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Al-Khayzuran
Al-Khayzuran bint Atta (Arabic: الخيزران بنت عطاء‎) (died 789) was the wife of the Abbasid
Abbasid
Caliph
Caliph
Al-Mahdi
Al-Mahdi
and mother of both Caliphs Al-Hadi
Al-Hadi
and Harun al-Rashid. She is known for the great influence in state affairs she wielded during the reign of both her spouse and that of her sons, from 775 until 789.Contents1 Life1.1 Reign of Al-Mahdi 1.2 Reign of Al-Hadi 1.3 Reign of Harun al-Rashid2 Legacy 3 See also 4 References 5 BibliographyLife[edit] Al-Khayzuran was from Jorash, near modern Bisha, Saudi Arabia. She was kidnapped from her home by a Bedouin
Bedouin
who then sold her in a slave market near Mecca
Mecca
to Al-Mahdi
Al-Mahdi
during his pilgrimage
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Arabic Language
Arabic
Arabic
(Arabic: العَرَبِيَّة‎) al-ʻarabiyyah [ʔalʕaraˈbijːah] ( listen) or (Arabic: عَرَبِيّ‎) ʻarabī [ˈʕarabiː] ( listen) or [ʕaraˈbij]) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world.[4] It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east to the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic
Arabic
is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form (Modern Standard Arabic) [5]. The modern written language (Modern Standard Arabic) is derived from Classical Arabic
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Abbasid
The Abbasid Caliphate
Caliphate
(/əˈbæsɪd/ or /ˈæbəsɪd/ Arabic: ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة‎ al-Khilāfatu al-‘Abbāsīyah) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad. The Abbasid dynasty
Abbasid dynasty
descended from Muhammad's uncle, Al-Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib
Al-Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib
(566–653 CE), from whom the dynasty takes its name.[2] They ruled as caliphs for most of their period from their capital in Baghdad
Baghdad
in modern-day Iraq, after assuming authority over the Muslim empire from the Umayyads in 750 CE (132 AH). The Abbasid caliphate first centred its government in Kufa, but in 762 the caliph Al-Mansur
Al-Mansur
founded the city of Baghdad, near the Sasanian capital city of Ctesiphon
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Al Bidayah Wa Al-Nihayah
Ismail ibn Kathir (ابن كثير (Abridged name); Abu al-Fida' 'Imad Ad-Din Isma'il bin 'Umar bin Kathir al-Qurashi Al-Busrawi (إسماعيل بن عمر بن كثير القرشي الدمشقي أبو الفداء عماد الدين) c. 1300 – 1373) was a highly influential historian and Sunni scholar of the Shafi'i school during the Mamluk era in Syria. An expert on tafsir (Quranic exegesis) and faqīh (jurisprudence), he wrote several books, including a fourteen-volume universal history.[8][9] Al-Hafiz Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani said about him, “Ibn Kathir worked on the subject of the hadith in the texts (متون) and chains of narrators (رجال)
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Ibn Kathir
Ismail ibn Kathir (ابن كثير (Abridged name); Abu al-Fida' 'Imad Ad-Din Isma'il bin 'Umar bin Kathir al-Qurashi Al-Busrawi (إسماعيل بن عمر بن كثير القرشي الدمشقي أبو الفداء عماد الدين) c. 1300 – 1373) was a highly influential historian and Sunni
Sunni
scholar of the Shafi'i
Shafi'i
school during the Mamluk era in Syria. An expert on tafsir (Quranic exegesis) and faqīh (jurisprudence), he wrote several books, including a fourteen-volume universal history.[8][9] Al-Hafiz Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani said about him, “ Ibn Kathir
Ibn Kathir
worked on the subject of the hadith in the texts (متون) and chains of narrators (رجال)
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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One Thousand And One Nights
StylesArchitecture of ancient Yemen Nabataean architecture Umayyad architecture Abbasid architecture Fatimid architecture Moorish architecture Mamluk
Mamluk
architectureFeaturesAblaq Hypostyle Mashrabiya Iwan Liwan Riwaq Qadad Moroccan riad Sahn Tadelakt Vaulting Voussoir Multifoil arch Horseshoe arch Arabic
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Scheherazade
Scheherazade
Scheherazade
/ʃəˌhɛrəˈzɑːd, -də/, or Shahrazad (Arabic: شهرزاد‎ Šahrazād, derived from Middle Persian
Middle Persian
Čehrāzād), is a character and the storyteller in One Thousand and One Nights. This book includes the tales of Aladdin, Ali Baba
Ali Baba
and many more.Contents1 Name 2 Narration 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksName[edit] According to modern scholarship, the name Scheherazade
Scheherazade
derives from the Middle Persian
Middle Persian
name Čehrāzād, which is composed of the words čehr (lineage) and āzād (noble, exalted).[1][2] The earliest forms of Scheherazade's name in Arabic sources include Shirazad (شيرازاد Šīrāzād) in Masudi, and Shahrazad (شهرازاد Šahrāzād) in Ibn al-Nadim, the latter meaning in New Persian "the person whose realm/dominion (شهر šahr) is free (آزاد āzād)"
