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Albina Du Boisrouvray
COUNTESS ALBINA DU BOISROUVRAY (born 1941) is a former journalist and film producer who has become a global philanthropist and social entrepreneur working with AIDS victims and impoverished communities around the world. She is the founder of FXB International , a non-governmental organization established in memory of her son, François-Xavier Bagnoud. Du Boisrouvray is the grandchild of the Bolivian King of Tin, Simón Patiño . She is the cousin of Prince Rainier of Monaco and godmother to Charlotte Casiraghi
Charlotte Casiraghi
, daughter of Princess Caroline of Monaco . CONTENTS * 1 Early life and education * 2 Career * 2.1 FXB International * 3 Awards and recognition * 4 Personal life * 5 References * 6 External links EARLY LIFE AND EDUCATIONShe is the daughter of Count Guy de Jacquelot du Boisrouvray (died 1980) and Luz Mila Patiño Rodríguez. Her paternal grandmother was born countess Joséphine Marie Louise de Polignac , sister of Prince Pierre, Duke of Valentinois , the maternal grandfather of Rainier III, Prince of Monaco . Her maternal grandfather was Simón Patiño , one of the wealthiest men in the world at the time of her birth. Her father was part of the Free French movement and her family left the country while she was an infant. Du Boisrouvray grew up in New York City and lived at the Plaza Hotel
Plaza Hotel

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University Of Sorbonne
The UNIVERSITY OF PARIS (French : Université de Paris), metonymically known as the SORBONNE (French: , its historical house), was a university in Paris , France , from around 1150 to 1970. Emerging around 1150 as a corporation associated with the cathedral school of Notre Dame de Paris , it was considered the second-oldest university in Europe . Officially chartered in 1200 by King Philip II (Philippe-Auguste) of France and recognised in 1215 by Pope Innocent III , it was often nicknamed after its theology collegiate institution, College of Sorbonne , founded about 1257 by Robert de Sorbon and charted by Saint Louis , King of France . Internationally highly reputed for its academic performance in the humanities ever since the Middle Ages – notably in theology and philosophy – it introduced several academic standards and traditions that have endured ever since and spread internationally, such as doctoral degrees and student nations . Vast numbers of popes , scientists , intellectuals and royalty were educated at the University of Paris. In 1793, during the French Revolution period, the University was closed. It reopened in 1806 with four independent faculties: the Faculty of Humanities ("Faculté des Lettres"), the Faculty of Law (later including Economics), the Faculty of Science, the Faculty of Medicine and the Faculty of Theology (closed in 1885). In 1970, following the May 1968 events , the university was divided into 13 autonomous universities
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FXB International
FXB INTERNATIONAL, also known as ASSOCIATION FRANçOIS-XAVIER BAGNOUD, is an international development organization aimed at providing support for communities affected by AIDS and poverty . The organization was founded in 1989 by Albina du Boisrouvray . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 FXB International (NGO) * 3 FXBVillage Methodology * 3.1 FXBVillage Toolkit and Planning Guide * 4 FXB Foundation * 4.1 FXB Center for Health & Human Rights at Harvard University * 5 Other initiatives * 5.1 Worlds AIDS Orphan Day * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORYFXB International, abbreviated FXB, is named after François-Xavier Bagnoud, a helicopter search-and-rescue pilot who died in 1986 while serving as a transport pilot in Mali during the Paris-Dakar rally . He became the youngest professional Instrument Flight Related (IFR) airplane and helicopter pilot in Europe at age 23. Bagnoud was involved in over 300 rescue missions as part of Sion, Switzerland 's Air Glaciers . In 1989, along with the help of family and friends, Albina du Boisrouvray founded both the FXB Foundation and FXB International in honor of her late son. In order to finance the operations of both the foundation and NGO, du Boisrouvray sold off three quarters of her business holdings, as well as paintings, pre-Columbian gold and silver objects, and her country home near Paris, raising $100 million
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Simón Patiño
SIMóN ITURRI PATIñO (Santiváñez , 1 June 1862 – Buenos Aires , 20 April 1947) was a Bolivian industrialist who was among the world's wealthiest people at the time of his death. With a fortune built from ownership of a majority of the tin industry in Bolivia, Patiño was nicknamed "The Andean Rockefeller ". During World War II, Patiño was believed to be one of the five wealthiest men in the world. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Family * 3 Epilogue * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links BIOGRAPHYPatiño's biographers are not in agreement on the details of his early life. Many wrote that he was a cholo , with a mixed Quechua and Spanish heritage, and born to a poor mother, while his authorized biography holds that he was solely of European ancestry, and the son of a provincial leader. He was actually the illegitimate son of Eugénio Iturri, a Basque , by María Patiño, from Cochabamba . Before entering the mining industry, he either managed a store in Oruro , or spent years in private schools. Eventually, Patiño started in mining with Compañía Hunanchaca de Bolivia, a silver company, and then with Fricke y Compañía. Patiño was assigned to collections for the store, and in 1894, he agreed to accept a deed of land in compromise for a $250 debt owed by a prospector
