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Air Burst
An air burst is the detonation of an explosive device such as an anti-personnel artillery shell or a nuclear weapon in the air instead of on contact with the ground or target or a delayed armor-piercing explosion. The principal military advantage of an air burst over a ground burst is that the energy from the explosion (as well as any shell fragments) is distributed more evenly over a wider area; however, the peak energy is lower at ground zero. The term may also refer to naturally occurring air bursts arising from the explosions of incoming meteors as happened in the Tunguska event, the 1930 Curuçá River event, and the Chelyabinsk meteor
Chelyabinsk meteor
event.Contents1 History1.1 Nuclear weapons2 Tactics 3 See also 4 ReferencesHistory[edit]The airburst fuzing system on a modern Carl Gustav recoilless rifle High Explosive round Air
Air
burst artillery has a long history
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V-2
maximum:5,760 km/h (3,580 mph) at impact: 2,880 km/h (1,790 mph)Guidance systemGyroscopes to determine direction Müller-type pendulous gyroscopic accelerometer for engine cutoff on most production rockets[2][3]:225Launch platformMobile (Meillerwagen)The V-2 (German: Vergeltungswaffe 2, "Retribution Weapon 2"), technical name Aggregat 4 (A4), was the world's first long-range[4] guided ballistic missile. The missile, powered by a liquid-propellant rocket engine, was developed during the Second World War
Second World War
in Germany as a "vengeance weapon", assigned to attack Allied cities as retaliation for the Allied bombings against German cities
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XM29 OICW
The XM29 OICW
XM29 OICW
(Objective Individual Combat Weapon) was a series of prototypes of a new type of assault rifle that fired 20 mm HE airbursting projectiles. The prototypes were developed as part of the Objective Individual Combat Weapon program
Objective Individual Combat Weapon program
in the 1990s
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Doppler Radar
A Doppler radar
Doppler radar
is a specialized radar that uses the Doppler effect
Doppler effect
to produce velocity data about objects at a distance. It does this by bouncing a microwave signal off a desired target and analyzing how the object's motion has altered the frequency of the returned signal. This variation gives direct and highly accurate measurements of the radial component of a target's velocity relative to the radar. Doppler radars are used in aviation, sounding satellites, Major League Baseball's StatCast system, meteorology, radar guns,[1] radiology and healthcare (fall detection[2] and risk assessment, nursing or clinic purpose[3]), and bistatic radar (surface-to-air missiles). Partly because of its common use by television meteorologists in on-air weather reporting, the specific term "Doppler Radar" has erroneously become popularly synonymous with the type of radar used in meteorology
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Killer Junior
Killer Junior and Killer Senior are techniques of employing artillery direct fire air bursts, first developed during the Vietnam War. The technique involves a howitzer or gun firing a high explosive (HE) shell fuzed with a mechanical time-super quick (MTSQ) artillery fuze set to cause an airburst over a target in very close proximity to the gun's position. Set properly, the shell would detonate approximately 10 meters (33 feet) above the ground at ranges of 200 to 1,000 meters. The term Killer Junior was applied to this technique when used with 105 mm or 155 mm howitzers, and the term Killer Senior applied to its use with the M115 203 mm (8-inch) howitzer.[1] The term "Killer" came from the call-sign of the battery which developed the technique
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Howitzer
A howitzer /ˈhaʊ.ɪtsər/ is a type of artillery piece characterized by a relatively short barrel and the use of comparatively small propellant charges to propel projectiles over relatively high trajectories, with a steep angle of descent.Pre- World War I
World War I
290 mm howitzer battery at Charlottenlund
Charlottenlund
Fort, Denmark.In the taxonomies of artillery pieces used by European (and European-style) armies in the 17th to 20th centuries, the howitzer stood between the "gun" (characterized by a longer barrel, larger propelling charges, smaller shells, higher velocities, and flatter trajectories) and the "mortar" (which was meant to fire at even higher angles of ascent and descent)
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Bouncing Mine
A bouncing mine is an anti-personnel mine designed to be used in open areas. When tripped, a small propelling charge launches the body of the mine 3–4 feet (0.9–1.2 metres) into the air, where the main charge detonates and sprays fragmentation at roughly waist height. The original World War II
World War II
German S-mine
S-mine
has been widely influential. Other countries that have employed bouncing mines in war include the United States, the Soviet Union, Vietnam
Vietnam
and countries of former Yugoslavia. China and Italy have also produced them. Some American mines designed for this purpose used a standard 60 mm HE mortar round with an improvised time delay fuse which is activated by the propelling charge. Bouncing mines are more expensive than typical AP blast mines, and they do not lend themselves to scatterable designs
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S-mine
The German S-mine
S-mine
(Schrapnellmine, Springmine or Splittermine in German), also known as the "Bouncing Betty", is the best-known version of a class of mines known as bounding mines. When triggered, these mines launch into the air and then detonate at about 0.9 meters (3 ft). The explosion projects a lethal spray of shrapnel in all directions. The S-mine
S-mine
