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Al-Imran
Arabic text · English translation ------------------------- CLASSIFICATION Medinan OTHER NAMES The Amramites POSITION Juzʼ 3–4 NO. OF RUKUS 20 NO. OF VERSES 200 NO. OF WORDS 3503 NO
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Topkapi Manuscript
The TOPKAPI MANUSCRIPT is an early manuscript of the Quran
Quran
dated to the late 1st century / early 2nd century AH (i.e. early to mid 8th century AD) This manuscript is kept in the Topkapi Palace Museum, Istanbul
Istanbul
, Turkey
Turkey
. It is attributed to Uthman Ibn Affan (d. 656) Similar illuminations can be found in the Dome of the Rock
Dome of the Rock
in Jerusalem, the Umayyad Mosque
Umayyad Mosque
in Damascus and other Umayyad monuments. The size of this manuscript is 41 cm x 46 cm. It contains more than 99% of the text of the Qur'an. With only two pages (23 verses) lacking, this manuscript is the closest to the complete text of the Quran. Mehmed Ali Pasha , Governor of Egypt, sent this manuscript to the Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II as a gift in the 19th century (CE)
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Sana'a Manuscript
The SANA\'A PALIMPSEST , dubbed Ṣanʿā’ 1, is one of the oldest Quranic manuscripts in existence. Part of a sizable cache of Quranic and non-Quranic fragments discovered in Yemen
Yemen
during a 1972 restoration of the Great Mosque of Sana\'a , the manuscript was identified as a palimpsest Quran
Quran
in 1981. It is written on parchment , and comprises two layers of text (see palimpsest ). The upper text largely conforms to the standard 'Uthmanic Quran
Quran
, whereas the lower text contains many variants to the standard text. A partial reconstruction of the lower text was published in 2012, and a further reconstruction on unspecified principles was published in 2016. A radiocarbon analysis has dated the parchment to before 671 AD with a 99% accuracy
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Birmingham Quran Manuscript
The parchment on which two leaves of an early Quranic manuscript held by the University of Birmingham
University of Birmingham
are written, were radiocarbon dated in 2015 to between 568 and 645 AD. The manuscript is part of the Mingana Collection of Middle Eastern manuscripts, held by the Birmingham University's Cadbury Research Library . The manuscript is written in ink on parchment, using an Arabic Hijazi script and is still clearly legible. The leaves preserve parts of Surahs 19 (Maryam) to 20 (Taha). It was on display at the Birmingham University, Bramall Music Building, from 2-25 October 2015 and subsequently at Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery until 5 August 2016. The Cadbury Research Library has carried out multispectral analysis of the manuscript. The ink has yet to have its constituents tested
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Tafsir
TAFSIR ( Arabic
Arabic
: تفسير‎, translit. Tafsīr, lit. 'interpretation'‎) is the Arabic
Arabic
word for exegesis , usually of the Quran
Quran
. An author of tafsir is a MUFASSIR ( Arabic
Arabic
: مُفسّر‎‎; plural: مفسّرون). A Quranic tafsir will often explain content and provide places and times, not contained in Quranic verses, as well as give the different views and opinions of scholars on the verse
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Naskh (tafsir)
NASKH (نسخ) is an Arabic
Arabic
word usually translated as "abrogation"; It is a term used in Islamic
Islamic
legal exegesis for seemingly contradictory material within, or between, the two primary sources of Islamic
Islamic
law : the Quran
Quran
and the Sunna . Several Qur\'anic verses state that some revelations have been abrogated and superseded by later revelations, which are understood by many Muslim scholars as pertaining to the verses of the Quran
Quran
itself. Neither the Quran
Quran
nor the sayings of Muhammad
Muhammad
state which verses stand abrogated
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Samarkand Kufic Quran
The SAMARKAND KUFIC QURAN (also known as the UTHMAN QURAN, SAMARKAND CODEX, SAMARKAND MANUSCRIPT and TASHKENT QURAN) is an 8th or 9th century manuscript Quran
Quran
written in the territory of modern Iraq
Iraq
in the Kufic
Kufic
script . Today it is kept in the Hast Imam library , in Tashkent
Tashkent
, Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
. In local Uzbek tradition, it is said to have belonged to the third caliph , Uthman ibn Affan . CONTENTS * 1 Dating the Manuscript
Manuscript
* 2 History * 3 Current state * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links DATING THE MANUSCRIPTBased on orthographic and palaeographic studies, the manuscript probably dates the 8th or 9th century. Radio-carbon dating showed a 95.4% probability of a date between 765 and 855
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History Of The Quran
The HISTORY OF THE QURAN refers to the oral revelation of the Quran to Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
and its subsequent written compilation into a manuscript. It spans several decades and forms an important part of early Islamic history . According to Muslim belief and Islamic scholarly accounts, the revelation of the Quran
Quran
began in 610 C.E. when the angel Gabriel (Arabic : جبريل, Jibrīl or جبرائيل, Jibrāʾīl) appeared to Muhammad
Muhammad
in the cave Hira near Mecca
Mecca
, reciting to him the first verses of Sura
Sura
Iqra
Iqra
(al-`Alaq). Throughout his life, Muhammad continued to have revelations until before his death in 632. The Quran
Quran
we see today was compiled into book format by Uthman
Uthman
, the third caliph (reign 644 to 656)
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Quran Translations
