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Afroasiatic Languages
AFROASIATIC (AFRO-ASIATIC), also known as AFRASIAN and traditionally as HAMITO-SEMITIC (CHAMITO-SEMITIC), is a large language family of several hundred related languages and dialects. It comprises about 300 or so living languages and dialects, according to the 2009 Ethnologue estimate. It includes languages spoken predominantly in West Asia , North Africa
North Africa
, the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
, and parts of the Sahel
Sahel
. Afroasiatic languages
Afroasiatic languages
have over 350 million native speakers, the fourth largest number of any language family (after Indo-European , Sino-Tibetan and Niger–Congo ). The phylum has six branches: Berber , Chadic , Cushitic , Egyptian , Omotic and Semitic . By far the most widely spoken Afroasiatic language is Arabic
Arabic
. It is also the most widely spoken language within the Semitic branch, and includes Modern Standard Arabic
Arabic
and spoken colloquial varieties . Arabic
Arabic
has around 290 million native speakers, who are concentrated primarily in West Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, and Malta
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Afro-Asiatic (other)
AFRO-ASIATIC may refer to: * Afro-Asiatic languages * Proto-Afro-Asiatic language , the reconstructed common ancestor of all Afro-Asiatic languages * An older name for Afro-Asian
Afro-Asian
, mixed-race people of African and Asian descent This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title AFRO-ASIATIC. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Afro-Asiatic_(other) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Horn Of Africa
The HORN OF AFRICA (Somali : Geeska Afrika, Oromo : _Gaaffaa Afriikaa_, Amharic : የአፍሪካ ቀንድ? _yäafrika qänd_, Arabic : القرن الأفريقي‎‎ _al-qarn al-'afrīqī_, Tigrinya : ቀርኒ ኣፍሪቃ? ) (shortened to HOA) is a peninsula in Northeast Africa . It juts hundreds of kilometers into the Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
, lying along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden . The area is the easternmost projection of the African continent . The Horn of Africa
Africa
denotes the region containing the countries of Djibouti
Djibouti
, Eritrea
Eritrea
, Ethiopia
Ethiopia
, and Somalia
Somalia
. It covers approximately 2,000,000 km2 (770,000 sq mi) and is inhabited by roughly 115 million people (Ethiopia: 96.6 million, Somalia: 12.3 million, Eritrea: 6.4 million, and Djibouti: 0.81 million). Regional studies on the Horn of Africa
Africa
are carried out, among others, in the fields of Ethiopian Studies as well as Somali Studies
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North Africa
NORTH AFRICA is a group of Mediterranean countries situated in the northern-most region of the African continent . It is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic shores of Morocco in the west, to the Suez Canal and the Red Sea in the east. Others have limited it to the countries of Morocco , Algeria , and Tunisia , a region known by the French during colonial times as “Afrique du Nord” and by the Arabs as the Maghreb (“West”). The most commonly accepted definition includes Morocco , Algeria , and Tunisia , as well as Libya , Egypt , and Sudan . The term “North Africa”, when commonly used in North Africa and the Middle East, often refers only to the countries of the Maghreb and Libya. Egypt, due to its greater Middle Eastern associations, is typically viewed separately. The countries of North Africa share a common ethnic, cultural and linguistic identity that is unique to this region. North west Africa has been inhabited by Berbers since the beginning of recorded history, while the eastern part of North Africa has been home to the Egyptians
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Sahel
The SAHEL (/səˈhɛl/ ) is the ecoclimatic and biogeographic zone of transition in Africa
Africa
between the Sahara
Sahara
to the north and the Sudanian Savanna (historically known as the Sudan region ) to the south. Having a semi-arid climate , it stretches across the south-central latitudes of Northern Africa
Africa
between the Atlantic Ocean and the Red Sea
Red Sea
. The Arabic
Arabic
word _sāḥil_ (ساحل, Arabic pronunciation: ) literally means "shore, coast", while the word Sahara
Sahara
is derived from the Arabic
Arabic
word for desert. Together, these names evoke an image of the Sahel's vegetation as a coastline on the Sahara's ocean of sand
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West Asia
WESTERN ASIA, WEST ASIA, SOUTHWESTERN ASIA or SOUTHWEST ASIA is the westernmost subregion of Asia . The concept is in limited use, as it significantly overlaps with the Middle East (or the Near East ), the main difference usually being the exclusion of Egypt (which would be counted as part of North Africa ). The term is sometimes used for the purposes of grouping countries in statistics . The total population of Western Asia is an estimated 300 million as of 2015. In an unrelated context, the term is also used in ancient history and archaeology to divide the Fertile Crescent into the "Asiatic" or "Western Asian" cultures as opposed to ancient Egypt . As a geographic concept, Western Asia includes the Levant , Mesopotamia , Anatolia , Iran , the Armenian Highlands , the South Caucasus , the Arabian peninsula as well as the Sinai Peninsula , making Egypt a transcontinental country . Although the term "Western Asia" is mostly used as a convenient division of contemporary sovereign states into a manageable number of world regions for statistical purposes, it is sometimes used instead of the more geopolitical term " Middle East ", for example by the Government of Canada