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Rainier III, Prince Of Monaco
RAINIER III (Rainier Louis Henri Maxence Bertrand Grimaldi; 31 May 1923 – 6 April 2005) ruled the Principality of Monaco
Monaco
for almost 56 years, making him one of the longest ruling monarchs in European history. Though internationally known for his marriage to the American actress Grace Kelly , he was also responsible for reforms to Monaco\'s constitution and for expanding the principality's economy beyond its traditional casino gambling base. Gambling accounts for only approximately three percent of the nation's annual revenue today; when Rainier ascended the throne in 1949, it accounted for more than 95 percent. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Reign * 3 Marriage and family * 4 Philately * 5 Car collection * 6 Illness and death * 7 Titles, styles, honours and awards * 7.1 Titles * 7.2 Honours * 7.2.1 National honours * 7.2.2 Foreign honours * 7.3 Awards * 8 Ranks * 9 Ancestry * 10 Arms and Monograms * 11 References * 12 External links EARLY LIFERainier was born at Prince\'s Palace in Monaco
Monaco
, the only son of Prince Pierre of Monaco, Duke of Valentinois and his wife, the Monegasque Hereditary Princess, Charlotte, Duchess of Valentinois . Rainier was the first native-born hereditary prince of Monaco
Monaco
since Honore IV in 1758
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Social Entrepreneur
SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP is the use of the techniques by start up companies and other entrepreneurs to develop, fund and implement solutions to social, cultural, or environmental issues. This concept may be applied to a variety of organizations with different sizes, aims, and beliefs. For-profit entrepreneurs typically measure performance using business metrics like profit , revenues and increases in stock prices , but social entrepreneurs are either non-profits or blend for-profit goals with generating a positive "return to society" and therefore must use different metrics. Social entrepreneurship typically attempts to further broad social, cultural, and environmental goals often associated with the voluntary sector in areas such as poverty alleviation, health care and community development . At times, profit-making social enterprises may be established to support the social or cultural goals of the organization but not as an end in itself. For example, an organization that aims to provide housing and employment to the homeless may operate a restaurant , both to raise money and to provide employment for the homeless. In the 2010s, social entrepreneurship is facilitated by the use of the Internet
Internet
, particularly social networking and social media websites
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Non-governmental Organization
A NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATION (NGO) is a nonprofit organization that is independent of governments and international governmental organizations. They are usually funded by donations but some avoid formal funding altogether and are run primarily by volunteers. NGOs are highly diverse groups of organizations engaged in a wide range of activities, and take different forms in different parts of the world. Some may have charitable status, while others may be registered for tax exemption based on recognition of social purposes. Others may be fronts for political, religious, or other interests. Since the end of World War II , NGOs have had an increasing role in international development , particularly in the fields of humanitarian assistance and poverty alleviation. The number of NGOs worldwide is estimated to be 3.7 million. Russia has 277,000 NGOs. India is estimated to have had around 2 million NGOs in 2009, just over one NGO per 600 Indians, and many times the number of primary schools and primary health centres in India. China is estimated to have approximately 440,000 officially registered NGOs. NGOs are difficult to define, and the term 'NGO' is not always used consistently. In some countries the term NGO is applied to an organization that in another country would be called an NPO (nonprofit organization), and vice versa. There are many different classifications of NGO in use
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Prince Rainier Of Monaco
