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Afroasiatic Languages
AFROASIATIC (AFRO-ASIATIC), also known as AFRASIAN and traditionally as HAMITO-SEMITIC (CHAMITO-SEMITIC), is a large language family of several hundred related languages and dialects. It comprises about 300 or so living languages and dialects, according to the 2009 Ethnologue estimate. It includes languages spoken predominantly in West Asia
West Asia
, North Africa
North Africa
, the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
, and parts of the Sahel
Sahel
. Afroasiatic languages
Afroasiatic languages
have over 350 million native speakers, the fourth largest number of any language family (after Indo-European , Sino-Tibetan and Niger–Congo ). The phylum has six branches: Berber , Chadic , Cushitic , Egyptian , Omotic and Semitic . By far the most widely spoken Afroasiatic language is Arabic
Arabic

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Lingua Franca
A LINGUA FRANCA (/ˌlɪŋɡwə ˈfræŋkə/ ), also known as a BRIDGE LANGUAGE, COMMON LANGUAGE, TRADE LANGUAGE or VEHICULAR LANGUAGE, is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages. Lingua francas have developed around the world throughout human history, sometimes for commercial reasons (so-called "trade languages") but also for cultural, religious, diplomatic and administrative convenience, and as a means of exchanging information between scientists and other scholars of different nationalities. The term originates with one such language, Mediterranean Lingua Franca
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Morocco
Coordinates : 32°N 6°W / 32°N 6°W / 32; -6 Kingdom of Morocco * المملكة المغربية ( Arabic
Arabic
) * ⵜⴰⴳⵍⴷⵉⵜ ⵏ ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ (Berber ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: لله، الوطن، الملك (Arabic) Allah, Al Watan, Al Malik ⴰⴽⵓⵛ, ⴰⵎⵓⵔ, ⴰⴳⵍⵍⵉⴷ (Berber ) "God, Homeland, King" ANTHEM: النشيد الوطني المغربي (Arabic) ⵉⵣⵍⵉ ⴰⵏⴰⵎⵓⵔ ⵏ ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ (Berber)
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Niger
Coordinates : 16°N 8°E / 16°N 8°E / 16; 8 Republic
Republic
of the Niger * République du Niger
Niger
(French ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: * "Fraternité, Travail, Progrès" (French ) * "Fraternity, Work, Progress"
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ISO 639-2
ISO 639-2:1998, Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code, is the second part of the ISO 639 standard , which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages . The three-letter codes given for each language in this part of the standard are referred to as "Alpha-3" codes. There are 464 entries in the list of ISO 639-2 codes . The US Library of Congress
Library of Congress
is the registration authority for ISO 639-2 (referred to as ISO 639-2/RA). As registration authority, the LOC receives and reviews proposed changes; they also have representation on the ISO 639-RA Joint Advisory Committee responsible for maintaining the ISO 639 code tables
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ISO 639-5
ISO 639-5:2008 "Codes for the representation of names of languages—Part 5: Alpha-3 code for language families and groups" is a highly incomplete international standard published by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO). It was developed by ISO Technical Committee 37, Subcommittee 2, and first published on May 15, 2008. It is part of the ISO 639 series of standards. CONTENTS * 1 Collective codes * 2 Relationship to other parts of ISO 639 * 3 History * 4 Deficiencies * 5 References * 6 External links COLLECTIVE CODES ISO 639-5 defines alpha-3 (3-letter) codes, called "collective codes," that identify language families and groups
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Ethnologue
ETHNOLOGUE: LANGUAGES OF THE WORLD is a commercial publication about the living languages of the world, first issued in 1951. As of 2017, it contains web-based information about 7,099 languages in its 20th edition, including the number of speakers, location, dialects, linguistic affiliations, autonym , availability of the Bible
Bible
in each language and dialect described, a cursory description of revitalization efforts where reported, and an estimate of language viability using the Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale (EGIDS)
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Glottolog
GLOTTOLOG is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and maintained first at the former Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig
Leipzig
, Germany, and since 2015 at the new Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena
Jena
, Germany. In addition to the languoid catalogue (the catalog of the world's languages and language families), Glottolog provides a comprehensive bibliography on the world's smaller languages
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Afro-Asiatic (other)
AFRO-ASIATIC may refer to: * Afro-Asiatic languages
Afro-Asiatic languages
* Proto-Afro-Asiatic language , the reconstructed common ancestor of all Afro-Asiatic languages * An older name for Afro-Asian , mixed-race people of African and Asian descent This disambiguation page lists articles associat
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Tunisia
TUNISIA ( Arabic
Arabic
: تونس‎‎ Tūnis ; Berber : ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ tunes; French : Tunisie), officially the REPUBLIC OF TUNISIA (Arabic : الجمهورية التونسية‎‎ al-Jumhūrīya at-Tūnisīya ; Berber : ⵜⴰⴳⴷⵓⴷⴰ ⵏ ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ tagduda n tunes) is a country in North Africa
Africa
, covering 165,000 square kilometres (64,000 square miles). Its northernmost point, Cape Angela , is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria
Algeria
to the west and southwest, Libya
Libya
to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11 million in 2014. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis
Tunis
, which is located on Tunisia's northeast coast
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Sahel
The SAHEL (/səˈhɛl/ ) is the ecoclimatic and biogeographic zone of transition in Africa
Africa
between the Sahara
Sahara
to the north and the Sudanian Savanna (historically known as the Sudan region ) to the south. Having a semi-arid climate , it stretches across the south-central latitudes of Northern Africa
Africa
between the Atlantic Ocean and the Red Sea
Red Sea