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Language Family
A LANGUAGE FAMILY is a group of languages related through descent from a common _ancestral language_ or _parental language_, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics , which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree , or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy . Linguists therefore describe the _daughter languages_ within a language family as being _genetically related_. Estimates of the number of living languages vary from 5,000 to 8,000, depending on the precision of one's definition of "language", and in particular on how one classifies dialects . The 2013 edition of Ethnologue catalogs just over 7,000 living human languages. A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people. There are also many dead and extinct languages, as well as some that are still insufficiently studied to be classified, or are even unknown outside their respective speech communities. Membership of languages in a language family is established by comparative linguistics . Sister languages are said to have a "genetic" or "genealogical" relationship. The latter term is older
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Proto-Afroasiatic Language
The PROTO–AFROASIATIC LANGUAGE is the reconstructed proto-language from which all modern Afroasiatic languages
Afroasiatic languages
are descended. It is believed by scholars to have been spoken as a single language around 12,000 to 18,000 years ago, but there is no consensus as to where the Afroasiatic Urheimat
Afroasiatic Urheimat
, the homeland of Proto-Afroasiatic speakers, was located. Although Afroasiatic is the earliest attested language family in the world, the reconstruction of Proto-Afroasiatic is problematic and largely lacking, which is sometimes attributed to the sheer age of the language. Reconstructed words for fauna and flora and evidence of linguistic contact with language families known to have been spoken in Eurasia suggest that its home was in the Middle East
Middle East
, probably the Levant . Evidence of Cushitic, formerly spoken in the south of Arabia, also speaks for a Middle Eastern origin, but some proposals also claim Northern Africa or the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
. CONTENTS * 1 Consonant correspondences * 2 Pronouns * 3 Numerals * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Sources * 7 External links CONSONANT CORRESPONDENCESThe following table shows consonant correspondences in Afroasiatic languages, as given in Dolgopolsky (1999), along with some reconstructed consonants for Proto-Afroasiatic
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Berber Languages
The BERBER LANGUAGES, also known as BERBER or the AMAZIGH LANGUAGES (Berber name: Tamaziɣt, Tamazight; Tifinagh
Tifinagh
: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵜ, ⵝⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵝ, pronounced , ), are a family of similar and closely related languages and dialects spoken by the Berber people indigenous to North Africa
North Africa
. The Berber languages constitute a branch of the Afroasiatic language family . They have been attested since ancient times. Berber is spoken by large populations of Algeria
Algeria
, Morocco
Morocco
and Libya and by smaller populations of Tunisia
Tunisia
, northern Mali
Mali
, western and northern Niger
Niger
, northern Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso
, Mauritania
Mauritania
and in the Siwa Oasis of Egypt
Egypt
. Large Berber-speaking migrant communities, today numbering about 4 million, have been living in Western Europe, spanning over three generations, since the 1950s. The number of Berber people is much higher than the number of Berber speakers. The bulk of the populations of the Maghreb
Maghreb
countries are considered to have Berber ancestors. In Algeria, for example, a majority of the population consists of Arabised Berbers
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Chadic Languages
The CHADIC LANGUAGES are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family that is spoken in parts of the Sahel . They include 150 languages spoken across northern Nigeria
Nigeria
, southern Niger
Niger
, southern Chad
Chad
, Central African Republic
Central African Republic
and northern Cameroon
Cameroon
. The most widely spoken Chadic language is Hausa , a lingua franca of much of inland West Africa
West Africa
. CONTENTS * 1 Composition * 2 Origin * 3 Bibliography * 4 References * 5 External links COMPOSITIONNewman (1977) classified the languages into the four groups which have been accepted in all subsequent literature. Further subbranching, however, has not been as robust; Blench (2006), for example, only accepts the A/B bifurcation of East Chadic. * WEST CHADIC . Two branches, which include (A) the Hausa , Ron , Bole , and Angas languages ; and (B) the Bade , Warji , and Zaar languages . * BIU–MANDARA (Central Chadic). Three branches, which include (A) the Bura , Kamwe , and Bata languages, among other groups; (B) the Buduma and Musgu languages; and (C) Gidar * EAST CHADIC . Two branches, which include (A) the Tumak , Nancere , and Kera languages; and (B) the Dangaléat , Mukulu , and Sokoro languages * MASA A chart of the Chadic branch of the Afroasiatic languages
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Cushitic Languages
