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Aklanon Language
Aklanon[2] (Akeanon), also known as Aklan,[3][4] is a regional Visayan language spoken in the province of Aklan
Aklan
on the island of Panay
Panay
in the Philippines. Its unique feature among other Visayan languages
Visayan languages
is the close-mid back unrounded vowel [ɤ] occurring as part of diphthongs and traditionally written with the letter E such as in the name Akeanon (Aklanon). However, this phoneme is also present in sister Philippine languages, namely Itbayat, Isneg, Manobo, Samal and Sagada.[5] The Malaynon dialect is 93% lexically similar to Aklanon and retained the "l" sounds, which elsewhere are often pronounced as "r".[6] Ibayjanon (Ibajaynon) dialect has shortened versions of Aklanon words.[citation needed]Contents1 Phonology1.1 Vowels 1.2 Consonants2 Common phrases2.1 Numbers 2.2 Literature3 Learning resources 4 References 5 External linksPhonology[edit] Aklanon has 21 phonemes
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Philippines
Coordinates: 13°N 122°E / 13°N 122°E / 13; 122 Republic
Republic
of the Philippines Republika ng PilipinasFlagCoat of armsMotto:  "Maka-Diyos, Maka-Tao, Makakalikasan at Makabansa"[1] "For God, People, Nature, and Country"Anthem: Lupang Hinirang Chosen LandGreat SealDakilang Sagisag ng Pilipinas  (Tagalog) Great Seal of the PhilippinesCapital Manilaa 14°35′N 120°58′E / 14.583°N 120.967°E / 14.583; 120.967Largest city
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Bilabial Nasal
The bilabial nasal is a type of consonantal sound used in almost all spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨m⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is m. The bilabial nasal occurs in English, and it is the sound represented by "m" in map and rum. It occurs nearly universally, and few languages (e.g. Mohawk) are known to lack this sound.Contents1 Features 2 Occurrence 3 See also 4 References 5 BibliographyFeatures[edit] Features of the bilabial nasal:Its manner of articulation is occlusive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract
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Close Back Rounded Vowel
The close back rounded vowel, or high back rounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound used in many spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
that represents this sound is ⟨u⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA
X-SAMPA
symbol is u. In most languages, this rounded vowel is pronounced with protruded lips ('endolabial'). However, in a few cases the lips are compressed ('exolabial'). The close back rounded vowel is almost identical featurally to the labio-velar approximant [w]
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Close-mid Back Rounded Vowel
The close-mid back rounded vowel, or high-mid back rounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
that represents this sound is ⟨o⟩. For the close-mid (near-)back rounded vowel that is usually transcribed with the symbol ⟨ʊ⟩ or ⟨u⟩, see near-close near-back rounded vowel. If the usual symbol is ⟨o⟩, the vowel is listed here.Contents1 Close-mid back protruded vowel1.1 Features 1.2 Occurrence2 Close-mid back compressed vowel2.1 Features 2.2 Occurrence3 References 4 BibliographyClose-mid back protruded vowel[edit] The close-mid back protruded vowel is the most common variant of the close-mid back rounded vowel. It is typically transcribed in IPA simply as ⟨o⟩, and that is the convention used in this article
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Open-mid Front Unrounded Vowel
The open-mid front unrounded vowel, or low-mid front unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages
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Open Front Unrounded Vowel
The open front unrounded vowel, or low front unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. It is one of the eight primary cardinal vowels, not directly intended to correspond to a vowel sound of a specific language but rather to serve as a fundamental reference point in a phonetic measuring system.[2] The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
(IPA) that represents this sound is ⟨a⟩, and in the IPA vowel chart it is positioned at the lower-left corner
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Bilabial Consonant
In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips.Contents1 Transcription 2 See also 3 References3.1 Notes 3.2 General referencesTranscription[edit] The bilabial consonants identified by the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) are:IPA Description ExampleLanguage Orthography IPA Meaningbilabial nasal English man [mæn]voiceless bilabial stop English spin [spɪn]voiced bilabial stop English bed [bɛd]voiceless bilabial fricative Japanese 富士山 (fujisan) [ɸuʑisaɴ] Mount Fujivoiced bilabial fricative Ewe ɛʋɛ [ɛ̀βɛ̀] Ewebilabial approximant Spanish lobo [loβ̞o] wolfbilabial trill Nias simbi [siʙi] lower jawbilabial ejective Adyghe пӀэ [pʼa] meatʘ̬ ʘ̃ ʘ̥̃ʰ ʘ̃ˀ bilabial click release (many distinct consonants) Nǁng ʘoe [ʘoe] meatOwere Igbo has a six-way contrast among bilabial stops: [p pʰ ɓ̥ b b̤ ɓ]
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Dental Consonant
A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as /t/, /d/, /n/, and /l/ in some languages. Dentals are usually distinguished from sounds in which contact is made with the tongue and the gum ridge, as in English (see alveolar consonant) because of the acoustic similarity of the sounds and the fact that in the Roman alphabet, they are generally written using the same symbols (like t, d, n). In the International Phonetic Alphabet, the diacritic for dental consonant is U+032A ◌̪ COMBINING BRIDGE BELOW.Contents1 Cross-linguistically 2 Occurrence 3 See also 4 References 5 SourcesCross-linguistically[edit] For many languages, such as Albanian, Irish and Russian, velarization is generally associated with more dental articulations of coronal consonants
