the 1967 Six-Day War, the USSR broke off diplomatic relations with Israel
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United States
Coordinates: 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of AmericaFlagGreat SealMotto:  "In God
God
We Trust"[1][fn 1]Other traditional mottos  "E pluribus unum" (Latin) (de facto) "Out of many, one" "Annuit cœptis" (Latin) "He h
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Labor Camp
A labor camp (or labour, see spelling differences) or work camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are forced to engage in penal labor as a form of punishment under the criminal code. Labour camps have many common aspects with slavery and with prisons (especially prison farms). Conditions at labor camps vary widely depending on the operators. In the 20th century, a new category of labor camps developed for the imprisonment of millions of people who were not criminals per se, but political opponents (real or imagined) and various so-called undesirables under the totalitarian, both communist and fascist regimes. Some of those camps were dubbed "reeducation facilities" for political coercion, but most others served as backbone of industry and agriculture for the benefit of the state especially in times of war. Labor camps of forced labor were abolished by Convention no
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FrontPage Magazine
FrontPage Magazine
FrontPage Magazine
(also known as FrontPageMag.com) is an online right-wing political website, edited by David Horowitz
David Horowitz
and published by the
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Almanac
An almanac (also spelled almanack and almanach) is an annual publication that includes information like weather forecasts, farmers' planting dates, tide tables, and other tabular data often arranged according to the calendar. Celestial figures and various statistics are found in almanacs, such as the rising and setting times of the Sun and Moon, dates of eclipses, hours of high and low tides, and religious festivals.Contents1 Etymology 2 Early almanacs2.1 Hemerologies and parapegmata 2.2 Ephemerides, zijs and tables 2.3 Medieval almanacs 2.4 Early modern almanacs3 Contemporary almanacs3.1 GPS almanac4 List of almanacs by country of publication 5 Almanac
Almanac
calculators 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksEtymology[edit] The etymology of the word is unclear, but there are several theories:It is suggested the word almanac derives from a Greek word meaning calendar
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