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Harem
Harem
Harem
(Arabic: حريم‎ ḥarīm, "a sacred inviolable place; harem; female members of the family"), also known as zenana in South Asia, properly refers to domestic spaces that are reserved for the women of the house in a Muslim
Muslim
family and are inaccessible to adult males except for close relations. Similar institutions have been common in other Mediterranean
Mediterranean
and Middle Eastern civilizations, especially among royal and upper-class families and the term is sometimes used in non-Islamic contexts. The structure of the harem and the extent of monogamy or polygamy has varied depending on the family's personalities, socio-economic status, and local customs. This private space has been traditionally understood as serving the purposes of maintaining the modesty, privilege, and protection of women
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Barmakids
The Barmakids (Persian: برمکیان‎ Barmakīyān; Arabic: البرامكة‎ al-Barāmikah, from the Sanskrit प्रमुख pramukha, "leader, chief administrator, registrar");[1] also spelled Barmecides, were an Iranian[2] influential family from Balkh
Balkh
in Bactria where they were originally hereditary Buddhist
Buddhist
leaders (in the Nawbahar monastery),[3][4] and subsequently came to great political power under the Abbasid
Abbasid
caliphs of Baghdad. Khalid, the son of Barmak became the prime minister (wazir) of Al Saffah, the first Caliph
Caliph
of the Abbasid
Abbasid
dynasty. His son Yahya aided Harun Al-Rashid
Harun Al-Rashid
in capturing the throne and rose to power as the most powerful man in the Caliphate. The Barmakids were remarkable for their majesty, splendor and hospitality
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Al-Saffah
Abu al-‘Abbās ‘Abdu'llāh ibn Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Saffāḥ, or Abul `Abbas as-Saffaḥ (Arabic: أبو العباس عبد الله بن محمد السفّاح‎) (b. 721/722 AD – d. 10 June 754) was the first caliph of the Abbasid caliphate, one of the longest and most important caliphates (Islamic dynasties) in Islamic history
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Jawari
Yanam, or Ninam, is a Yanomaman language spoken in Roraima, Brazil (800 speakers) and southern Venezuela near the Mucajai, upper Uraricaá, and Paragua rivers. Synonymy[edit] Yanam is also known by the following names: Ninam, Yanam–Ninam, Xirianá, Shiriana Casapare, Kasrapai, Jawaperi, Crichana, Jawari, Shiriana, Eastern Yanomaman. Regional variation[edit] Gordon (2009) reports 2 main varieties (Northern, Southern). Kaufman (1994) reports 3:Yanam (a.k.a. Northern Yanam/Ninam (Xiliana, Shiriana, Uraricaa-Paragua)) Ninam (a.k.a. Southern Yanam/Ninam (Xilixana, Shirishana, Mukajai)) JawaribThe name Jawari is shared with Yaroamë. References[edit]^ Yanam at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) ^ Ninam at Ethnologue (10th ed., 1984). Note: Data may come from the 9th edition (1978). ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Ninam". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. Campbell, Lyle. (1997)
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Qadi
A qadi (Arabic: قاضي‎; also cadi, kadi or kazi) is the magistrate or judge of the Shariʿa court, who also exercises extrajudicial functions, such as mediation, guardianship over orphans and minors, and supervision and auditing of public works.[1] The word "qadi" comes from a verb meaning to "judge" or to "decide".Contents1 History 2 Functions 3 Qadi
Qadi
vs Mufti 4 Qualifications 5 Jurisdiction 6 Jewish use 7 In Sri Lanka 8 Women as qadis 9 Local usage9.1 Indian subcontinent 9.2
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Fiqh
Fiqh
Fiqh
(/fɪk/; Arabic: فقه‎ [fɪqh]) is Islamic jurisprudence.[1] While sharia is believed by Muslims to represent divine law as revealed in the Quran
Quran
and the Sunnah
Sunnah
(the teachings and practices of the Islamic prophet
Islamic prophet
Muhammad), fiqh is the human understanding of the sharia[2]—sharia expanded and developed by interpretation (ijtihad) of the Quran
Quran
and Sunnah
Sunnah
by Islamic jurists (ulama)[2] and implemented by the rulings (fatwa) of jurists on questions presented to them. Thus conceptually, whereas sharia is considered immutable and infallible, fiqh is considered fallible and changeable. Fiqh
Fiqh
deals with the observance of rituals, morals and social legislation in Islam
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Mecca
Mecca
Mecca
(/ˈmɛkə/) or Makkah (Arabic: مكة‎[1] Makkah (Hejazi pronunciation: [ˈmakːa,ˈmäkːä]) is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah
Tihamah
in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region.[8] The city is located 70 km (43 mi) inland from Jeddah
Jeddah
in a narrow valley at a height of 277 m (909 ft) above sea level, and 340 kilometres (210 mi) south of Medina
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