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Palatal Consonant
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). Consonants with the tip of the tongue curled back against the palate are called retroflex.Contents1 Characteristics 2 Distinction from palatalized consonants and consonant clusters 3 Examples 4 See also 5 Notes 6 ReferencesCharacteristics[edit] The most common type of palatal consonant is the extremely common approximant [j], which ranks as among the ten most common sounds in the world's languages.[citation needed] The nasal [ɲ] is also common, occurring in around 35 percent of the world's languages,[1] in most of which its equivalent obstruent is not the stop [c], but the affricate [t͡ʃ]
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Velar Consonant
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum). Since the velar region of the roof of the mouth is relatively extensive and the movements of the dorsum are not very precise, velars easily undergo assimilation, shifting their articulation back or to the front depending on the quality of adjacent vowels.[1] They often become automatically fronted, that is partly or completely palatal before a following front vowel, and retracted, that is partly or completely uvular before back vowels. Palatalised velars (like English /k/ in keen or cube) are sometimes referred to as palatovelars.[citation needed][by whom?] Many languages also have labialized velars, such as [kʷ], in which the articulation is accompanied by rounding of the lips. There are also labial–velar consonants, which are doubly articulated at the velum and at the lips, such as [k͡p]
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Glottal Consonant
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation. Many phoneticians consider them, or at least the glottal fricative, to be transitional states of the glottis without a point of articulation as other consonants have, while some do not consider them to be consonants at all. However, glottal consonants behave as typical consonants in many languages. For example, in Literary Arabic, most words are formed from a root C-C-C consisting of three consonants, which are inserted into templates such as /CaːCiC/ or /maCCuːC/
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Nasal Consonant
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. Examples of nasals in English are [n] and [m], in words such as nose and mouth. Nasal occlusives are nearly universal in human languages. There are also other kinds of nasal consonants in some languages.Contents1 Definition 2 Voiceless nasals 3 Other kinds of nasal consonant 4 Languages without nasals 5 Lack of phonemic nasals 6 Lack of phonetic nasals 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 BibliographyDefinition[edit] Nearly all nasal consonants are nasal occlusives, in which air escapes through the nose but not through the mouth, as it is blocked (occluded) by the lips or tongue. The oral cavity still acts as a resonance chamber for the sound
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Velar Nasal
The velar nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. It is the sound of ng in English sing. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
that represents this sound is ⟨ŋ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA
X-SAMPA
symbol is N. The IPA
IPA
symbol ⟨ŋ⟩ is similar to ⟨ɳ⟩, the symbol for the retroflex nasal, which has a rightward-pointing hook extending from the bottom of the right stem, and to ⟨ɲ⟩, the symbol for the palatal nasal, which has a leftward-pointing hook extending from the bottom of the left stem. Both the IPA
IPA
symbol and the sound are commonly called 'eng' or 'engma'. As a phoneme, the velar nasal does not occur in many of the indigenous languages of the Americas or in a large number of European or Middle Eastern or Caucasian languages, but it is extremely common in Australian Aboriginal languages
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Glottal Stop
The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ʔ⟩. Using IPA, this sound is known as a glottal plosive. As a result of the obstruction of the airflow in the glottis, the glottal vibration either stops or becomes irregular with a low rate and sudden drop in intensity.[1]Contents1 Features 2 Writing 3 Occurrence 4 See also 5 References 6 BibliographyFeatures[edit] Features of the glottal stop:[citation needed]Its manner of articulation is occlusive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract
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Stop Consonant
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases. The occlusion may be made with the tongue blade ([t], [d]) or body ([k], [ɡ]), lips ([p], [b]), or glottis ([ʔ]). Stops contrast with nasals, where the vocal tract is blocked but airflow continues through the nose, as in /m/ and /n/, and with fricatives, where partial occlusion impedes but does not block airflow in the vocal tract.Contents1 Terminology 2 Common stops 3 Articulation 4 Classification4.1 Voice 4.2 Aspiration 4.3 Length 4.4 Nasalization 4.5 Airstream mechanism 4.6 Tenseness5 Transcription5.1 English 5.2 Variations6 See also 7 References 8 External linksTerminology[edit] The terms stop, occlusive, and plosive are often used interchangeably. Linguists who distinguish them may not agree on the distinction being made. The terms refer to different features of the consonant. "Stop" refers to the airflow that is stopped
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