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Album
An ALBUM is a collection of audio recordings issued as a single item on CD , record , audio tape or another medium. Albums of recorded music were developed in the early 20th century, first as books of individual 78rpm records , then from 1948 as vinyl LP records played at  33 1⁄3 rpm . Vinyl LPs are still issued, though in the 21st-century album sales have mostly focused on compact disc (CD) and MP3
MP3
formats. The audio cassette was a format used from the late 1970s through to the 1990s alongside vinyl. An album may be recorded in a recording studio (fixed or mobile), in a concert venue, at home, in the field, or a mix of places. The time frame for completely recording an album varies between a few hours to several years. This process usually requires several takes with different parts recorded separately, and then brought or "mixed " together. Recordings that are done in one take without overdubbing are termed "live", even when done in a studio
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Libretto
A LIBRETTO is the text used in, or intended for, an extended musical work such as an opera , operetta , masque , oratorio , cantata or musical . The term libretto is also sometimes used to refer to the text of major liturgical works, such as the Mass , requiem and sacred cantata, or the story line of a ballet . Libretto
Libretto
(pronounced ; plural libretti ), from Italian , is the diminutive of the word libro ("book"). Sometimes other language equivalents are used for libretti in that language, livret for French works and Textbuch for German. A libretto is distinct from a synopsis or scenario of the plot, in that the libretto contains all the words and stage directions, while a synopsis summarizes the plot. Some ballet historians also use the word libretto to refer to the 15–40 page books which were on sale to 19th century ballet audiences in Paris and contained a very detailed description of the ballet's story, scene by scene
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Printed Music
SHEET MUSIC is a handwritten or printed form of music notation that uses modern musical symbols to indicate the pitches (melodies), rhythms and/or chords of a song or instrumental musical piece. Like its analogs – printed books or pamphlets in English, Arabic or other languages – the medium of sheet music typically is paper (or, in earlier centuries, papyrus or parchment ), although the access to musical notation since the 1980s has included the presentation of musical notation on computer screens and the development of scorewriter computer programs that can notate a song or piece electronically, and, in some cases, "play back" the notated music using a synthesizer or virtual instruments . Use of the term "sheet" is intended to differentiate written or printed forms of music from sound recordings (on vinyl record , cassette , CD ), radio or TV broadcasts or recorded live performances, which may capture film or video footage of the performance as well as the audio component
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Headphones
HEADPHONES (or HEAD-PHONES in the early days of telephony and radio) are a pair of small loudspeaker drivers that are designed to be worn on or around the head over a user's ears. They are electroacoustic transducers , which convert an electrical signal to a corresponding sound in the user's ear. Headphones
Headphones
are designed to allow a single user to listen to an audio source privately, in contrast to a loudspeaker , which emits sound into the open air, for anyone nearby to hear. Headphones
Headphones
are also known as EARSPEAKERS, EARPHONES or, colloquially , CANS. Circumaural and supra-aural headphones use a band over the top of the head to hold the speakers in place. The other type, known as EARBUDS or EARPIECES consist of individual units that plug into the user's ear canal. In the context of telecommunication , a headset is a combination of headphone and microphone
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History Of Sound Recording
Experiments in capturing sound on a recording medium for preservation and reproduction began in earnest during the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
of the 1800s. Many pioneering attempts to record and reproduce sound were made during the latter half of the 19th century – notably Scott's Phonautograph of 1857 – and these efforts culminated in the invention of the phonograph by Thomas Edison
Thomas Edison
in 1877
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Reverberation
REVERBERATION, in psychoacoustics and acoustics , is the persistence of sound after a sound is produced. A reverberation, or REVERB, is created when a sound or signal is reflected causing a large number of reflections to build up and then decay as the sound is absorbed by the surfaces of objects in the space – which could include furniture, people, and air. This is most noticeable when the sound source stops but the reflections continue, decreasing in amplitude , until they reach zero amplitude. Reverberation
Reverberation
is frequency dependent: the length of the decay, or reverberation time, receives special consideration in the architectural design of spaces which need to have specific reverberation times to achieve optimum performance for their intended activity. In comparison to a distinct echo that is a minimum of 50 to 100 ms after the initial sound, reverberation is the occurrence of reflections that arrive in less than approximately 50 ms
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Compact Audio Cassette
The COMPACT CASSETTE or MUSICASSETTE (MC), also commonly called CASSETTE TAPE, AUDIO CASSETTE, or simply TAPE or CASSETTE, is an analog magnetic tape recording format for audio recording and playback . It was released by Philips
Philips
in 1962, having been developed in Hasselt , Belgium
Belgium
. Compact cassettes come in two forms, either already containing content as a pre-recorded cassette, or as a fully recordable "blank" cassette. It was designed originally for dictation machines , but improvements in fidelity led the Compact Cassette
Compact Cassette
to supplant the Stereo 8-track cartridge and reel-to-reel tape recording in most non-professional applications. Its uses ranged from portable audio to home recording to data storage for early microcomputers
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Polyvinyl Chloride
POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (/ˌpɒlivaɪnəl ˈklɔəraɪd/ ), also known as poly vinyl or VINYL , commonly abbreviated PVC, is the world's third-most widely produced synthetic plastic polymer , after polyethylene and polypropylene . PVC comes in two basic forms: rigid (sometimes abbreviated as RPVC) and flexible. The rigid form of PVC is used in construction for pipe and in profile applications such as doors and windows. It is also used for bottles, other non-food packaging, and cards (such as bank or membership cards). It can be made softer and more flexible by the addition of plasticizers , the most widely used being phthalates . In this form, it is also used in plumbing, electrical cable insulation, imitation leather, signage, phonograph records, inflatable products, and many applications where it replaces rubber. Pure polyvinyl chloride is a white, brittle solid. It is insoluble in alcohol but slightly soluble in tetrahydrofuran
