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Alessandria
Alessandria
Alessandria
[alesˈsandrja]  listen (help·info) (Piedmontese: Lissandria) is a city and comune in Piedmont, Italy, and the capital of the Province of Alessandria
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Perugia
Perugia
Perugia
(Italian pronunciation: [peˈruːdʒa] ( listen); Latin: Perusia) is the capital city of both the region of Umbria
Umbria
in central Italy, crossed by the river Tiber, and of the province of Perugia. The city is located about 164 kilometres (102 miles) north of Rome
Rome
and 148 km (92 miles) southeast of Florence. It covers a high hilltop and part of the valleys around the area
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Central European Summer Time
Central European Summer Time
European Summer Time
(CEST), sometime referred also as Central European Daylight Time (CEDT), is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time
Central European Time
(UTC+1) during the other part of the year. It corresponds to UTC+2, which makes it the same as Central Africa Time, South African Standard Time
South African Standard Time
and Kaliningrad Time in Russia.Contents1 Names 2 Period of observation 3 Usage 4 See also 5 ReferencesNames[edit] Other names which have been applied to Central European Summer Time are Middle European Summer Time
European Summer Time
(MEST), Central European Daylight Saving Time (CEDT), and Bravo Time (after the second letter of the NATO phonetic alphabet)
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Pope Alexander III
Pope
Pope
Alexander III (c. 1100/1105 – 30 August 1181), born Roland of Siena,[1] was Pope
Pope
from 7 September 1159 to his death in 1181. Through the Papal bull
Papal bull
Manifestis Probatum, issued on 23 May 1179, he recognized the right of Afonso I to proclaim himself King of Portugal, thus recognizing Portugal
Portugal
as an independent and sovereign Kingdom.[2] He also laid the foundation stone for the Notre-Dame de Paris.Contents1 Early life and career 2 Disputed election 3 Alexander's politics 4 Efforts at reform 5 Notes 6 ReferencesEarly life and career[edit] Pope
Pope
Alexander III was born in Siena
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Defensive Wall
A defensive wall is a fortification usually used to protect a city, town or other settlement from potential aggressors. In ancient to modern times, they were used to enclose settlements. Generally, these are referred to as city walls or town walls, although there were also walls, such as the Great Wall
Wall
of China, Walls of Benin, Hadrian's Wall, Anastasian Wall, the Cyclopean
Cyclopean
Wall
Wall
Rajgir[1] and the metaphorical Atlantic Wall, which extended far beyond the borders of a city and were used to enclose regions or mark territorial boundaries. In mountainous terrain, defensive walls such as letzis were used in combination with castles to seal valleys from potential attack
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Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(Latin: Sacrum Romanum Imperium; German: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and continued until its dissolution in 1806.[6] The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany, though it also came to include the Kingdom of Bohemia, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, and numerous other territories.[7][8][9] On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne as Emperor, reviving the title in Western Europe, more than three centuries after the fall of the Western Roman Empire
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Northern Italy
Northern Italy
Italy
(Italian: Italia settentrionale or just Nord) is a geographical region in the northern part of Italy.[2] Non-administrative, it consists of eight administrative Regions in northern Italy: Aosta Valley, Piedmont, Liguria, Lombardy, Emilia-Romagna, Veneto, Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Friuli-Venezia Giulia
and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol.[3] As of 2014, its population was 27,801,460. Rhaeto-Romance
Rhaeto-Romance
and Gallo-Italic languages
Gallo-Italic languages
are spoken in the region, as opposed to the Italo-Dalmatian languages spoken in the rest of Italy. For statistic purposes, the Istituto Nazionale di Statistica
Istituto Nazionale di Statistica
(ISTAT) uses the terms Northwest Italy
Italy
and Northeast Italy
Italy
for two of Italy's five statistical regions in its reporting
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Medieval Commune
Medieval communes in the European Middle Ages
Middle Ages
had sworn allegiances of mutual defense (both physical defense and of traditional freedoms) among the citizens of a town or city. These took many forms and varied widely in organization and makeup. Communes are first recorded in the late 11th and early 12th centuries, thereafter becoming a widespread phenomenon. They had greater development in central-northern Italy, where they became city-states based on partial democracy. At the same time in Germany
Germany
they became free cities, independent from local nobility.Contents1 Etymology 2 Origins 3 Social order 4 Rural communes 5 Evolution in Italy
Italy
and decline in Europe 6 See also 7 Footnotes 8 Sources 9 External linksEtymology[edit] The English and French word "commune" (Italian: comune) appears in Latin records in various forms
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Transport Hub
A transport hub (also transport interchange) is a place where passengers and cargo are exchanged between vehicles or between transport modes. Public transport
