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Agency (philosophy)
Agency is the capacity of an actor to act in a given environment.[citation needed] The capacity to act does not at first imply a specific moral dimension to the ability to make the choice to act, and moral agency is therefore a distinct concept. In sociology, an agent is an individual engaging with the social structure. Notably, though, the primacy of social structure vs. individual capacity with regard to persons' actions is debated within sociology. This debate concerns, at least partly, the level of reflexivity an agent may possess.[citation needed] Agency may either be classified as unconscious, involuntary behavior, or purposeful, goal directed activity (intentional action). An agent typically has some sort of immediate awareness of their physical activity and the goals that the activity is aimed at realizing
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Ethics
Ethics
Ethics
or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.[1] The term ethics derives from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
ἠθικός (ethikos), from ἦθος (ethos), meaning 'habit, custom'. The branch of philosophy axiology comprises the sub-branches of ethics and aesthetics, each concerned with values.[2] Ethics
Ethics
seeks to resolve questions of human morality by defining concepts such as good and evil, right and wrong, virtue and vice, justice and crime
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Social Action
In sociology,[1] social action, also known as "Weberian social action", refers to an act which takes into account the actions and reactions of individuals (or 'agents'). According to Max Weber, "an Action is 'social' if the acting individual takes account of the behavior of others and is thereby oriented in its course".Contents1 Max Weber 2 Types 3 See also 4 Further reading 5 ReferencesMax Weber[edit] The basic concept was primarily developed in the non-positivist theory of Max Weber
Max Weber
to observe how human behaviors relate to cause and effect in the social realm. For Weber, sociology is the study of society and behavior and must therefore look at the heart of interaction. The theory of social action, more than structural functionalist positions, accepts and assumes that humans vary their actions according to social contexts and how it will affect other people; when a potential reaction is not desirable, the action is modified accordingly
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Socio-cognitive
Socio-cognitive or sociocognitive describes how processes of group formation effect cognition, studied in cognitive sociology. Others have used the phrase to refer to the integration of the cognitive and social properties of systems, processes, functions, models, as well as can indicate the branch of science, engineering or technology, such as socio-cognitive research, socio-cognitive interactions
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Self-organizing
Self-organization, also called spontaneous order (in the social sciences), is a process where some form of overall order arises from local interactions between parts of an initially disordered system. The process is spontaneous, not needing control by any external agent. It is often triggered by random fluctuations, amplified by positive feedback. The resulting organization is wholly decentralized, distributed over all the components of the system. As such, the organization is typically robust and able to survive or self-repair substantial perturbation. Chaos theory
Chaos theory
discusses self-organization in terms of islands of predictability in a sea of chaotic unpredictability. Self-organization
Self-organization
occurs in many physical, chemical, biological, robotic, and cognitive systems
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Self-regulatory Organization
A self-regulatory organization (SRO) is an organization that exercises some degree of regulatory authority over an industry or profession. The regulatory authority could exist in place of government regulation, or applied in addition to government regulation. The ability of an SRO to exercise regulatory authority does not necessarily derive from a grant of authority from the government. In United States securities law, a self-regulatory organization is a defined term. The principal federal regulatory authority—the Securities and Exchange Commission
Securities and Exchange Commission
(SEC)—was established by the Federal Securities Exchange Act of 1934. The SEC originally delegated authority to the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority
Financial Industry Regulatory Authority
(FINRA) and to the national stock exchanges (e.g., the NYSE) to enforce certain industry standards and requirements related to securities trading and brokerage
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Self-reflection
Human
Human
self-reflection is the capacity of humans to exercise introspection and the willingness to learn more about their fundamental nature, purpose and essence. The earliest historical records demonstrate the great interest which humanity has had in itself. Human
Human
self-reflection is related to the philosophy of consciousness, the topic of awareness, consciousness in general and the philosophy of mind.[citation needed]Contents1 History1.1 Prehistoric times 1.2 Ancient Orient 1.3 Classical antiquity 1.4 Middle Ages 1.5 Renaissance 1.6 Modern era2 Comparison to other species 3 See also 4 ReferencesHistory[edit] Prehistoric times[edit] Prehistoric notions about the status of humanity may be guessed by the etymology of ancient words for man. Latin
Latin
homo (PIE *dʰǵʰm̥mō) means "of the earth, earthling", probably in opposition to "celestial" beings
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Actor–network Theory
Actor–network theory
Actor–network theory
