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Alcohol
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a saturated carbon atom.[2] The term alcohol originally referred to the primary alcohol ethanol (ethyl alcohol), which is used as a drug and is the main alcohol present in alcoholic beverages. The suffix -ol appears in the IUPAC
IUPAC
chemical name of all substances where the hydroxyl group is the functional group with the highest priority; in substances where a higher priority group is present the prefix hydroxy- will appear in the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
Chemistry
(IUPAC) name. The suffix -ol in non-systematic names (such as paracetamol or cholesterol) also typically indicates that the substance includes a hydroxyl functional group and, so, can be termed an alcohol. But many substances, particularly sugars (examples glucose and sucrose) contain hydroxyl functional groups without using the suffix
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Medicine In The Medieval Islamic World
In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine is the science of medicine developed in the Islamic Golden Age, and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of Islamic civilization.[1][2] Islamic medicine preserved, systematized and developed the medical knowledge of classical antiquity, including the major traditions of Hippocrates, Galen
Galen
and Dioscorides.[3] During the post-classical era, Islamic medicine was the most advanced in the world, integrating concepts of the ancient Greek, Roman, Persian as well as the ancient Indian traditions of Ayurveda
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Libavius
Andreas Libavius
Andreas Libavius
or Andrew Libavius (c. 1555 – 25 July 1616) was a German physician and chemist.Contents1 Life 2 Views on alchemy 3 Works3.1 Other works4 References 5 Resources 6 External linksLife[edit] Libavius was born in Halle, Germany, as Andreas Libau, the son of Johann Libau. He attended the gymnasium in Halle and in 1578 began studying at the University of Wittenberg. In 1579 he entered the University of Jena
University of Jena
where he studied philosophy, history and medicine. In 1581 he obtained the academic degree of magister artium and was named a poet laureate. He began teaching in Ilmenau
Ilmenau
in 1581 and remained there until 1586 when he moved to Coburg to teach there
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Stibnite
Stibnite, sometimes called antimonite, is a sulfide mineral with the formula Sb2S3. This soft grey material crystallizes in an orthorhombic space group. It is the most important source for the metalloid antimony.[4] The name is from the Greek στίβι stibi through the Latin stibium as the old name for the mineral and the element antimony.[1][2]Contents1 Structure 2 Uses 3 Occurrence 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksStructure[edit]Structure of stibnite. Stibnite
Stibnite
has a structure similar to that of arsenic trisulfide, As2S3. The Sb(III) centers, which are pyramidal and three-coordinate, are linked via bent two-coordinate sulfide ions
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Sublimation (chemistry)
Sublimation is the phase transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase without passing through the intermediate liquid phase.[1] Sublimation is an endothermic process that occurs at temperatures and pressures below a substance's triple point in its phase diagram, which corresponds to the lowest pressure at which the substance can exist as a liquid. The reverse process of sublimation is deposition or desublimation, in which a substance passes directly from a gas to a solid phase.[2] Sublimation has also been used as a generic term to describe a solid-to-gas transition (sublimation) followed by a gas-to-solid transition (deposition).[3] At normal pressures, most chemical compounds and elements possess three different states at different temperatures. In these cases, the transition from the solid to the gaseous state requires an intermediate liquid state. The pressure referred to is the partial pressure of the substance, not the total (e.g
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Article (grammar)
An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation ART) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope. The articles in English grammar are the and a/an, and in certain contexts some. "An" and "a" are modern forms of the Old English "an", which in Anglian dialects
Anglian dialects
was the number "one" (compare "on" in Saxon dialects) and survived into Modern Scots
Modern Scots
as the number "owan"
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Al-
Al- (Arabic: ال‎, also transliterated as el- as pronounced in varieties of Arabic) is the definite article in the Arabic
Arabic
language: a particle (ḥarf) whose function is to render the noun on which it is prefixed definite. For example, the word كتاب kitāb "book" can be made definite by prefixing it with al-, resulting in الكتاب al-kitāb "the book". Consequently, al- is typically translated as the in English. Unlike most other particles in Arabic, al- is always prefixed to another word and it never stands alone. Consequently, most dictionaries will not list it as a separate word, and it is almost invariably ignored in collation. Similarly, al- is not a permanent component of the word to which it is prefixed. It is added and removed to toggle between the definiteness and indefiniteness of the word. As a particle, al- does not inflect for gender, plurality or grammatical case
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Romanization Of Arabic
The romanization of Arabic
Arabic
writes written and spoken Arabic
Arabic
in the Latin script
Latin script
in one of various systematic ways. Romanized Arabic
Arabic
