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Agonal Respiration
Agonal respiration, gasping respiration or agonal breathing is an abnormal pattern of breathing and brainstem reflex characterized by gasping, labored breathing, accompanied by strange vocalizations and myoclonus.[1]:164, 166 Possible causes include cerebral ischemia, extreme hypoxia (inadequate oxygen supply to tissue) or even anoxia (total depletion of oxygen). Agonal breathing is an extremely serious medical sign requiring immediate medical attention, as the condition generally progresses to complete apnea and heralds death. The duration of agonal respiration can be as brief as two breaths or last up to several hours.[1] The term is sometimes (inaccurately) used to refer to labored, gasping breathing patterns accompanying organ failure (e.g. liver failure and renal failure), SIRS, septic shock, and metabolic acidosis (see Kussmaul breathing, or in general any labored breathing, including Biot's respirations and ataxic respirations)
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Cardiogenic Shock
Cardiogenic shock is a life-threatening medical condition resulting from an inadequate circulation of blood due to primary failure of the ventricles of the heart to function effectively.[1][2][3][4][5] Signs of inadequate blood flow to the body's organs include low urine production (<30 mL/hour), cool arms and legs, and altered level of consciousness. It may lead to cardiac arrest, which is an abrupt stopping of cardiac pump function.[4] As this is a type of circulatory shock, there is insufficient blood flow and oxygen supply for biological tissues to meet the metabolic demands for oxygen and nutrients. Cardiogenic shock is defined by sustained low blood pressure with tissue hypoperfusion despite adequate left ventricular filling pressure. Treatment of cardiogenic shock depends on the cause. If cardiogenic shock is due to a heart attack, attempts to open the heart's arteries may help
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Septic Shock
Septic shock is a serious medical condition that occurs when sepsis, which is organ injury or damage in response to infection, leads to dangerously low blood pressure and abnormalities in cellular metabolism.[1] The primary infection is most commonly caused by bacteria, but also may be by fungi, viruses or parasites. It may be located in any part of the body, but most commonly in the lungs, brain, urinary tract, skin or abdominal organs.[2] It can cause multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (formerly known as multiple organ failure) and death.[3] Frequently, people with septic shock are cared for in intensive care units. It most commonly affects children, immunocompromised individuals, and the elderly, as their immune systems cannot deal with infection so effectively as those of healthy adults
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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King County, Washington
King County is a county located in the U.S. state
U.S. state
of Washington. The population was 2,188,649 in the 2017 census estimate. King is the most populous county in Washington, and the 13th-most populous in the United States. The county seat is Seattle,[1] which is the state's largest city. King County is one of three Washington counties that are included in the Seattle–Tacoma–Bellevue metropolitan statistical area. (The others are Snohomish County to the north, and Pierce County to the south.) About two-thirds of King County's population lives in the city's suburbs
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PubMed Identifier
PubMed
PubMed
is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine
United States National Library of Medicine
(NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval. From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries
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PubMed Central
PubMed
PubMed
Central (PMC) is a free digital repository that archives publicly accessible full-text scholarly articles that have been published within the biomedical and life sciences journal literature. As one of the major research databases within the suite of resources that have been developed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), PubMed
PubMed
Central is much more than just a document repository
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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Auscultation
Auscultation
Auscultation
(based on the Latin verb auscultare "to listen") is listening to the internal sounds of the body, usually using a stethoscope. Auscultation
Auscultation
is performed for the purposes of examining the circulatory and respiratory systems (heart and breath sounds), as well as the gastrointestinal system (bowel sounds). The term was introduced by René-Théophile-Hyacinthe Laënnec. The act of listening to body sounds for diagnostic purposes has its origin further back in history, possibly as early as Ancient Egypt. Laënnec's contributions were refining the procedure, linking sounds with specific pathological changes in the chest, and inventing a suitable instrument (the stethoscope) in the process. Auscultation
