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Alchemy And Chemistry In Medieval Islam
Alchemy
Alchemy
and chemistry in Islam
Islam
refers to the study of both traditional alchemy and early practical chemistry (the early chemical investigation of nature in general) by scholars in the medieval Islamic world. The word alchemy was derived from the Arabic
Arabic
word كيمياء or kīmiyāʾ.[1][2] and may ultimately derive from the ancient Egyptian word kemi, meaning black.[2] After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the focus of alchemical development moved to the Caliphate
Caliphate
and the Islamic civilization
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Rey, Iran
1st row: Left to right: Tughrul Tower---Bahram fire temple 2nd row: Rey Castle---Rashkan Castle 3rd row: Shah-Abdol-Azim
Shah-Abdol-Azim
shrine---Shah Abbassi Caravanserai 4th row: Fath Ali shah inscription---A local bazaar (Friday Bazar)RayCoordinates: 35°35′N 51°26′E / 35.583°N 51.433°E / 35.583; 51.433Coordinates: 35°35′N 51°26′E / 35.583°N 51.433°E / 35.583; 51.433Country  IranProvince TehranCounty Capital of Rey, but within TehranArea • Total 2,996 km2 (1,157 sq mi)Elevation 1,180 m (3,870 ft)Population
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Alexandria
Alexandria
Alexandria
(/ˌælɪɡˈzændriə/ or /-ˈzɑːnd-/;[3] Arabic: الإسكندرية al-ʾIskandariyya; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية Eskendria; Coptic: Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ, Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ Alexandria, Rakotə) is the second-largest city in Egypt
Egypt
and a major economic centre, extending about 32 km (20 mi) along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
in the north central part of the country. Its low elevation on the Nile delta
Nile delta
makes it highly vulnerable to rising sea levels. Alexandria
Alexandria
is an important industrial center because of its natural gas and oil pipelines from Suez. Alexandria
Alexandria
is also a popular tourist destination. Alexandria
Alexandria
was founded around a small, ancient Egyptian town c. 331 BC by Alexander the Great
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Manicheism
WesternRevelation Divine illumination Divine lightIslamicTa'wil Irfan Nūr Sufism IsmāʿīlīsmEasternJnana Bodhi PrajnaBuddhism HinduismGnostic sectsList of Gnostic sectsSyrian-EgypticSethianismSamaritan Baptist sectsDositheos Simon Magus (Simonians) Menander Basilides (Basilideans)RomeValentinus (Valentinianism)Christian GnosticismCerinthus Marcion (Marcionism) NicolaismAbrahamicDruze Mandaeism Nusayrism SabiansPersianBábism Manichaeism YazdânismChineseChinese ManichaeismModernModern schoolsScripturesList of Gnostic textsTextsNag Hammadi library Pseudo-Abdias Clementine literature Gnosticism and the New TestamentCodicesCodex Tchacos Cologne Mani-Codex Askew Codex Bruce Codex Berlin CodexInfluenced byMerkabah mysticism Apocalyptic literature Messiah Philo Middle
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Islamic Miniature
Islamic miniatures are small paintings on paper, usually book or manuscript illustrations but also sometimes separate artworks. The earliest examples date from around 1000 AD, with a flourishing of the artform from around 1200 AD. The field is divided by scholars into four types, Arabic, Mughal (Indian), Ottoman (Turkish), and Persian.[1][2] References[edit]^ "Miniature Painting". The David Collection. Retrieved 30 December 2017.  ^ "Islamic Miniature Painting and Book Illumination" (PDF). Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. 28 (10): 166–171
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Nisibis
Nusaybin
Nusaybin
(pronounced [nuˈsajbin]; Akkadian: Naṣibina;[5] Classical Greek: Νίσιβις, Nisibis; Arabic: نصيبين‎, Kurdish: Nisêbîn; Syriac: ܢܨܝܒܝܢ‎, Nṣībīn; Armenian: Մծբին, Mtsbin) is a city and multiple titular see in Mardin Province, Turkey. The population of the city is 83,832[6] as of 2009. The population is predominantly Kurdish, Sunni as well as Yezidi, but a small Aramean (Turkish: Süryani) community can also be found. With a history going back nearly 3,000 years, Nusaybin
Nusaybin
was ruled and settled by various groups. First mentioned as an Aramean settlement Naşibīna in 901 BCE, it was captured by Assyria
Assyria
in 896 BCE
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Hellenic Philosophy And Christianity
Christianity and Hellenistic philosophy refers to the complex interaction between Hellenistic philosophy and early Christianity during the first to the fourth centuries. As Christianity spread throughout the Hellenic world, an increasing number of church leaders were educated in Greek philosophy. The dominant philosophical traditions of the Greco-Roman world then were Stoicism, Platonism, and Epicureanism. Stoicism and, particularly, Platonism were readily incorporated into Christian ethics and Christian theology.Contents1 Historic development 2 Conception of God 3 Ontological argument 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksHistoric development[edit] Christian assimilation of Hellenic philosophy was anticipated by Philo and other Greek-speaking Alexandrian Jews