RAINIER III (Rainier Louis Henri Maxence Bertrand Grimaldi; 31 May 1923 – 6 April 2005) ruled the Principality of Monaco for almost 56 years, making him one of the longest ruling monarchs in European history. Though internationally known for his marriage to the American actress Grace Kelly , he was also responsible for reforms to Monaco\'s constitution and for expanding the principality's economy beyond its traditional casino gambling base. Gambling accounts for only approximately three percent of the nation's annual revenue today; when Rainier ascended the throne in 1949, it accounted for more than 95 percent. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Reign * 3 Marriage and family * 4 Philately * 5 Car collection * 6 Illness and death * 7 Titles, styles, honours and awards * 7.1 Titles * 7.2 Honours * 7.2.1 National honours * 7.2.2 Foreign honours * 7.3 Awards * 8 Ranks * 9 Ancestry * 10 Arms and Monograms * 11 References * 12 External links EARLY LIFERainier was born at Prince\'s Palace in Monaco , the only son of Prince Pierre of Monaco, Duke of Valentinois and his wife, the Monegasque Hereditary Princess, Charlotte, Duchess of Valentinois . Rainier was the first native-born hereditary prince of Monaco since Honore IV in 1758. Rainier's mother was the only child of Prince Louis II of Monaco and Marie Juliette Louvet ; she was later legitimized through formal adoption and subsequently named heir presumptive to the throne of Monaco
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Godparent
A GODPARENT, in many denominations of Christianity , is someone who sponsors a child\'s baptism , although the term has also been used in a legal sense. In both Christian and secular views, a godparent tends to be an individual chosen by the parents to take an interest in the child's upbringing and personal development, and to take care of the child should anything happen to the parents. A male godparent is a GODFATHER, and a female godparent is a GODMOTHER. The child is a GODCHILD (i.e. GODSON for boys and GODDAUGHTER for girls). CONTENTS* 1 Christianity * 1.1 Origins and history * 1.1.1 During the Reformation * 1.1.2 Numbers of sponsors * 1.2 Modern practices * 1.2.1 Anglican Communion * 1.2.2 Roman Catholic Church * 1.2.3 Lutheran
Lutheran
churches * 1.2.4 Methodist Church
Methodist Church
* 1.2.5 Orthodox Church * 1.3 Spiritual kinship * 1.4 Literature and folklore * 2 Non-Christian traditions * 2.1 Santeria * 2.2 Judaism * 2.3 Chinese traditions * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links CHRISTIANITYORIGINS AND HISTORY The baptismal font at the Cathedral of Magdeburg As early as the 2nd century AD, infant baptism had begun to gain acceptance among Christians for the spiritual purification and social initiation of infants
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Charlotte Casiraghi
CHARLOTTE MARIE POMELINE CASIRAGHI (born 3 August 1986) is the second child of Caroline, Princess of Hanover
Caroline, Princess of Hanover
, and Stefano Casiraghi , an Italian industrialist. She is ninth in line to the throne of Monaco. Her maternal grandparents were Rainier III, Prince of Monaco , and American actress Grace Kelly . She is named after her maternal great-grandmother, Princess Charlotte, Duchess of Valentinois . CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Education * 3 Activities * 4 Equestrian career * 5 Journalism career * 6 Personal life * 7 Ancestry * 8 External links * 9 References EARLY LIFECharlotte and her two brothers, Andrea and Pierre , were born in the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Principality of Monaco
Monaco
, ruled by their maternal grandfather, Prince Rainier III . When she was four years old, her father was killed in a boating accident. After his death, Princess Caroline moved the family to the Midi village of Saint-Rémy-de-Provence in France, with the intention of minimising their exposure to the press. In January 1999, Charlotte gained a stepfather and two stepbrothers, (Prince Ernst of Hanover and Prince Christian of Hanover ), when her mother married Ernst August, Prince of Hanover
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Caroline, Princess Of Hanover
CAROLINE, PRINCESS OF HANOVER (Caroline Louise Marguerite Grimaldi; born 23 January 1957), is the eldest child of Rainier III, Prince of Monaco
Monaco
, and American actress Grace Kelly . She is the elder sister of Prince Albert II and Princess Stéphanie . Until the births of her niece and nephew Princess Gabriella and Prince Jacques of Monaco
Monaco
in December 2014 she had been heir presumptive to the throne of Monaco since 2005, a position which she previously held from 1957 to 1958. Caroline is married to Ernst August, Prince of Hanover (born 1954), the heir to the former throne of the Kingdom of Hanover
Kingdom of Hanover
, as well as the heir male of George III of the United Kingdom
George III of the United Kingdom
. CONTENTS * 1 Family and early life * 2 Education * 3 Activities * 4 Personal and media life * 4.1 First marriage * 4.2 Second marriage * 4.3 Third marriage * 4.4 Defence of privacy * 5 Succession issues * 6 Titles, styles, honours and arms * 6.1 Titles and styles * 6.2 Honours * 6.2.1 National honours * 6.2.2 Foreign honours * 6.3 Ranks * 6.3.1 Military * 6.3.2 International * 6.4 Awards * 6.5 Arms and monograms * 7 Ancestry * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links FAMILY AND EARLY LIFECaroline was born on 23 January 1957 in the Prince\'s Palace , Monaco