Auscultation
is a skill that requires substantial clinical experience, a fine stethoscope and good listening skills
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Respiratory System
The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants. The anatomy and physiology that make this happen varies greatly, depending on the size of the organism, the environment in which it lives and its evolutionary history. In land animals the respiratory surface is internalized as linings of the lungs.[1] Gas exchange
Gas exchange
in the lungs occurs in millions of small air sacs called alveoli in mammals and reptiles, but atria in birds. These microscopic air sacs have a very rich blood supply, thus bringing the air into close contact with the blood.[2] These air sacs communicate with the external environment via a system of airways, or hollow tubes, of which the largest is the trachea, which branches in the middle of the chest into the two main bronchi
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Metabolic Acidosis
Metabolic acidosis
Metabolic acidosis
is a condition that occurs when the body produces excessive quantities of acid or when the kidneys are not removing enough acid from the body. If unchecked, metabolic acidosis leads to acidemia, i.e., blood pH is low (less than 7.35) due to increased production of hydrogen ions by the body or the inability of the body to form bicarbonate (HCO3−) in the kidney. Its causes are diverse, and its consequences can be serious, including coma and death. Together with respiratory acidosis, it is one of the two general causes of acidemia. Terminology : Acidosis
Acidosis
refers to a process that causes a low pH in blood and tissues. Acidemia
Acidemia
refers specifically to a low pH in the blood.In most cases, acidosis occurs first for reasons explained below. Free hydrogen ions then diffuse into the blood, lowering the pH
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Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is an inflammatory state affecting the whole body. It is the body's response to an infectious or noninfectious insult. Although the definition of SIRS refers to it as an "inflammatory" response, it actually has pro- and anti-inflammatory components.Contents1 Presentation1.1 Complications2 Causes 3 Diagnosis3.1 Definition3.1.1 Adult SIRS Criteria 3.1.2 Pediatric SIRS Criteria 3.1.3 Additional Information4 Treatment 5 Concept history 6 References 7 External linksPresentation[edit] Complications[edit] SIRS is frequently complicated by failure of one or more organs or organ systems.[1][2][3] The complications of SIRS include:Acute lung injury Acute kidney injury Shock Multiple organ dysfunction syndromeCauses[edit] The causes of SIRS are broadly classified as infectious or noninfectious
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Renal Failure
Kidney
Kidney
failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer work.[1] It is divided into acute kidney failure (cases that develop rapidly) and chronic kidney failure (those that are long term).[5] Symptoms may include leg swelling, feeling tired, vomiting, loss of appetite, or confusion.[1] Complications of acute disease may include uremia, high blood potassium, or volume overload.[2] Complications of chronic disease may include heart disease, high blood pressure, or anemia.[3][4] Causes of acute kidney failure include low blood pressure, blockage of the urinary tract, certain medica
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Liver Failure
Liver
Liver
failure or hepatic insufficiency is the inability of the liver to perform its normal synthetic and metabolic function as part of normal physiology. Two forms are recognised, acute and chronic.[1] Recently a third form of liver failure known as acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is increasingly being recognized.[2]Contents1 Acute 2 Chronic 3 Acute on chronic 4 ReferencesAcute[edit] Main article: Acute liver failure Acute liver failure
Acute liver failure
is defined as "the rapid development of hepatocellular dysfunction, specifically coagulopathy and mental status changes (encephalopathy) in a patient without known prior liver disease".[3]:1557 The disease process is associated with the development of a coagulopathy of liver aetiology, and clinically apparent altered level of consciousness due to hepatic encephalopathy
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Death
Death
Death
is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.[citation needed] Phenomena which commonly bring about death include aging, predation, malnutrition, disease, suicide, homicide, starvation, dehydration, and accidents or trauma resulting in terminal injury.[1] In most cases, bodies of living organisms begin to decompose shortly after death.[2] Death
Death
– particularly the death of humans – has commonly been considered a sad or unpleasant occasion, due to the affection for the being that has died and the termination of social and familial bonds with the deceased. Other concerns include fear of death, necrophobia, anxiety, sorrow, grief, emotional pain, depression, sympathy, compassion, solitude, or saudade
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