(ANT) is a theoretical and methodological approach to social theory where everything in the social and natural worlds exists in constantly shifting networks of relationship.[1] It posits that nothing exists outside those relationships. All the factors involved in a social situation are on the same level, and thus there are no external social forces beyond what and how the network participants interact at present. Thus, objects, ideas, processes, and any other relevant factors are seen as just as important in creating social situations as humans. ANT holds that social forces do not exist in themselves, and therefore cannot be used to explain social phenomena. Instead, strictly empirical analysis should be undertaken to "describe" rather than "explain" social activity
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Collective Intentionality
In the philosophy of mind, collective intentionality characterizes the intentionality that occurs when two or more individuals undertake a task together. Examples include two individuals carrying a heavy table up a flight of stairs or dancing a tango. This phenomenon is approached from psychological and normative perspectives, among others. Prominent philosophers working in the psychological manner are Raimo Tuomela, Kaarlo Miller, John R. Searle, and Michael E. Bratman. Margaret Gilbert takes a normative approach dealing specifically with group formation. David Velleman is also concerned with how groups are formed, but his account lacks the normative element present in Gilbert. The notion that collectives are capable of forming intentions can be found, whether implicitly or explicitly, in literature going back thousands of years
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Corporate Personhood
Corporate personhood is the legal notion that a corporation, separately from its associated human beings (like owners, managers, or employees), has at least some of the legal rights and responsibilities enjoyed by natural persons (physical humans).[1] For example, corporations have the right to enter into contracts with other parties and to sue or be sued in court in the same way as natural persons or unincorporated associations of persons. In a U.S. historical context, the phrase 'Corporate Personhood' refers to the ongoing legal debate over the extent to which rights traditionally associated with natural persons should also be afforded to corporations. A headnote issued by the Court Reporter in the 1886 Supreme Court case Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railroad Co
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Intentionality
Intentionality is a philosophical concept and is defined by the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Philosophy
as "the power of minds to be about, to represent, or to stand for, things, properties and states of affairs".[1] The once obsolete term dates from medieval scholastic philosophy, but in more recent times it has been resurrected by Franz Brentano and adopted by Edmund Husserl. The earliest theory of intentionality is associated with St
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Nature And Nurture
The combination of the two concepts as complementary is ancient (Greek: ἁπό φύσεως καὶ εὐτροφίας[3]). Nature is what we think of as pre-wiring and is influenced by genetic inheritance and other biological factors. Nurture is generally taken as the influence of external factors after conception e.g. the product of exposure, experience and learning on an individual.[4] The phrase in its modern sense was popularized by the English Victorian polymath Francis Galton, the modern founder of eugenics and behavioral genetics, discussing the influence of heredity and environment on social advancement.[5][6][7] Galton was influenced by the book On the Origin of Species
On the Origin of Species
written by his half-cousin, Charles Darwin. The view that humans acquire all or almost all their behavioral traits from "nurture" was termed tabula rasa ("blank slate") by John Locke
John Locke
in 1690
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JSTOR
JSTOR
JSTOR
(/ˈdʒeɪstɔːr/;[3] short for Journal Storage) is a digital library founded in 1995. Originally containing digitized back issues of academic journals, it now also includes books and other primary sources, and current issues of journals.[4] It provides full-text searches of almost 2,000 journals. As of 2013[update], more than 8,000 institutions in more than 160 countries had access to JSTOR;[5] most access is by subscription, but some of the site's public domain and open access content is available at no cost to anyone.[6] JSTOR's revenue was $86 million in 2015.[7]Contents1 History 2 Content 3 Access3.1 Aaron Swartz
Aaron Swartz
incident 3.2 Limitations 3.3 Increasing public access4 Use 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksHistory[edit] William G
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Marxist
Marxism
Marxism
is a method of socioeconomic analysis that frames capitalism through a paradigm of exploitation, analyzes class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation. It originates from the works of 19th century German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Marxism
Marxism
uses a methodology known as historical materialism to analyze and critique the development of capitalism and the role of class struggles in systemic economic change
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a digital object identifier (DOI) is a persistent identifier or handle used to identify objects uniquely, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to identify their referents uniquely
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PubMed Identifier
PubMed
PubMed
is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine
United States National Library of Medicine
(NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval.[1] From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries
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