TRANSLATIONS OF THE QUR\'AN are interpretations of the scripture of Islam
Islam
in languages other than Arabic . Qur'an was originally written in the Arabic language
Arabic language
and has been translated into most major African, Asian and European languages
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List Of Translations Of The Quran
CONTENTS* 1 Historical (up to the 21st century) * 1.1 7th–10th centuries * 1.2 10th century * 1.3 11th century * 1.4 12th century * 1.5 13th century * 1.6 16th century * 1.7 17th century * 1.8 18th century * 1.9 19th century * 1.10 20th century * 1.11 21st century * 1.12 Holy Quran
Quran
in Excel Format * 2 By writer and language * 2.1 Acehnese * 2.2 Afrikaans * 2.3 Albanian * 2.4 Assamese * 2.5 Azerbaijani * 2.6 Balochi * 2.7 Belarusian * 2.8 Bengali * 2.9 Bosnian * 2.10 Brushaski * 2.11 Buginese * 2.12 Bulgarian * 2.13 Catalan * 2.14 Chinese * 2.15 Czech * 2.16 Dan
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English Translations Of The Quran
The QURAN has been translated into English many times. The first few translations were made in the 17th and 19th centuries , but the majority were produced in the 20th . CONTENTS * 1 Early translations * 2 20th century translations * 3 21st century translations * 4 Translations from Urdu
Urdu
into English * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links * 7.1 archive.org * 7.2 wikisource EARLY TRANSLATIONS * The Alcoran, Translated out of Arabic into French. By the Andrew du Ryer, Lord of Malezair, and Resident for the French King, at ALEXANDRIA. And Newly Englished, for the satisfaction of all that desire to look into the Turkish Vanities London, Printed Anno Dom. 1649 The earliest known translation of the Qur\'an into the English Language was The Alcoran of Mahomet in 1649 by Alexander Ross , chaplain to King Charles I
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Ahmadiyya Translations Of The Quran
The Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Muslim Community has translated the Quran
Quran
into over 70 languages of the world. Portions of the scripture have been translated into multiple other languages. The Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement has produced translations into at least 7 languages. The period of the late 1980s and the early 1990s saw an acceleration in the number of translations being produced by the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
movement. Some of the earliest translations were produced by Ahmadi Muslim scholars and today there are still many languages for which only translations authored by Ahmadi Muslims exist. All translations are published alongside the Arabic text
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Esoteric Interpretation Of The Quran
ESOTERIC INTERPRETATION OF THE QURAN, also known as Sufi interpretation and taʾwīl (تأويل), is the allegorical interpretation of the Quran
Quran
or the quest for its hidden, inner meanings. It was a synonym of conventional interpretation in its earliest use, but it came to mean a process of discerning its most fundamental understandings. Esoteric interpretations do not usually contradict the conventional (in this context called exoteric ) interpretations; instead, they discuss the inner levels of meaning of the Quran. The words Ta'wil and Tafsir
Tafsir
have been translated to mean explanation, elucidation, interpretation, and commentary; but from the end of the 8th century onwards, 'ta'wil' was commonly regarded as the esoteric or mystical interpretation of the Quran
Quran
, while the conventional exegesis of the Quran
Quran
was called "tafsir "
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Quranic Hermeneutics
QUR\'ANIC HERMENEUTICS is the study of theories of the interpretation and understanding of the Qur\'an , the sacred text of Islam
Islam
. Since the early centuries of Islam, scholars have sought to mine the wealth of its meanings by developing a variety of different systems of hermeneutics . CONTENTS * 1 Introduction * 2 Specific issues in Islamic hermeneutics * 2.1 Human rights * 2.2 The position of women * 3 References * 4 External links INTRODUCTION Hermeneutics in Islam
Islam
leans on a lengthy tradition of tafsir , the exegesis of usually the Qur\'an
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Quranism
QURANISM (Arabic : القرآنية‎‎; al-Qur'āniyya) describes any form of Islam
Islam
that accepts the Quran as revelation but rejects the religious authority, and/or authenticity of, the Hadith
Hadith
collections . Quranists follow the Quran alone; they believe that its message is clear and complete, and that it can therefore be fully understood without referencing the Hadith. They claim that the Hadith
Hadith
literature was forged, as it had been written 190 years after the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
. There are significant differences between Quranists in their interpretation of Islam
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Hadith Of The Quran And Sunnah
SUNNAH is a saying attributed to the Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
(a hadith ), namely "I have left among you two matters by holding fast to which, you shall never be misguided: the Book
Book
of God and my Sunna." It is an often quoted saying regarding the sources of Islam. The authenticity of this hadith is rejected by many Shi\'a . The concept itself is not rejected, as most Muslims hold that Islam is derived from two sources: one being infallible and containing compressed information — the Qur\'an —and another being a detailed explanation of the everyday application of the principles established in the Qur'an: The Sunnah
Sunnah
, or the living example of Muhammad
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