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Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
(Arabic: الأنْدَلُس‎, trans. al-ʼAndalus; Spanish: al-Ándalus; Portuguese: al-Ândalus; Catalan: al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal. At its greatest geographical extent in the 8th century, a part of southern France—Septimania—was briefly under its control
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Catalan Language
Catalan (/ˈkætəlæn, -ən, ˌkætəˈlæn/;[4] autonym: català [kətəˈla] or [kataˈla]) is a Western Romance
Western Romance
language derived from Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain. It is the only official language of Andorra,[5] and a co-official language of the Spanish autonomous communities of Catalonia, the Balearic Islands
Balearic Islands
and Valencia (where the language is known as Valencian). It also has semi-official status in the Italian commune of Alghero.[6] These territories are often called Catalan Countries. Catalan evolved from Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
in the Middle Ages around the eastern Pyrenees
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Berber Language
The Berber languages, also known as Berber or the Amazigh languages[2] (Berber name: Tamaziɣt, Tamazight; Neo-Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ, Tuareg
Tuareg
Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵜ, ⵝⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵝ, pronounced [tæmæˈzɪɣt], [θæmæˈzɪɣθ]), are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family. They comprise a group of closely related dialects spoken by the Berbers, who are indigenous to North Africa.[3] The languages were traditionally written with the ancient Libyco-Berber script, which now exists in the form of Tifinagh.[4] Berber is spoken by large populations of Morocco, Algeria
Algeria
and Libya, by smaller populations of Tunisia, northern Mali, western and northern Niger, northern Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso
and Mauritania
Mauritania
and in the Siwa Oasis
Siwa Oasis
of Egypt
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DIN 31635
DIN 31635 is a Deutsches Institut für Normung
Deutsches Institut für Normung
(DIN) standard for the transliteration of the Arabic alphabet
Arabic alphabet
adopted in 1982. It is based on the rules of the Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft
Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft
(DMG) as modified by the International Orientalist Congress 1935 in Rome. The most important differences from English-based systems were doing away with j, because it stood for /dʒ/ in the English-speaking world and for /j/ in the German-speaking world and the entire absence of digraphs like th, dh, kh, gh, sh. Its acceptance relies less on its official status than on its elegance (one sign for each Arabic letter) and the Geschichte der arabischen Literatur manuscript catalogue of Carl Brockelmann
Carl Brockelmann
and the dictionary of Hans Wehr
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Muslims
65–75% Sunni
Sunni
Islam[22][note 1] 10–13% Shia
Shia
Islam[22] 15–20% Non-denominational Islam[23] ~1% Ahmadiyya[24] ~1% Other Muslim
Muslim
traditions, e.g
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Jizya
Jizya
Jizya
or jizyah (Arabic: جزية‎ ǧizya IPA: [dʒizja]; Ottoman Turkish: جزيه‎ cizye) is a per capita yearly tax historically levied[1] by Islamic states on certain non-Muslim subjects—dhimmis—permanently residing in Muslim lands under Islamic law.[2][3][4] Muslim jurists required adult, free, sane males among the dhimma community to pay the jizya,[5] while exempting women, children, elders, handicapped, the ill, the insane, monks, hermits, slaves,[6][7][8][9][10] and musta'mins—non-Muslim foreigners who only temporarily reside in Muslim lands.[6][11]
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People Of The Book
People of the Book/Scripture (Arabic: أهل الكتاب‎ ′Ahl al-Kitāb) is an Islamic term referring to Jews, Christians, and Sabians
Sabians
and sometimes applied to members of other religions such as Zoroastrians.[1] It is also used in Judaism
Judaism
to refer to the Jewish people and by members of some Christian denominations
Christian denominations
to refer to themselves. The Quran
Quran
uses the term in reference to Jews, Christians
Christians
and Sabians in a variety of contexts, from religious polemics to passages emphasizing community of faith between those who possess monotheistic scriptures
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Christians
A Christian
Christian
(/ˈkrɪstʃən, -tiən/ ( listen)) is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus
Jesus
Christ
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Galicia (Spain)
Galicia (English: /ɡəˈlɪθiə/;[1] Galician: Galicia [ɡaˈliθja], Galiza [ɡaˈliθa];[2] Spanish: Galicia; Portuguese: Galiza) is an autonomous community of Spain
Spain
and historic nationality under Spanish law.[3] Located in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula, it comprises the provinces of A Coruña, Lugo, Ourense
Ourense
and Pontevedra, being bordered by Portugal
Portugal
to the south, the Spanish autonomous communities of Castile and León
