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Air Combat Manoeuvring
Air combat manoeuvring
Air combat manoeuvring
(also known as ACM or dogfighting) is the tactical art of moving, turning and/or situating one's fighter aircraft in order to attain a position from which an attack can be made on another aircraft. Air combat manoeuvres rely on offensive and defensive basic fighter manoeuvring (BFM) to gain an advantage over an aerial opponent.Contents1 Historical overview 2 Tactics 3 Example manoeuvring 4 See also 5 Further reading 6 References 7 External linksHistorical overview[edit] Military aviation appeared in World War I
World War I
where aircraft were initially used to spot enemy troop concentrations, field gun positions and movements. Early aerial combat consisted of aviators shooting at one another with hand held weapons.[1] The first recorded aircraft to be shot down by another aircraft, which occurred on October 5, 1914, was a German Aviatik
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Indian Air Force
The Indian Air Force
Indian Air Force
(IAF; IAST: Bhāratīya Vāyu Senā) is the air arm of the Indian armed forces. Its complement of personnel and aircraft assets ranks fourth amongst the airforces of the world.[7] Its primary mission is to secure Indian airspace and to conduct aerial warfare during armed conflict. It was officially established on 8 October 1932 as an auxiliary air force of the British Empire
British Empire
which honored India's aviation service during World War II
World War II
with the prefix Royal.[8] After India
India
gained independence from the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in 1947, the name Royal Indian Air Force
Indian Air Force
was kept and served in the name of Dominion of India
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Gravity
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another, including objects ranging from atoms and photons, to planets and stars. Since energy and mass are equivalent, all forms of energy (including light) cause gravitation and are under the influence of it. On Earth, gravity gives weight to physical objects, and the Moon's gravity causes the ocean tides. The gravitational attraction of the original gaseous matter present in the Universe
Universe
caused it to begin coalescing, forming stars – and for the stars to group together into galaxies – so gravity is responsible for many of the large scale structures in the Universe
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Wing Loading
In aerodynamics, wing loading is the total mass of an aircraft divided by the area of its wing.[1] The stalling speed of an aircraft in straight, level flight is partly determined by its wing loading. An aircraft with a low wing loading has a larger wing area relative to its mass, as compared to an aircraft with a high wing loading. The faster an aircraft flies, the more lift can be produced by each unit of wing area, so a smaller wing can carry the same mass in level flight. Consequently, faster aircraft generally have higher wing loadings than slower aircraft. This increased wing loading also increases takeoff and landing distances. A higher wing loading also decreases maneuverability
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Turn Radius
The turning radius or turning circle of a vehicle is the radius (or, depending on usage, diameter) of the smallest circular turn (i.e. U-turn) that the vehicle is capable of making.Contents1 Usage 2 Curb to curb 3 Common uses 4 See also 5 External linksUsage[edit] The term turning radius is a technical term that has become popular automotive jargon. In the jargon sense, it is commonly used to mean the full diameter of the smallest circle, but in technical usage the turning radius is still used to denote the radius. The less ambiguous term turning circle avoids the mistaken jargon use of the word 'radius' . As an example, Motor Trend
Motor Trend
refers to a curb-to-curb turning circle of a 2008 Cadillac CTS as 35.5 feet (10.82 m), but the terminology is not yet settled. AutoChannel.com refers to the turning radius of the same car as 35.5 feet (10.82 m). It is often used as a generalized term rather than a numerical figure
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Sukhoi Su-30MKI
The Sukhoi
Sukhoi
Su-30MKI[a] (NATO reporting name: Flanker-H) is a twinjet multirole air superiority fighter developed by Russia's Sukhoi
Sukhoi
and built under licence by India's Hindustan Aeronautics Limited
Hindustan Aeronautics Limited
(HAL) for the Indian Air Force
Indian Air Force
(IAF). A variant of the Sukhoi
Sukhoi
Su-30, it is a heavy, all-weather, long-range fighter. Development of the variant started after India signed a deal with Russia in 2000 to manufacture 140 Su-30 fighter jets.[3] The first Russian-made Su-30MKI variant was accepted into the Indian Air Force in 2002,[4] while the first indigenously assembled Su-30MKI entered service with the IAF in 2004.[5] Additional MKIs have been ordered to increase the total from 272 to 314
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Wingman
A wingman (or wingmate) is a pilot who supports another in a potentially dangerous flying environment. Wingman
Wingman
was originally the plane flying beside and slightly behind the lead plane in an aircraft formation. According to the U.S. Air Force,The traditional military definition of a "Wingman" refers to the pattern in which fighter jets fly. There is always a lead aircraft and another which flies off the right wing of and behind the lead. This second pilot is called the "Wingman" because he or she primarily protects the lead by "watching his back."[1]Contents1 Description 2 In popular culture 3 See also 4 References 5 Bibliography 6 External linksDescription[edit] The wingman's role is to add an element of mutual support to aerial combat
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Energy
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.[note 1] Energy
Energy