Public transport
hubs include train stations, rapid transit stations, bus stops, tram stop, airports and ferry slips. Freight hubs include classification yards, airports, seaports and truck terminals, or combinations of these. For private transport, the parking lot functions as a hub. Historically, an interchange service in the scheduled passenger air transport industry involved a "through plane" flight operated by two or more airlines where a single aircraft was used with the individual airlines operating it with their own flight crews on their respective portions of a direct, no change of plane multi-stop flight
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Railway
Rail transport
Rail transport
is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks. It is also commonly referred to as train transport. In contrast to road transport, where vehicles run on a prepared flat surface, rail vehicles (rolling stock) are directionally guided by the tracks on which they run. Tracks usually consist of steel rails, installed on ties (sleepers) and ballast, on which the rolling stock, usually fitted with metal wheels, moves
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Turin
Turin
Turin
(/tjʊəˈrɪn, ˈtʊərɪn/;[2] Italian: Torino [toˈriːno] ( listen); Piemontese: Turin
Turin
[tyˈɾiŋ])[3] is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy. It is the capital city of the Metropolitan City of Turin
Metropolitan City of Turin
(an administrative division of Italy) and of the Piedmont
Piedmont
region, and was the first capital city of Italy
Italy
from 1861 to 1865. The city is located mainly on the western bank of the Po River, in front of Susa Valley, and is surrounded by the western Alpine arch and Superga
Superga
Hill. The population of the city proper is 886,837 (31 December 2016) while the population of the urban area is estimated by Eurostat to be 1.7 million inhabitants
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Comune
The comune (IPA: [koˈmune]; plural: comuni, IPA: [koˈmuni]) is a basic administrative division in Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality.Contents1 Importance and function 2 Subdivisions 3 Homonymy 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksImportance and function[edit] The comune provides many of the basic civil functions: registry of births and deaths, registry of deeds, and contracting for local roads and public works. It is headed by a mayor (sindaco) assisted by a legislative body, the consiglio comunale (communal council), and an executive body, the giunta comunale (communal committee). The mayor and members of the consiglio comunale are elected together by resident citizens: the coalition of the elected mayor (who needs an absolute majority in the first or second round of voting) gains three fifths of the consiglio's seats
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Military Camp
A military camp or bivouac (see Bivouac shelter) is a semi-permanent facility for the lodging of an army. Camps are erected when a military force travels away from a major installation or fort during training or operations, and often have the form of large campsites.[1] In the Roman era the military camp had highly stylized parameters and served an entire legion. Archaeological investigations have revealed many details of these Roman camps at sites such as Vindolanda (England) and Raedykes
Raedykes
(Scotland).Contents1 See also 2 Gallery 3 References 4 External linksSee also[edit]Canjuers Cantonment Castra FortsGallery[edit]Scenes of the Austrian War of Succession, 1741-1745Scenes of the Austrian War of Succession, 1741-1745 Military
Military
camp at Conwy
Conwy
on the North Wales
North Wales
coast, 1911Egypt - Military
Military
camp, Wadi Halfa
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Alluvial Plain
An alluvial plain is a largely flat landform created by the deposition of sediment over a long period of time by one or more rivers coming from highland regions, from which alluvial soil forms. A floodplain is part of the process, being the smaller area over which the rivers flood at a particular period of time, whereas the alluvial plain is the larger area representing the region over which the floodplains have shifted over geological time. As the highlands erode due to weathering and water flow, the sediment from the hills is transported to the lower plain. Various creeks will carry the water further to a river, lake, bay, or ocean. As the sediments are deposited during flood conditions in the floodplain of a creek, the elevation of the floodplain will be raised. As this reduces the channel floodwater capacity, the creek will, over time, seek new, lower paths, forming a meander (a curving sinuous path)
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Piedmontese Language
Piedmontese (Piemontèis or Lenga Piemontèisa, in Italian: Piemontese) is a Romance language
Romance language
spoken some 700,000 people in Piedmont, northwestern region of Italy. It is geographically and linguistically included in the Gallo- Italic languages
Italic languages
group of Northern Italy
Italy
(with Lombard, Emiliano-Romagnolo
Emiliano-Romagnolo
and Ligurian)
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House Of Visconti
Visconti is the family name of important Italian noble dynasties of the Middle Ages. The Visconti of Milan
Milan
rose to power in their city, where they ruled from 1277 to 1447, initially as Lords then as Dukes and where several collateral branches still exist
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