The CUSHITIC LANGUAGES are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family. They are spoken primarily in the Horn of Africa ( Somalia , Eritrea , Djibouti , and Ethiopia ), as well as the Nile Valley (Sudan and Nubia ), and parts of the African Great Lakes region ( Tanzania and Kenya ). The most widely spoken Cushitic language is Oromo (including all its variations) with about 35 million speakers, followed by Somali with about 20 million speakers (including diaspora populations), and Sidamo with about three million speakers. Other Cushitic languages with more than one million speakers are Afar (1.5 million) and Beja (1.2 million). Somali, one of the official languages of Somalia, is the only Cushitic language accorded official status in any country. Along with Afar, it is also one of the recognized national languages of Djibouti. The phylum was first designated as _Cushitic_ around 1858. The languages spoken in the ancient Kerma Culture (present-day southern Egypt and northern Sudan ) also belonged to the Cushitic branch of the Afroasiatic languages. The languages spoken in the Savanna Pastoral Neolithic in the Great Lakes region are thought to have belonged to the Cushitic branch of Afroasiatic
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Egyptian Language
The EGYPTIAN LANGUAGE was spoken in ancient Egypt and was a branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages . Its earliest known complete written sentence has been dated to about 2690 BCE, which makes it one of the oldest recorded languages known, along with Sumerian , Akkadian , Eblaite and Elamite . It was spoken until the late 17th century AD, in the form of Coptic . The national language of modern Egypt is Egyptian Arabic , which gradually replaced Coptic as the vernacular language in the centuries after the Muslim conquest of Egypt . Coptic is still used as the liturgical language of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria and has several hundred fluent speakers today. CONTENTS * 1 Classification * 2 History * 3 Dialects * 4 Orthography * 5 Phonology * 5.1 Consonants * 5.2 Vowels * 5.3 Phonotactics * 5.4 Stress * 5.5 Egyptological pronunciation * 6 Morphology * 6.1 Nouns * 6.2 Pronouns * 6.3 Verbs * 6.4 Adjectives * 6.5 Prepositions * 6.6 Adverbs * 7 Syntax * 8 Vocabulary * 9 See also * 10 Notes * 11 References * 12 Bibliography * 13 Literature * 13.1 Overviews * 13.2 Grammars * 13.3 Dictionaries * 13.4 Online dictionaries * 14 External links CLASSIFICATIONThe Egyptian language belongs to the Afroasiatic language family
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Omotic Languages
Gimojan languages: Yemsa Bench (Gimira) Chara Ometo Neighboring languages Nilo-Saharan Afro-Asiatic The OMOTIC languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic family spoken in southwestern Ethiopia . The Ge\'ez script is used to write some Omotic languages, the Latin alphabet some others. They are fairly agglutinative and have complex tonal systems (see Bench language , for example). CONTENTS * 1 Languages * 2 Classification * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 Sources cited * 6 General Omotic bibliography * 7 External links LANGUAGESThe North and South Omotic branches ("Nomotic" and "Somotic") are universally recognized. The primary debate is over the placement of the Mao languages . Bender (2000) classifies Omotic languages as follows: * South Omotic / Aroid (Hamer-Banna , Aari , Dime , Karo )* North Omotic / Non-Aroid * Mao * Bambassi * West Mao (Hozo , Seze , Ganza ) * Dizoid (Dizi , Sheko , Nayi )* Gonga–Gimojan * Gonga/Kefoid (Boro , Anfillo , Kafa , Shekkacho )* Gimojan * _Yemsa _* Ometo–Gimira * _Bench _ * _Chara _ * Ometo languages Apart from terminology, this differs from Fleming (1976) in including the Mao languages, whose affiliation had originally been controversial, and in abolishing the "Gimojan" group. There are also differences in the subclassification of Ometo, which is not covered here
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Semitic Languages
The SEMITIC LANGUAGES are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East
Middle East
. Semitic languages
Semitic languages
are spoken by more than 330 million people across much of Western Asia
Western Asia
, North Africa and the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
, as well as in often large expatriate communities in North America
North America
and Europe
Europe
, with smaller communities in the Caucasus
Caucasus
and Central Asia
Central Asia
. The terminology was first used in the 1780s by members of the Göttingen School of History , who derived the name from Shem , one of the three sons of Noah in the Book of Genesis . The most widely spoken Semitic languages
Semitic languages
today are (numbers given are for native speakers only) Arabic
Arabic
(300 million), Amharic (22 million), Tigrinya (7 million), Hebrew
Hebrew
(unknown; 5 million native and non-native L1 speakers), Aramaic (575,000 to 1 million largely Assyrian fluent speakers) and Maltese (520,000 speakers)
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ISO 639-2
ISO 639-2:1998, _Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code_, is the second part of the ISO 639 standard , which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages . The three-letter codes given for each language in this part of the standard are referred to as "Alpha-3" codes. There are 464 entries in the list of ISO 639-2 codes . The US Library of Congress is the registration authority for ISO 639-2 (referred to as ISO 639-2/RA). As registration authority, the LOC receives and reviews proposed changes; they also have representation on the ISO 639-RA Joint Advisory Committee responsible for maintaining the ISO 639 code tables. CONTENTS * 1 History and relationship to other ISO 639 standards * 2 B and T codes * 3 Scopes and types * 3.1 Collections of languages * 3.2 Reserved for local use * 3.3 Special situations * 4 See also * 5 External links HISTORY AND RELATIONSHIP TO OTHER ISO 639 STANDAR