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Polignac Family
POLIGNAC is the name of a French noble family that took its name from the château de Polignac, of which they had been sieurs since Carolingian times. In 1385, the male line became extinct, but the heiress married Guillaume, sire de Chalancon, who assumed the name and arms of Polignac. Jules de Polignac (1746–1817) became the first Duke of Polignac in 1780
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Prince Pierre, Duke Of Valentinois
PRINCE PIERRE OF MONACO, DUKE OF VALENTINOIS (French : Duc de Valentinois; 24 October 1895 – 10 November 1964) was the father of Rainier III of Monaco . He was a promoter of art, music, and literature in Monaco and served as the head of the country's delegation to the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and to the International Olympic Committee. CONTENTS * 1 Birth and family * 2 Marriage * 3 Death * 4 Titles and honours * 5 Ancestry * 6 References * 7 External links BIRTH AND FAMILYBorn at the Château de Kerscamp, Hennebont , Morbihan , France, as Count Pierre Marie Xavier Raphael Antoine Melchior de Polignac, he was the fourth son and youngest child of Count Maxence Melchior Edouard Marie Louis de Polignac (1857–1936) and his Mexican-born wife whom he wed in Paris in 1881, Susana Mariana Estefanía Francisca de Paula del Corazón de la Torre y Mier y Teran (1858–1913). He was a first cousin twice removed of major-general Camille Armand Jules Marie, Prince de Polignac and nephew of the Mexican politician Ignacio de la Torre y Mier y Teran. MARRIAGE Prince Pierre, Duke of Valentinois He married civilly on 19 March and religiously on 20 March 1920 in Monaco, Princess Charlotte of Monaco , the illegitimate but adopted daughter of Louis II of Monaco by Marie Juliette Louvet
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New York City
Bronx , Kings (Brooklyn) , New York
York
(Manhattan) , Queens
Queens
, Richmond (Staten Island) ------------------------- HISTORIC COLONIES New Netherland
New Netherland
Province of New York
Province of New York
SETTLED 1624 CONSOLIDATED 1898 NAMED FOR James, Duke of York
York
GOVERNMENT • TYPE Mayor–Council • BODY New York City Council
New York City Council
• MAYOR Bill de Blasio
Bill de Blasio
(D ) AREA • TOTAL 468.484 sq mi (1,213.37 km2) • LAND 302.643 sq mi (783.84 km2) • WATER 165.841 sq mi (429.53 km2) • METRO 13,318 sq mi (34,490 km2) ELEVATION 33 ft (10 m) POPULATION (2010 ) • TOTAL 8,175,133 • ESTIMATE (2016) 8,537,673 • RANK 1st, U.S
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Plaza Hotel
Coordinates : 40°45′53″N 73°58′28″W / 40.764712°N 73.974574°W / 40.764712; -73.974574 Plaza Hotel
Hotel
U.S. National Register of Historic Places U.S. National Historic Landmark
National Historic Landmark
NYC Landmark The Plaza Hotel
Hotel
as seen from the corner of 5th Avenue and 58th Street in Manhattan
Manhattan
Show map of Manhattan
Manhattan
Show map of New York Show map of the US LOCATION 768 Fifth Avenue
Fifth Avenue
, Manhattan
Manhattan
, New York City
New York City
10019 BUILT 1907 ARCHITECT Henry J. Hardenbergh ; Thomas Hastings, et al. ARCHITECTURAL STYLE Late 19th and 20th Century Revivals NRHP REFERENCE # 78001878 SIGNIFICANT DATES ADDED TO NRHP November 29, 1978 DESIGNATED NHL June 24, 1986 DESIGNATED NYCL December 9, 1969THE PLAZA HOTEL, located in the Midtown Manhattan
Manhattan
neighborhood of the borough of Manhattan
Manhattan
, New York City
New York City
, is a landmark 20-story luxury hotel and condominium apartment building, opened in 1907 and owned by an Indian conglomerate, Sahara India Pariwar
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Le Nouvel Observateur
_L’OBS_ , previously known as _LE NOUVEL OBSERVATEUR_ (1964-2014), is a weekly French news magazine . Based in the 2nd arrondissement of Paris, it is the most prominent French general information magazine in terms of audience and circulation. Its current editor is Matthieu Croissandeau . CONTENTS * 1 History and profile * 2 Related publications * 3 Circulation * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORY AND PROFILEThe magazine was established in 1950 as _L'Observateur politique, économique et littéraire_. It became _L'Observateur aujourd'hui_ in 1953 and _ France
France
Observateur_ in 1954. The name _Le Nouvel Observateur_ was adopted in 1964. The 1964 incarnation of the magazine was founded by Jean Daniel and Claude Perdriel . Since then _Le Nouvel Observateur_ has been published by Groupe Nouvel Observateur on a weekly basis and has covered political, business and economic news. It features extensive coverage of European , Middle Eastern and African political, commercial and cultural issues. Its strongest areas are political and literary matters and it is noted for its in-depth treatment of the main issues of the day. It has been described as "the French intellectuals' parish magazine", or more pejoratively as "the quasi-official organ of France's _gauche caviar _ ". The magazine's internet site was launched by Patrick Fiole and Christina Sourieau in 1999
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