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Akkadian Language
Akkadian
Akkadian
(/əˈkeɪdiən/ akkadû, 𒀝𒅗𒁺𒌑 ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: 𒌵𒆠 URIKI )[2][3] is an extinct East Semitic language that was spoken in ancient Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
(Akkad, Assyria, Isin, Larsa and Babylonia) from the 30th century BC until its gradual replacement by Akkadian-influenced Eastern Aramaic among Mesopotamians between the 8th century BC and its final extinction by the 1st to 3rd centuries AD. It is the earliest attested Semitic language,[4] and used the cuneiform writing system, which was originally used to write the unrelated, and also extinct, Sumerian (which is a language isolate). Akkadian
Akkadian
was named after the city of Akkad, a major centre of Mesopotamian civilization during the Akkadian Empire
Akkadian Empire
(c
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Acadian French
Acadian French
Acadian French
(French: français acadien) is a dialect of Canadian French originally associated with the Acadian people
Acadian people
of what is now the Canadian Maritimes. The dialect is still spoken by the Francophone population of the Canadian province of New Brunswick, by small minorities on the Gaspé Peninsula
Gaspé Peninsula
and the Magdalen Islands
Magdalen Islands
of Quebec as well as in pockets of Francophones in Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
and Prince Edward Island. In the United States, the dialect is spoken in the Saint John Valley of northern Aroostook County, Maine
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Neo-Assyrian Empire
The Neo-Assyrian Empire
Neo-Assyrian Empire
was an Iron Age
Iron Age
Mesopotamian
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Attested Language
In linguistics, attested languages are languages (living or dead) that have been documented, and for which the evidence has survived to the present day. Evidence may be recordings, transcriptions, literature, or inscriptions. In contrast, unattested languages may be names of purported languages for which no direct evidence exists, languages for which all evidence has been lost, or hypothetical proto-languages proposed in linguistic reconstruction.[1] Within an attested language, particular word forms which are directly known to have been used – because they appear in the literature, inscriptions or documented speech – are called attested forms. These contrast with unattested forms, which are reconstructions, hypothesised to have been used based on indirect evidence (such as etymological patterns)
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Cuneiform
Cuneiform
Cuneiform
script,[a] one of the earliest systems of writing, was invented by the Sumerians.[3] It is distinguished by its wedge-shaped marks on clay tablets, made by means of a blunt reed for a stylus. The name cuneiform itself simply means "wedge shaped".[4][5] Emerging in Sumer
Sumer
in the late fourth millennium BC (the Uruk
Uruk
IV period) to convey the Sumerian language, which was a language isolate , cuneiform writing began as a system of pictograms, stemming from an earlier system of shaped tokens used for accounting. In the third millennium, the pictorial representations became simplified and more abstract as the number of characters in use grew smaller (Hittite cuneiform)
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Sumerian Language
Sumerian (Sumerian: 𒅴𒂠 EME.G̃IR15 "native tongue") is the language of ancient Sumer
Sumer
and a language isolate that was spoken in southern Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
(modern-day Iraq)
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Language Isolate
A language isolate, in the absolute sense, is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or "genetic") relationship with other languages, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common with any other language. Language isolates are in effect language families consisting of a single language. Commonly cited examples include Ainu, Basque, Korean, Sumerian, and Elamite, though in each case a minority of linguists claim to have demonstrated a relationship with other languages.[1] Some sources use the term "language isolate" to indicate a branch of a larger family with only one surviving daughter. For instance, Albanian, Armenian and Greek are commonly called Indo-European isolates. While part of the Indo-European family, they do not belong to any established branch (such as the Romance, Celtic or Slavic and Germanic branches), but instead form independent branches
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Akkad (city)
Map of the Near East
Near East
showing the extent of the Akkadian Empire
Akkadian Empire
and the general area in which Akkad was locatedAkkad (also Accad, Akkade, Agade; cuneiform 𒌵𒆠 URIKI) was the capital of the Akkadian Empire, which was the dominant political force in Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
during a period of about 150 years in the last third of the 3rd millennium BC. Its location is unknown, although there are a number of candidate sites, mostly situated east of the Tigris, roughly between the modern cities of Samarra
Samarra