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7th Century
The 7th century
7th century
is the period from 601
601
to 700
700
in accordance with the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
in the Common Era. The Muslim conquests
Muslim conquests
began with the unification of Arabia
Arabia
by Muhammad
Muhammad
starting in 622
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8th Century
The 8th century
8th century
is the period from 701
701
to 800
800
in accordance with the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
in the Common Era. In the Middle East, the coast of North Africa
North Africa
and the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
quickly come under Islamic
Islamic
Arab domination. The westward expansion of the Arab
Arab
Empire was famously halted at the Siege of Constantinople
Constantinople
by the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
and the Battle of Tours
Battle of Tours
by the Franks
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Hermeticism
Hermeticism, also called Hermetism,[1][2] is a religious, philosophical, and esoteric tradition based primarily upon writings attributed to Hermes Trismegistus
Hermes Trismegistus
("Thrice Great").[3] These writings have greatly influenced the Western esoteric tradition
Western esoteric tra

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Gnosticism
WesternRevelation Divine illumination Divine lightIslamicTa'wil Irfan Nūr Sufism IsmāʿīlīsmEasternJnana Bodhi PrajnaBuddhism Hinduism Gnostic
Gnostic
sectsList of Gnostic
Gnostic
sectsSyrian-EgypticSethianism


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Katip Çelebi
Kâtip Çelebi
Kâtip Çelebi
(Ottoman Turkish: كاتب چلبى‎, Kātib Çelebi "Gentleman Scribe"), the pen name of Mustafa bin Abdullah (1609–1657), also later known as Haji Khalifa (Turkish: Hacı Halife) or Kalfa,[2][3] was an Ottoman scholar. A historian and geographer, he is regarded as one of the most productive authors of non-religious, scientific literature in the 17th-century Ottoman Empire.[4]Contents1 Life 2 Works 3 Legacy 4 References 5 Sources 6 External linksLife[edit]The main motif is a calligraphic pattern formed from the names of God, the prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
and the first four caliphs, Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Uthman and ‘ Ali
Ali
written in Arabic. The combination indicates an allegiance to Sunni Islam
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Iran
Iran
Iran
(Persian: ایران‎ Irān [ʔiːˈɾɒːn] ( listen)), also known as Persia[10] (/ˈpɜːrʒə/),[11] officially the Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of Iran (Persian: جمهوری اسلامی ایران‎ Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān ( listen)),[12] is a sovereign state in Western Asia.[13][14] With over 81 million inhabitants,[6] Iran
Iran
is the world's 18th-most-populous country.[15] Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), it is the second-largest country in the Middle East
Middle East
and the 17th-largest in the world
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Pseudepigraphical
Pseudepigrapha (also anglicized as "pseudepigraph" or "pseudepigraphs") are falsely-attributed works, texts whose claimed author is not the true author, or a work whose real author attributed it to a figure of the past.[1] Pseudepigraphy covers the false ascription of names of authors to works, even to authentic works that make no such claim within their text. Thus a widely accepted but incorrect attribution of authorship may make a completely authentic text pseudepigraphical. Assessing the actual writer of a text locates questions of pseudepigraphical attribution within the discipline of literary criticism. In biblical studies, the term pseudepigrapha typically refers to an assorted collection of Jewish religious works thought to be written c. 300 BC to 300 AD
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Persian Language
Persian (/ˈpɜːrʒən/ or /ˈpɜːrʃən/), also known by its endonym Farsi[8][9] (فارسی fārsi [fɒːɾˈsiː] ( listen)), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(officially known as Dari since 1958),[10] and Tajikistan
Tajikistan
(officially known as Tajiki since the Soviet era),[11] and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran
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Tus, Iran
Tus (Persian: توس‬‎ or طوس‬ Tus or Tuws), also spelled as Tous, Toos or Tūs, is an ancient city in Razavi Khorasan Province
Razavi Khorasan Province
in Iran
Iran
near Mashhad. To the ancient Greeks, it was known as Susia (Ancient Greek: Σούσια). It was captured by Alexander the Great in 330 BCE
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