was an anti-personnel mine developed by Germany in the 1930s and used extensively by German forces during World War II. It was designed to be used in open areas against unshielded infantry. Two versions were produced, designated by the year of their first production: the SMi-35 and SMi-44. There are only minor differences between the two models.[1] The S-mine
S-mine
entered production in 1935 and served as a key part of the defensive strategy of the Third Reich
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Grenade
A grenade is a small weapon typically thrown by hand. Generally, a grenade consists of an explosive charge, a detonating mechanism, and firing pin to trigger the detonating mechanism. Once the soldier throws the grenade, the safety lever releases, the striker throws the safety lever away from the grenade body as it rotates to detonate the primer. The primer explodes and ignites the fuse (sometimes called the delay element). The fuse burns down to the detonator, which explodes the main charge. There are several types of grenades such as fragmentation grenades and stick grenades. Fragmentation grenades are probably the most common in armies. They are weapons that are designed to disperse lethal fragments on detonation. The body is generally made of a hard synthetic material or steel, which will provide some fragmentation as shards and splinters, though in modern grenades a pre-formed fragmentation matrix is often used
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Radius
In classical geometry, a radius of a circle or sphere is any of the line segments from its center to its perimeter, and in more modern usage, it is also their length. The name comes from the Latin
Latin
radius, meaning ray but also the spoke of a chariot wheel.[1] The plural of radius can be either radii (from the Latin
Latin
plural) or the conventional English plural radiuses.[2] The typical abbreviation and mathematical variable name for radius is r. By extension, the diameter d is defined as twice the radius:[3] d ≐ 2 r ⇒ r = d 2 . displaystyle ddoteq 2rquad Rightarrow quad r= frac d 2 . If an object does not have a center, the term may refer to its circumradius, the radius of its circumscribed circle or circumscribed sphere
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Fire Control System
A fire-control system is a number of components working together, usually a gun data computer, a director, and radar, which is designed to assist a weapon system in hitting its target
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XM307 Advanced Crew Served Weapon
Grenade Launcher: computerized with viewfinder Machine Gun: fixed rear ironThe XM307 Advanced Crew Served Weapon
XM307 Advanced Crew Served Weapon
(ACSW) was a developmental 25 mm belt-fed grenade machine gun with smart airburst capability. It is the result of the OCSW or Objective Crew Served Weapon project. It is lightweight and designed to be two-man portable, as well as vehicle mounted. The XM307 can kill or suppress enemy combatants out to 2,000 meters (2,187 yd), and destroy lightly armored vehicles, watercraft, and helicopters at 1,000 meters (1,094 yd). The project was canceled in 2007.[1]Contents1 Overview 2 Specifications 3 Variants 4 Program status 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksOverview[edit] The system was under development by General Dynamics Armament and Technical Products for the U.S. Army Tank-Automotive and Armaments Command (TACOM)
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Atmospheric Reentry
Atmospheric entry
Atmospheric entry
is the movement of an object from outer space into and through the gases of an atmosphere of a planet, dwarf planet or natural satellite. There are two main types of atmospheric entry: uncontrolled entry, such as the entry of astronomical objects, space debris or bolides; and controlled entry (or reentry) of a spacecraft capable of being navigated or following a predetermined course. Technologies and procedures allowing the controlled atmospheric entry, descent and landing of spacecraft are collectively abbreviated as EDL.Animated illustration of different phases as a meteoroid enters the Earth's atmosphere to become visible as a meteor and land as a meteoriteAtmospheric drag and aerodynamic heating can cause atmospheric breakup capable of completely disintegrating smaller objects
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PAPOP
5.5 kg unloaded[2] 7 kg with ammunitionLength 830 mmWidth 120 mmHeight 30 mmCartridge 5.56×45mm NATO 35mm grenadeCaliber 5.56mm 35mmMuzzle velocity 1500 to 1800 m/sEffective firing range 600 metersFeed system 30-round detachable box magazineSights Targeting computerThis article needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (May 2016)The PAPOP
PAPOP
(PolyArme POlyProjectiles, "multi-projectile multi-weapon") was a French project to construct a computerised multi-usage infantry weapon for the FÉLIN
FÉLIN
system, capable of hitting hidden or protected targets
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Mk 47 Striker
The Mk 47 or Striker 40[2] is a 40mm
40mm
automatic grenade launcher with an integrated fire control system, capable of launching smart programmable 40mm
40mm
shells in addition to various unguided rounds.Contents1 Design 2 Program timeline 3 Users 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksDesign[edit] The Mk 47 has the latest sensing, targeting and computer programming technology. The Lightweight Video Sight produced by Raytheon, the Mk 47’s sophisticated fire control system utilizes the latest in laser rangefinding, I2 night vision and ballistic computer technology. In addition to being able to fire all NATO standard high velocity 40mm rounds like the Mk 19 grenade launcher, it can fire MK285 smart grenades that can be programmed to air burst after a set distance
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