and Baghdad.[1]Contents1 Textual sources 2 Location 3 See also 4 References 5 SourcesTextual sources[edit] Before the decipherment of cuneiform in the 19th century, the city was known only from a single reference in Genesis 10:10[2] where it is written אַכַּד‬ ( 'Akkad), rendered in the KJV
KJV
as Accad
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Sprachbund
A sprachbund (German: [ˈʃpʁaːxbʊnt], "federation of languages") – also known as a linguistic area, area of linguistic convergence, diffusion area or language crossroads – is a group of languages that have common features resulting from geographical proximity and language contact. They may be genetically unrelated, or only distantly related. Where genetic affiliations are unclear, the sprachbund characteristics might give a false appearance of relatedness
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Old Assyrian Empire
 IraqThe Old Assyrian Empire is one of four periods in which the history of Assyria is divided, the other three being: the Early Assyrian Period, the Middle Assyrian Period and the New Assyrian Period. Assyria was a major Mesopotamian Semitic languages-speaking kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East. Centered on the Tigris-Euphrates River System in Upper Mesopotamia, the Assyrian people came to rule powerful empires at several times
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Babylonian Empire
Babylonia
Babylonia
(/ˌbæbəˈloʊniə, -ˈloʊnjə/) was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
(present-day Iraq). A small Amorite-ruled state emerged in 1894 BC, which contained the minor administrative town of Babylon.[1] It was merely a small provincial town during the Akkadian
Akkadian
Empire (2335–2154 BC) but greatly expanded during the reign of Hammurabi
Hammurabi
in the first half of the 18th century BC and became a major capital city. During the reign of Hammurabi
Hammurabi
and afterwards, Babylonia
Babylonia
was called "the country of Akkad" (Māt Akkadī in Akkadian).[2][3] It was often involved in rivalry with the older state of Assyria
Assyria
to the north and Elam
Elam
to the east in Ancient Iran
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Middle Assyrian Empire
 Iraq  TurkeyThe Middle Assyrian Empire
Middle Assyrian Empire
is the period in the history of Assyria between the fall of the Old Assyrian Empire
Old Assyrian Empire
in the 14th century BC and the establishment of the Neo-Assyrian Empire
Neo-Assyrian Empire
in the 10th century BC.Contents1 Assyrian expansion and empire, 1392–1056 BC 2 Assyria
Assyria
during the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Collapse, 1055–936 BC 3 Society in the Middle Assyrian period3.1 Laws4 See also 5 ReferencesAssyrian expansion and empire, 1392–1056 BC[edit] See also: Military history of the Neo-Assyrian Empire By the reign of Eriba-Adad I (1392–1366 BC) Mitanni
Mitanni
influence over Assyria
Assyria
was on the wane
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Near East
The Near East
Near East
is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia. Despite having varying definitions within different academic circles, the term was originally applied to the maximum extent of the Ottoman Empire
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Aramaic Language
Aramaic[2] (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, Classical Syriac: ܐܪܡܝܐ‎, Arabic: آرامية‎) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family. More specifically, it is part of the Northwest Semitic group, which also includes the Canaanite languages such as Hebrew and Phoenician. The Aramaic alphabet
Aramaic alphabet
was widely adopted for other languages and is ancestral to the Hebrew, Syriac and Arabic alphabets. During its approximately 3,100 years of written history,[3] Aramaic has served variously as a language of administration of empires and as a language of divine worship, religious study and as the spoken tongue of a number of Semitic peoples from the Near East. Historically, Aramaic was the language of Aramean tribes, a Semitic people of the region around between the Levant
Levant
and the northern Euphrates
Euphrates
valley
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Larsa
Coordinates: 31°17′9″N 45°51′13″E / 31.28583°N 45.85361°E / 31.28583; 45.85361 Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the time of Hammurabi"The Worshipper of Larsa", a votive statuette dedicated to the god Amurru for Hammurabi's life, early 2nd millennium BC, Louvre Larsa
Larsa
(Sumerian logogram: UD.UNUGKI,[1] read Larsamki[2]) was an important city of ancient Sumer, the center of the cult of the sun god Utu
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Tiglath-pileser III
Tiglath-Pileser III
Tiglath-Pileser III
(cuneiform: 𒆪𒋾𒀀𒂍𒊹𒊏 TUKUL.TI.A.É.ŠÁR.RA; Akkadian: Tukultī-apil-Ešarra, "my trust is in the son of the Ešarra"; Hebrew: תִּגְלַת פַּלְאֶסֶר‬, Modern Tīglat Pīl’eser, Tiberian Tīgelaṯ Pīle’eser) was a prominent king of Assyria in the eighth century BCE (ruled 745–727 BCE)[1][2] who introduced advanced civil, military, and political systems into the Neo-Assyrian Empire.[3][4] Tiglath-Pileser III
Tiglath-Pileser III
seized the Assyrian throne during a civil war and killed the royal family. He made sweeping changes to the Assyrian government, considerably improving its efficiency and security
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