is used for a number of different purposes, among them transcription of names and titles, cataloging Arabic language
Arabic language
works, language education when used in lieu of or alongside the Arabic
Arabic
script, and representation of the language in scientific publications by linguists
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Kohl (cosmetics)
Kohl (Arabic: كُحْل‎) is an ancient eye cosmetic, traditionally made by grinding stibnite (Sb2S3) for similar purposes to charcoal used in mascara. It is widely used in the Middle East, North Africa, the Mediterranean, Eastern Europe, Latin America, South Asia, Southeast Asia, the Horn of Africa, and parts of West Africa
West Africa
as eyeliner[1] to contour and/or darken the eyelids and as mascara for the eyelashes. It is worn mostly by women, but also by some men and children. Kohl has also been used in India
India
as a cosmetic for a long time. In addition, mothers would apply kohl to their infants' eyes soon after birth
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Islamic Philosophy
In the religion of Islam, two words are sometimes translated as philosophy—falsafa (literally "philosophy"), which refers to philosophy as well as logic, mathematics and physics;[1] and Kalam (literally "speech"), which refers to a kind of philosophy based on interpretations of Aristotelianism
Aristotelianism
and Neoplatonism. Islamic philosophy has also been described as the systematic investigation of problems connected with life, the universe, ethics, society, and so on as conducted in the Muslim
Muslim
world. Early Islamic philosophy
Early Islamic philosophy
began in the 2nd century AH of the Islamic calendar (early 9th century CE) and lasted until the 6th century AH (late 12th century CE)
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Alchemy And Chemistry In Medieval Islam
Alchemy
Alchemy
and chemistry in Islam
Islam
refers to the study of both traditional alchemy and early practical chemistry (the early chemical investigation of nature in general) by scholars in the medieval Islamic world. The word alchemy was derived from the Arabic
Arabic
word كيمياء or kīmiyāʾ.[1][2] and may ultimately derive from the ancient Egyptian word kemi, meaning black.[2] After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the focus of alchemical development moved to the Caliphate
Caliphate
and the Islamic civilization
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John Of Vigo
Giovanni da Vigo
Giovanni da Vigo
(1450–1525) was an Italian surgeon. He studied under Battista di Rapallo, surgeon to the Marquis of Saluzzo. He spent his early years of practice in Genoa
Genoa
and a statue of him can be found in front of the old Civic hospital in Rapallo. In 1495 Vigo moved to Savona and became acquainted with Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere. When the Cardinal was made Pope Julius II
Pope Julius II
in 1503, he took Vigo with him to Rome, appointing him as his official surgeon. He was with the Pope in the attack on Bologna and cured the Pope of a nodule on his hand.[1] In 1514 Vigo published Practica in arte chirurgica copiosa a comprehensive work on surgery composed of nine books and written in Latin. He dedicated it to his son, Luigi
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Polymath
A polymath (Greek: πολυμαθής, polymathēs, "having learned much,"[1] Latin: homo universalis, "universal man"[citation needed]) is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas—such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems. In Western Europe, the first work to use polymathy in its title (De Polymathia tractatio: integri operis de studiis veterum) was published in 1603 by Johann von Wower, a Hamburg philosopher.[2][3][4][5] Wower defined polymathy as "knowledge of various matters, drawn from all kinds of studies [...] ranging freely through all the fields of the disciplines, as far as the human mind, with unwearied industry, is able to pursue them".[3] Wower lists erudition, literature, philology, philomathy and polyhistory as synonyms
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Persian People
The Persians are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.[3][2] They share a common cultural system and are native speakers of the Persian language,[4][5][6] as well as closely related languages.[7][8] The ancient Persians were a nomadic branch of the ancient Iranian population that entered modern-day Iran
Iran
by the early 10th century BC.[9][10] Together with their compatriot allies, they established and ruled some of the world's most powerful empires,[11][12] well-recognized for their massive cultural, political, and social influence covering much of the territory and population of the ancient world.[13][14] Th
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Aliphatic Compound
In organic chemistry, hydrocarbons (compounds composed of carbon and hydrogen) are divided into two classes: aromatic compounds and aliphatic compounds (/ˌælɪˈfætɪk/; G. aleiphar, fat, oil) also known as non-aromatic compounds. Aliphatics can be cyclic, but only aromatic compounds contain an especially stable ring of atoms, such as benzene.[1] Aliphatic compounds can be saturated, like hexane, or unsaturated, like hexene and hexyne. Open-chain compounds (whether straight or branched) contain no rings of any type, and are thus aliphatic.Contents1 Structure 2 Properties 3 Examples of aliphatic compounds / non-aromatic 4 ReferencesStructure[edit] Aliphatic compounds can be saturated, joined by single bonds (alkanes), or unsaturated, with double bonds (alkenes) or triple bonds (alkynes)
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Moorish
The term "Moors" refers primarily to the Muslim
Muslim
inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, and Malta
Malta
during the Middle Ages
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