is a conserved quantity; the law of conservation of energy states that energy can be converted in form, but not created or destroyed. The SI unit of energy is the joule, which is the energy transferred to an object by the work of moving it a distance of 1 metre against a force of 1 newton. Common forms of energy include the kinetic energy of a moving object, the potential energy stored by an object's position in a force field (gravitational, electric or magnetic), the elastic energy stored by stretching solid objects, the chemical energy released when a fuel burns, the radiant energy carried by light, and the thermal energy due to an object's temperature. Mass
Mass
and energy are closely related
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Potential Energy
U = m · g · h (gravitational) U = ½ · k · x2 U = ½ · C · V2 (electric) U = -m · B (magnetic)Part of a series of articles aboutClassical mechanics F → = m a → displaystyle vec F =m vec a Second law of motionHistory TimelineBranchesApplied Celestial Continuum Dynamics Kinematics Kinetics Statics StatisticalFundamentalsAcceleration Angular momentum Couple D'Alembert's principle Energykinetic potentialForce Frame of reference Inertial frame of reference Impulse Inertia / Moment of inertia MassMechanical power Mechanical workMoment Momentum Space Speed Time Torque Velocity Virtual workFormulationsNewton's laws of motionAnalytical mechanicsLagrangian mechanics Hamiltonian mechanics Routhian mechanics Hamilton–Jacobi equation Appell's equation of m
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Kinetic Energy
Ek = ½mv2 Ek = Et+ErPart of a series of articles aboutClassical mechanics F → = m a → displaystyle vec F =m vec a Second law of motionHistory TimelineBranchesApplied Celestial Continuum Dynamics Kinematics Kinetics Statics StatisticalFundamentalsAcceleration Angular momentum Couple D'Alembert's principle Energykinetic potentialForce Frame of reference Inertial frame of reference Impulse Inertia / Moment of inertia MassMechanical power Mechanical workMoment Momentum Space Speed Time Torque Velocity Virtual workFormulationsNewton's laws of motionAnalytical mechanicsLagrangian mechanics Hamiltonian mechanics Routhian mechanics Hamilton–Jacobi equation Appell's equation of motion Udwadia–Kalaba equation Koopman–von Neumann mechanicsCore topic
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Yaw Angle
The Euler angles
Euler angles
are three angles introduced by Leonhard Euler
Leonhard Euler
to describe the orientation of a rigid body with respect to a fixed coordinate system.[1] They can also represent the orientation of a mobile frame of reference in physics or the orientation of a general basis in 3-dimensional linear algebra. Any orientation can be achieved by composing three elemental rotations, i.e. rotations about the axes of a coordinate system. Euler angles can be defined by three of these rotations
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Europe
Europe
Europe
(Europa) is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
to the north, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west, Asia
Asia
to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Europe
Europe
is most commonly considered to be separated from Asia
Asia
by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits.[7] Although the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several times since its first conception in classical antiquity
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Drag (physics)
In fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or fluid friction) is a force acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid.[1] This can exist between two fluid layers (or surfaces) or a fluid and a solid surface. Unlike other resistive forces, such as dry friction, which are nearly independent of velocity, drag forces depend on velocity.[2][3] Drag force is proportional to the velocity for a laminar flow and the squared velocity for a turbulent flow
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Lift (force)
A fluid flowing past the surface of a body exerts a force on it. Lift is the component of this force that is perpendicular to the oncoming flow direction.[1] It contrasts with the drag force, which is the component of the force parallel to the flow direction. Lift conventionally acts in an upward direction in order to counter the force of gravity, but it can act in any direction at right angles to the flow. If the surrounding fluid is air, the force is called an aerodynamic force. In water or any other liquid, it is called a hydrodynamic force. Dynamic lift is distinguished from other kinds of lift in fluids. Aerostatic lift or buoyancy, in which an internal fluid is lighter than the surrounding fluid, does not require movement and is used by balloons, blimps, dirigibles, boats, and submarines
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Thrust
Thrust
Thrust
is a reaction force described quantitatively by Isaac Newton's second and third laws. When a system expels or accelerates mass in one direction, the accelerated mass will cause a force of equal magnitude but opposite direction on that system.[1] The force applied on a surface in a direction perpendicular or normal to the surface is called thrust
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Su-27 Flanker
The Sukhoi
Sukhoi
Su-27 (Russian: Сухой Су-27; NATO reporting name: Flanker) is a twin-engine supermaneuverable fighter aircraft designed by Sukhoi. It was intended as a direct competitor for the large United States fourth-generation fighters such as the Grumman F-14 Tomcat
Grumman F-14 Tomcat
and F-15 Eagle, with 3,530-kilometre (1,910 nmi) range, heavy aircraft ordnance, sophisticated avionics and high maneuverability. The Su-27 was designed for air superiority missions, and subsequent variants are able to perform almost all aerial warfare operations. It was designed with the Mikoyan MiG-29
Mikoyan MiG-29
as its complement. The Su-27 entered service with the Soviet Air Forces
Soviet Air Forces
in 1985
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