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Variety (linguistics)
In sociolinguistics a VARIETY, also called a LECT, is a specific form of a language or language cluster . This may include languages , dialects , registers , styles or other forms of language, as well as a standard variety. The use of the word "variety" to refer to the different forms avoids the use of the term language, which many people associate only with the standard language, and the term dialect, which is often associated with non-standard varieties thought of as less prestigious or "correct" than the standard. Linguists speak of both standard and non-standard varieties. "Lect" avoids the problem in ambiguous cases of deciding whether or not two varieties are distinct languages or dialects of a single language. Variation at the level of the lexicon , such as slang and argot , is often considered in relation to particular styles or levels of formality (also called registers), but such uses are sometimes discussed as varieties as well
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West Asia
WESTERN ASIA, WEST ASIA, SOUTHWESTERN ASIA or SOUTHWEST ASIA is the westernmost subregion of Asia
Asia
. The concept is in limited use, as it significantly overlaps with the Middle East
Middle East
(or the Near East
Near East
), the main difference usually being the exclusion of Egypt
Egypt
(which would be counted as part of North Africa
North Africa
). The term is sometimes used for the purposes of grouping countries in statistics . The total population of Western Asia
Asia
is an estimated 300 million as of 2015. In an unrelated context, the term is also used in ancient history and archaeology to divide the Fertile Crescent
Fertile Crescent
into the "Asiatic" or "Western Asian" cultures as opposed to ancient Egypt
Egypt

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Western Asia
WESTERN ASIA, WEST ASIA, SOUTHWESTERN ASIA or SOUTHWEST ASIA is the westernmost subregion of Asia
Asia
. The concept is in limited use, as it significantly overlaps with the Middle East
Middle East
(or the Near East
Near East
), the main difference usually being the exclusion of Egypt
Egypt
(which would be counted as part of North Africa
North Africa
). The term is sometimes used for the purposes of grouping countries in statistics . The total population of Western Asia
Asia
is an estimated 300 million as of 2015. In an unrelated context, the term is also used in ancient history and archaeology to divide the Fertile Crescent
Fertile Crescent
into the "Asiatic" or "Western Asian" cultures as opposed to ancient Egypt
Egypt

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Mali
Coordinates : 17°N 4°W / 17°N 4°W / 17; -4 Republic of Mali * République du Mali
Mali
(French ) * Mali
Mali
ka Fasojamana (Bambara ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "Un peuple, un but, une foi" (French) "One people, one goal, one faith"


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Greater Somalia
GREATER SOMALIA (Somali : Soomaaliweyn, Arabic : الصومال الكبير‎‎) refers to those regions in the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
in which ethnic Somalis
Somalis
live and have historically lived. The territory encompasses Somalia
Somalia
, Somaliland
Somaliland
, eastern Djibouti
Djibouti
, the Somali region and Dire Dawa
Dire Dawa
(collectively known as the Ogaden
Ogaden
) in Ethiopia and the Lamu , Garissa , Wajir and Mandera Counties (all except Lamu formed part of the former North Eastern Province , abolished in 2013) in Kenya
Kenya

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