Castile and León
and Asturias
Asturias
to the east, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west, and the Cantabrian Sea
Cantabrian Sea
to the north. It had a population of 2,718,525 in 2016[4] and has a total area of 29,574 km2 (11,419 sq mi)
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Al Andalus, Kuwait
Coordinates: 29°18′14″N 47°53′03″E / 29.30398°N 47.884179°E / 29.30398; 47.884179 Al-Andalus is an area of Farwaniya Governorate
Farwaniya Governorate
in Kuwait. It was named after the region of Andalusia
Andalusia
in Spain
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Arabic Language
Arabic
Arabic
(Arabic: العَرَبِيَّة‎) al-ʻarabiyyah [ʔalʕaraˈbijːah] ( listen) or (Arabic: عَرَبِيّ‎) ʻarabī [ˈʕarabiː] ( listen) or [ʕaraˈbij]) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world.[4] It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east to the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic
Arabic
is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form (Modern Standard Arabic) [5]. The modern written language (Modern Standard Arabic) is derived from Classical Arabic
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Castile (historical Region)
Castile (/kæˈstiːl/; Spanish: Castilla [kasˈtiʎa]) is a vaguely defined historical region of Spain. There are different conceptions and definitions of Castile, and since it lacks modern day official recognition, it has no clearly defined borders. Historically, the Kingdom of Castile
Kingdom of Castile
occupied the area. After the kingdom merged with its neighbours to become the Crown of Castile
Crown of Castile
and later the Kingdom of Spain, when it united with the Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
and the Kingdom of Navarre, the definition of what constituted Castile gradually began to change. Its historical capital was Burgos
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Portuguese Language
Argentina
Argentina
(South America) Indonesia
Indonesia
(Asia)[4][5] Senegal
Senegal
(Africa) South Africa
Africa
(Africa) Namibia
Namibia
(Africa) Uruguay
Uruguay
(South America)[6][7][8]Numerous international organisationsRegulated by International Portuguese Language Institute Academia Brasileira de Letras (Brazil) Academia das Ciências de Lisboa, Classe de Letras (Portugal) Academia Galega da Língua Portuguesa (Galicia) CPLPLanguage codesISO 639-1 ptISO 639-2 porISO 639-3 porGlottolog port1283[9]Linguasphere 51-AAA-a  Native language   Official and administrative language   Cultural or secondary language   Portuguese speaking minorities   Portuguese-based creole languagesThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols
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Navarre
Navarre
Navarre
(English: /nəˈvɑːr/; Spanish: Navarra [naˈβara], Basque: Nafarroa [nafaˈroa]; Occitan: Navarra [naˈbaʁɔ]), officially the Chartered Community of Navarre
Navarre
(Spanish: Comunidad Foral de Navarra [komuniˈðað foˈɾal de naˈβara]; Basque: Nafarroako Foru Komunitatea [nafaroako foɾu komunitatea]), is an autonomous community and province in northern Spain, bordering the Basque Autonomous Community, La Rioja, and Aragon
Aragon
in Spain
Spain
and Nouvelle-Aquitaine
Nouvelle-Aquitaine
in France
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Al-Walid I
Al-Walīd ibn ‘Abd al-Malik Arabic: الوليد بن عبد الملك‎House Banu Abd ShamsDynasty UmayyadFather Abd al-Malik ibn MarwanMother Walida bint al-Abbas[1]Al-Walid ibn Abd al-Malik (Arabic: الوليد بن عبد الملك‎) or Al-Walid I
Al-Walid I
(668 – 23 February 715) was an Umayyad Caliph
Caliph
who ruled from 705 until his death in 715. His reign saw the greatest expansion of the Caliphate, as successful campaigns were undertaken in Transoxiana
Transoxiana
in Central Asia, Sind, Hispania in far western Europe, and against the Byzantines. He poisoned the fourth Shi'a imam, Zayn al-Abidin.[2][3]Contents1 Biography 2 Conquests 3 Islamic culture and civilization 4 Sources 5 References 6 BibliographyBiography[edit] Walid was born in Medina
Medina
in 668 to Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan. Walid's mother was from the Central Arabian tribe of Banu Hanifah
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Córdoba, Spain
Córdoba (/ˈkɔːrdəbə/, Spanish: [ˈkoɾðoβa]),[4] also called Cordoba (/ˈkɔːrdəbə/) in English,[5] is a city in Andalusia, southern Spain, and the capital of the province of Córdoba. It was a Roman settlement, then colonized by Muslim armies in the eighth century. It became the capital of the Islamic Emirate, and then of the Caliphate of Córdoba, including most of the Iberian Peninsula. Córdoba consisted of hundreds of workshops that created goods such as silk. It was a center of culture and learning during the Islamic Golden Age. Caliph
Caliph
Al Hakam II opened many libraries in addition to the many medical schools and universities which existed at the time, making Córdoba a centre for education. During these centuries it became the center of a society ruled by Muslims, in which all other groups had a second-class status.[6] It was recaptured by Christian forces in 1236, during the Reconquista
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