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Pinhead Gunpowder
PINHEAD GUNPOWDER is an American punk rock band that formed in East Bay , California
California
, in 1990. The band currently consists of Aaron Cometbus (drums , lyrics ), Bill Schneider (bass ), Billie Joe Armstrong (guitar , vocals ) and Jason White (guitar , vocals ). The band's name comes from a brand of "high octane" green tea served at the Arcata
Arcata
co-op and discovered by Aaron Cometbus during one of his many dumpster diving adventures. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Current * 3 Songwriting * 4 Discography * 4.1 Studio albums * 4.2 Extended plays * 4.3 Compilation albums * 4.4 Compilation appearances * 5 Band members * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORY Pinhead Gunpowder was founded in Arcata, California, in January of 1991 by Aaron Cometbus and Jon Quittner. Cometbus wanted the name "Pinhead Gunpowder", while Quittner wanted to call it "50 Foot Hesher"
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Instrumental
This article POSSIBLY CONTAINS ORIGINAL RESEARCH . Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations . Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. (November 2009) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )An INSTRUMENTAL is a musical composition or recording without lyrics , or singing , although it might include some inarticulate vocals , such as shouted backup vocals in a Big Band
Big Band
setting. The music is primarily or exclusively produced by musical instruments
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Artist
An ARTIST is a person engaged in an activity related to creating art, practicing the arts , or demonstrating an art. The common usage in both everyday speech and academic discourse is a practitioner in the visual arts only. The term is often used in the entertainment business, especially in a business context, for musicians and other performers (less often for actors). "Artiste" (the French for artist) is a variant used in English only in this context. Use of the term to describe writers, for example, is valid, but less common, and mostly restricted to contexts like criticism
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Tubular Bells
TUBULAR BELLS (also known as CHIMES) are musical instruments in the percussion family. Their sound resembles that of church bells , carillon , or a bell tower ; the original tubular bells were made to duplicate the sound of church bells within an ensemble. Each bell is a metal tube, 30–38 mm (1 1⁄4–1 1⁄2 in) in diameter, tuned by altering its length. Its standard range is C4–F5, though many professional instruments reach G5 (see photo). Tubular bells
Tubular bells
are often replaced by studio chimes, which are a smaller and usually less expensive instrument. Studio chimes are similar in appearance to tubular bells, but each bell has a smaller diameter than the corresponding bell on tubular bells. Chimes/tubular bells Tubular bells
Tubular bells
are sometimes struck on the top edge of the tube with a rawhide - or plastic-headed hammer . Often, a sustain pedal will be attached to allow extended ringing of the bells
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Stereophonic
STEREOPHONIC SOUND or, more commonly, STEREO, is a method of sound reproduction that creates an illusion of multi-directional audible perspective. This is usually achieved by using two or more independent audio channels through a configuration of two or more loudspeakers (or stereo headphones ) in such a way as to create the impression of sound heard from various directions, as in natural hearing. Thus the term "stereophonic" applies to so-called "quadraphonic " and "surround-sound " systems as well as the more common two-channel, two-speaker systems. It is often contrasted with monophonic , or "mono" sound, where audio is heard as coming from one position, often ahead in the sound field (analogous to a visual field ). In the 2000s, stereo sound is common in entertainment systems such as broadcast radio and TV, recorded music and the cinema
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Overdubbing
OVERDUBBING (the process of making an OVERDUB, or OVERDUBS) is a technique used in audio recording, whereby a performer listens to an existing recorded performance (usually through headphones in a recording studio ) and simultaneously plays a new performance along with it, which is also recorded. The intention is that the final mix will contain a combination of these "dubs ". Tracking (or "laying the basic tracks") of the rhythm section (usually including drums) to a song, then following with overdubs (solo instruments, such as keyboards or guitar , then finally vocals), has been the standard technique for recording popular music since the early 1960s. Today, overdubbing can be accomplished even on basic recording equipment, or a typical PC equipped with a sound card , using digital audio workstation software
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MiniDisc
MINIDISC (MD) is a magneto-optical disc-based data storage format offering a capacity of 74 minutes and, later, 80 minutes, of digitized audio or 1 gigabyte of Hi-MD
Hi-MD
data. Sony
Sony
brand audio players were on the market from September 1992 until March 2013. MiniDisc
MiniDisc
was announced by Sony
Sony
in September 1992 and released that November of that year for sale in Japan and in December in Europe, Canada, the USA and other countries. The music format was originally based on ATRAC audio data compression , but the option of linear PCM digital recording was later introduced to attain audio quality comparable to that of a compact disc . MiniDiscs were very popular in Japan and found moderate success in Europe. Sony
Sony
has ceased development of MD devices, with the last of the players sold by March 2013
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Audio Tape
An audio TAPE RECORDER, TAPE DECK or TAPE MACHINE is an analog audio storage device that records and plays back sounds, including articulated voices, usually using magnetic tape , either wound on a reel or in a cassette , for storage. In its present-day form, it records a fluctuating signal by moving the tape across a tape head that polarizes the magnetic domains in the tape in proportion to the audio signal. Tape-recording devices include reel-to-reel tape deck and the cassette deck . The use of magnetic tape for sound recording originated around 1930. Magnetizable tape revolutionized both the radio broadcast and music recording industries. It gave artists and producers the power to record and re-record audio with minimal loss in quality as well as edit and rearrange recordings with ease. The alternative recording technologies of the era, transcription discs and wire recorders , could not provide anywhere near this level of quality and functionality
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